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Full text of "Manual of modern Scots"

MANUAL OF 

MODERN SCOTS 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

C. F. CLAY, MANAGER 
LONDON : FETTER LANE, E. C. 4 




NEW YORK : THE MACMILLAN CO. 

BOMBAY \ 

CALCUTTA I MACMILLAN AND CO., LTD. 

MADRAS j 

TORONTO : THE MACMILLAN CO. OF 

CANADA, LTD. 
TOKYO : MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



MANUAL OF 

MODERN SCOTS 



BY 

WILLIAM GRANT, M.A. (ABERDEEN)' " 

LECTURER ON PHONETICS IN ABERDEEN TRAINING CENTRE 

LECTURER (19161920) ON THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY 
CONVENER OF THE SCOTTISH DIALECTS COMMITTEE 

AND 

JAMES MAIN DIXON, Lrrr.HuM.D. 

M.A. ST ANDREWS UNIVERSITY 



FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH 

PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE LITERATURE IN THE 

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 




CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
1921 



SEEN BY 

PRESERVATION 

SERVICES 



PREFACE 

THE idea of this work first occurred to one of the authors, 
Dr Main Dixon, in the course of his experience in lecturing 
on Scottish Literature to his students in the University of 
Southern California. He felt the need of a book to which he 
could refer them for details of Scottish Grammar and Pronuncia- 
tion, which he could employ, in class, for the recitation of our 
literary masterpieces, and which the students themselves, after 
they left the University, could use either for purposes of declama- 
tion or teaching. 

The book is divided into three parts. Part I describes the 
sounds of Modern Scots with examples of their use written in the 
alphabet of the International Phonetic Association. Part II 
contrasts Scots Grammar with Standard English usage and gives 
copious illustrations from Modern Scottish Literature. Part III 
consists of a series of extracts from Modern Scots writers and a 
selection of ballads and songs with phonetic transcriptions. Most 
of these transcriptions are in Standard Scottish Speech (see 
Introduction, p. xxi); Extracts XII A, XIII A, XVI A, XVII A, 
IX B, XIV B, may be described as Standard Scottish with local 
colour; Extracts VII A, XIV A, XX A, XXII A, XXIV A, are 
intended to represent the exact speech of definite sub-dialects. 
The authors desire to express their obligation to the following 
publishers and writers for kindly allowing them to reproduce 
copyright matter: Messrs Hurst and Blackett, Ltd. for the 
passage from George Macdonald's Alec Forbes', Dr Charles 
Murray, and his publishers Messrs Constable and Co., Ltd., 
for the poem of "The Whistle"; Messrs Douglas and Foulis for 
the extract from Dr Alexander's Johnny Oibb; the Executors of 
the late Dr John Watson for the passage from Beside the 
Bonnie Brier Bush', Messrs Sands and Co. for the extract from 
Salmond's.% Man Sandy 1 ; Mr J. Logie Robertson for permission 
1 My Man Sandy, published by Messrs Sands and Co., Edinburgh and 
London, Is. net. 




VI PREFACE 

to print "The Absconding Elder" from his Horace in Homespun; 
Mr Joseph Waugh for the story of the "Wooer" from Robbie 
Loo; Mr J. J. Bell for the extract from Wee Macgreegor entitled 
"Taiblet"; Mr Alexander Kennedy for permission to use Mr 
Alexander Anderson's (Surfaceman's) poem of "Cuddle Doon"; 
the publishers of the Dumfries and Galloway Courier and Herald 
for the passage from Trotter's Galloway Gossip, Mr James S. 
Angus for the verses entitled "Klingrahool"; Lady Murray, 
Miss Hilda M. R. Murray and Sir Oswyn Murray for the extract 
from the Southern Scottish version of "Ruth" by the late 
Sir James A. H. Murray. Grateful acknowledgement is also due 
(1) to Professor Lawrence Melville Riddle, Head of the French 
Department in the University of Southern California, for his 
careful revision of Part I and his many useful suggestions, (2) to 
the Rev. Alexander Grieve, M.A., D.Phil., Glasgow, for valuable 
assistance in the correction and criticism of Parts I and II, (3) to 
the Rev. Robert McKinlay, M.A., Galston, for much information 
on local dialect forms and middle Scots, (4) to the Reader and 
Printers of the Cambridge University Press for their great 
patience and care in the production of this work. 

Finally the authors have to thank the Carnegie Trustees very 
heartily for the financial guarantee with the help of which the 
book is published. 

W. G. 
J. M. D. 

December, 1920. 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE 

VALUES OF PBONETIC SYMBOLS . 

LIST OF CONTRACTIONS xix 

INTRODUCTION . 

PART I. PHONETICS 

CONSONANTS: 

List of terms used in describing consonants ....'. 3 

Consonant Table 

Plosives a 

. . D 

Nasals ....... 14 

Laterals ^ 

Trills ' 19 

Fricatives ....... 20 

VOWELS : 

List of terms used in describing vowels .... 34 

Vowel Table 35 

Vowel Systems compared of West Saxon, Scots, Modern English 36 

Front Vowels 40 

Back Vowels ........ 48 

Mid Central Vowel . 54 

Diphthongs ......... 56 

VOWEL AND CONSONANT LENGTH . . .... 60 

STRESS 62 

WORDS IN THE BREATH GROUP ...... 63 

INDEX OF WORDS USED IN PART I 66 

PART II. GRAMMAR 

CHAPTER I. THE ARTICLES 

1. Indefinite article as " ane " . . . . . . .75 

2. Use of" a" before vowels 76 

3. Emphatic "a" as "ae" 76 

4. Definite article for indefinite article 77 

5. Definite article for pronoun ....... 77 

6. Definite article in adverbial combinations ..... 77 

7. Intrusive definite article in Sc 78 

G. b 



Vlll CONTENTS 

CHAPTER II. NOUNS 

PAGE 

8. Plurals in "-en" 79 

9. "-r" 79 

10. Exceptional plurals 80 

11. Nouns expressing time, space, weight, measure, and number . 80 

12. Singular words treated as plurals 80 

13. Spurious singular nouns ........ 80 

14. Simpler verb form in place of noun derivative . . . . 80 

15. Nouns intimately connected with family life . . . . 81 

16. Familiar masculine or general personal terms .... 84 

17. Feminine personal terms 87 

18. Familiar terms of quantity 88 

19. Standards of quantity, etc 92 

20. Scottish coinage terms 93 

CHAPTER III. PRONOUNS 

21. Personal pronouns of the first person . . . . 95 

22. second person 96 

23. third person 97 

24. Reflexive pronouns 98 

25. Use of pronoun with " lane " . 100 

26. Interrogative pronouns ........ 101 

27. Relative pronouns 102 

28. "M," "ilkin," as pronouns . 103 

29. Indefinite pronouns 103 

30. Equivalents of " anything? " nothing " . . . . .104 

CHAPTER IV. ADJECTIVES 

31. Cardinal numerals 105 

32. Idiomatic uses of cardinals 105 

33. Idiomatic compounds and phrases formed with cardinal 

numerals .......... 105 

34. Ordinal numerals . . 106 

35. Uses and forms of "this," "these" 106 

36. "that," "those" 107 

37. Indefinite adjectives 107 

38. Equivalents of "every'," "each" 108 

39. Uses of "severals," "antrin," "orra" 108 

40. Forms of "such" 109 

41. Uses of " pickle" "puckle" " mair," " mae," " mickle" " muckle " 109 

42. Some common comparatives and superlatives . . . .110 

43. Free use of " -est" Ill 

44. Special comparative uses Ill 

45. Special intensive forms Ill 



CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTER V. VERBS 

PAGE 

46. Inflections of the present tense indicative 112 

47. T3seof"the're,theywur" 113 

48. Marks of the preterit in weak verbs 113 

49. The present participle and gerund 113 

50. Use of the present progressive form 114 

51. Use of "on" "okn" with past participle or gerund . . . 114 

52. Special negative forms 115 

53. Auxiliary verbs. Forms and uses of " do " (O.E. don) . . 115 

54. Forms and uses of " do " (can) 116 

55. "will" . . . . . . . .116 

56. \Jaeof "will" when omitted in E 117 

57. Forms and uses of " shall " . . . . . . .117 

58. "to be" 118 

59. "have" . . ... . .119 

60. "may" &G&" might" 120 

61. "can" . . . . . . . ' . 120 

62. "maun" .121 

63. "dare". . . . . . . ' . 121 

64. "owe," "ought" 121 

65. "behoved" . >[ - : 122 

66. Forms of "need" ' . 123 

67. Forms and uses of "let" . . .' 124 

68. Causative use of "gar" 

69. Preterit forms of " begin " . . . . 

70. Some impersonal verbs . . I 25 

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER V: 

(A) List of irregular verbs 

(B) Frequency of " -en " forms . . . . V 

(C) Order of verbs with " -na " suffix 

CHAPTER VI. ADVERBS 

71. Adverbs of time . . . 

72. place 

73. manner i3g 

74. degree . - ' ' 

75. inference and argument . ... 

76. Some interrogative adverbs . . . ^ 

77. Adverbs of probability . . ' 

78. affirmation and negation 

79. Colloquial equivalents for the ordinary negative 

80. The negative adverb in meiosis . 

81. Adjectives as adverbs . ' 144 

82. Adverbs with auxiliary in place of verb . ^ 

S3. Adverbs of emphasis . . . ' 

6 2i 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER VII. PREPOSITIONS 

84. UseofaWow" ......... 146 

85. Forms and uses of " about " . . . . . . . 146 

86. "above" ....... 147 

87. Use of "a/" .... ...... 147 

88. Forms and uses of "after" ....... 147 

89. "against" ....... 148 

90. "along" . . ..... 148 

91. "among" ....... 148 

92. Use of "aneath" ..... . . . .148 

93. Forms and uses of " anent " ....... 149 

94. "aside" . ...... 149 

95. Equivalent of "as far as" . . . . . . .149 

96. Forms and uses of "around" ....... 149 

97. Uses of "at" .......... 150 

98. "atkort" ........ .150 

99. "atower" ......... 150 

100. "ayont" ..... . . . .151 

101. Forms and uses of " before " ....... 151 

102. Useof"beheef" ....... . . 151 

103. Equivalents of "behind" ........ 151 

104. "below" ..... . . . .152 

105. Forms and uses of " ben " ....... 152 

106. "beneath" . . '. . . . . 152 

107. ~Useof"benorth" ......... 152 

108. Forms and uses of " besides " ....... 152 

109. "between" . . . . .'./'. 158 

110. "beyond" . . . . . . .153 

111. Use of "boot" .......... 154 

112. Forms and uses of " but " ..... . .154 

113. "by" ... ..... 154 

114. "down" ....... 155 

115. Equivalents of " except " ........ 155 

116. Forms and uses of "for" ...... . .156 

117. forby(e}" . . ..... 156 

118. "from" ....... 157 

119. "foment" ..... . .157 

120. Use of "gin" .......... 157 

121. Uses of " hard upon " . . ...... 158 

122. Forms of "m" .......... 158 

123. "into" ......... 158 

124. Use of "let-abee" ......... 158 

125. Forms and uses of " maugre " ....... 158 

126. "near" 159 






CONTENTS x - 

127. Forms and uses of of" 

i28 - " - "'/ ;.".": GO 

!> o 

130. Use of "or" ^ 

131. Forms and uses of " out " 

*.. lOl 



132. 



' over ' 



162 



133. . "round" .... 

134. "since" ....... i 6 3 

135. "through" 163 

136. "Ml" .... 164 

i 3 ?- to ; ; 165 

"under" 165 

139- M "p" . . 166 

140. "upon" 166 

141- "wanting" 166 

142. "with" 167 

143. "without" 167 

144. Use of "yont" 167 

CHAPTER VIII. CONJUNCTIONS 

145. Connective conjunctions . 169 

146. Causal 170 

147. Adversative or concessive particles 170 

148. Hypothetical conjunctions 171 

149. Temporal ....... 171 

150. Comparative 172 

CHAPTER IX. INTERJECTIONS 

151. Summoning interjections 173 

152. Assertive ......... 173 

153. Ejaculations of discomfort 174 

154. astonishment or advice or reproof . . .175 

155. Derisive ejaculations 176 

156. Exclamations of disgust or impatience . . . . .176 

157. resignation or assent . ... . 177 

158. Calls to animals 177 

CHAPTER X. PREFIXES, SUFFIXES AND COMPOUNDS 

159. The prefix "a-" 179 

160. "be-" 179 

161. "for-," "fore-" 179 

162. "mis-" 180 

163. Negative uses of "o^"and "wan" 181 



Xll 



CONTENTS 



164. 
165, 
166. 
167. 
168. 
169. 
170. 
171. 
172. 
173. 
174. 
175. 
176. 
177. 
178. 
179. 
180. 
181. 
182. 
183. 
184. 
185. 
186. 
187. 
188. 
189. 
190. 
191. 
192. 
193. 
194. 



The suffix 



"-d," "-ed", 



"-me" . ... 
"-fast" . ... 
"->'" . . . . , 

"-heid" 

-ie n . 

"-le" ..... 
"-like* ... 
"-lin? "-lins" "-lang" 
"Most" ... 
"-oc" . 

-out" . 



"-00*, 

"-ous" . . . . , 
"-rick" . . . . . 
"-rife" . . . , 
Compounds with "ahint" "behint" 
"by, ""bye". , 
"cam-" "kam-" , 

"Deil" in compounds 
Compounds with " down," " doon" " 
"fore," "fur" 

"gate," " 

, 
j> 

"oot-,""out-" 
"oiver-," "owre-," " 

Bibliography 

INDEX of Words used in Part II 



o'er-" 



PAGE 
182 
182 
182 
183 
183 
183 
183 
183 
184 
184 
185 
185 
186 
186 
186 
187 
187 
188 
188 
188 
188 
190 
190 
191 
192 
192 
193 
194 
194 
195 
195 

197 

487 



PART III. READER: PROSE AND VERSE 

I. Glaud and Symon. The Gentle Shepherd. Act n. 1. ALLAN 

EAMSAY . . . 

II. The Freebooter and the Bailie. Rob Roy. Ch. XXIII. Sir 

WALTER SCOTT . . . 

III. Dumbiedykes and Jeanie Deans. The Heart of Midlothian. 



Ch. XXVI. Sir WALTER SCOTT 



204 



212 



222 



IV. The Gaberlunzie. The Antiquary. Ch. XII. Sir WALTER SCOTT 232 



CONTENTS 



V. Braid Claith. EGBERT FERGUSSGN . . 240 
VI. Maudge and the Orphan. The Entail. Chs. I and IL 

JOHN GALT 244 

VII. Tana o' Shanter. EGBERT BURNS 

VIII. MrsMacsbake. Marriage. Ch. XXXIV. SUSAN FERRIER." 266 

IX. The Cotter's Saturday Night. EGBERT BURNS . . '. 278 
X. The Eesurrectioners. Mansie Wauch. Ch. X. DAVID M. 

MOIR 284 

XI. The Auld Farmer's New- Year Morning Salutation to his 

Auld Mare, Maggie. EGBERT BURNS ... . .294 
XII. Blin' Tibbie. Alec Forbes of Howglen. Ch. XLIV. GEORGE 

MACDONALD 302 

XIII. The Whistle. CHARLES MURRAY 318 

XIV. The "News'' of the Marriage. Johnny Gibb of Gushetneuk. 

Ch. XL. WILLIAM ALEXANDER 322 

XV. To a Mouse. EGBERT BURNS 334 

XVI. The Saving of Annie. Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush. IAN 

MACLAREN 338 

XVII. The New Buits. My Man Sandy. Ch. X. J. B. SALMOND 356 

XVIII. The Absconding Elder. LOGIE EOBERTSON . . . 364 

XIX. The Wooer. Robbie Doo. JOSEPH L. WAUGH . . . 368 

XX. Taiblet. Wee Macgreegor. J. J. BELL .... 376 

XXI. Cuddle Doon. ALEXANDER ANDERSON . . . . 388 

XXII. Faur Waur. Galloway Gossip. E. DE BRUCE TROTTER . 392 

XXIII. Winter. Echoes from Klingrahool JUNDA (J. S. ANGUS) 398 

XXIV. Euth, Ch. I, Southern Scots. The Dialect of the Southern 

Counties of Scotland. Sir J. A. H. MURRAY . . 402 



PART IV. EEADER: BALLADS AND SONGS 

I. Sir Patrick Spens .406 

II. The Twa Corbies . . . .' ... , . 414 

III. The Dowie Dens o' Yarrow . . ... .416 

IV. Fair Helen of Kirkconnel 420 

V. My Jo, Janet 424 

VI. Annie Laurie. Lady JOHN SCOTT 426 

VII. Maggie Lauder. FRANCIS SEMPILL ? . . . . . 428 

VIII. Bessie Bell and Mary Gray. ALLAN EAMSAY . 

IX. Tullochgorum. JOHN SKINNER 434 

X. The Laird o' Cockpen. Lady NAIRNE .... 

XI. The Land o' the Leal. Lady NAIRNE 

XII. The Flowers of the Forest. JEAN ELLIOT .... 

XIII. Auld Robin Gray. Lady ANNE BARNARD 



XIV CONTENTS 

PAGE 

XIV. Logie o' Buchan. GEORGE HALKET? .... 450 

XV. Auld Lang Syne. ROBERT BURNS 452 

XVI. A man's a man for a' that. ROBERT BURNS . . . 454 

XVII. Duncan Gray. ROBERT BURNS 458 

XVIII. John Anderson, my jo. ROBERT BURNS .... 460 

XIX. There was a lad. ROBERT BURNS 462 

XX. Willie brewed a peck o' maut. ROBERT BURNS . . 464 

XXI. a' the Airts. ROBERT BURNS 466 

XXII. Wae's me for Prince Charlie. WILLIAM GLEN . . .468 

XXIII. When the kye comes hame. JAMES HOGG . . . 472 

XXIV. My love she's but a lassie yet. JAMES HOGG . . . 476 
XXV. There's nae luck about the house 478 

XXVI. Gloomy winter's now awa'. ROBERT TANNAHILL . . 482 

XXVII. Castles in the air. JAMES BALLANTINE 484 



05 




XVI 



VALUES OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS 






oo 




O CO 



I 

05 




1 

.Jll 

ill 

*&* 



I! 

<D bp 
pn |r1 



i 

<D 
O 



* 

a-aJ 
as> 



I 

" 
B 



W > 



-u 

.9 

'o 

&;=! 

r "C '""3 

<D Oi 

1 



* OH 

8 



1 



r O 
<D 









& s 



o o o 



o o 



VALUES OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS 



XV11 



<N 



db 

CD 



3s 



o 

O 



ss 

00 r-T 



<N 

CO 

rH O 

rH 

<N I>- 00 <N 

O5 rH rH rH O-f O 

^ I ^ *Q rH 

1>- Gi -^ rH (>J 

00 CO 1C rH rH 

OS 00 rH rH rH Oi CO 

- - ~ * rH <M 

"* ^ ^ CT- rH rH rH 

(N 00 ^ CO oQ | | 

J. *> ^ I CO O 

C^ CM ^T Tji o rH (M 

rH 00 CO CO J>. rH rH 



rH 00 



1-051 
00 Jt- I rH 

O rf< (N O 

rH rH Oi i | 







<D 


g 




ffi 

> 






"8 


5 

sa > 

.s| *a 

in 
^i.f 

-s 


i 



TJ <^ 
O> T3 
^J o3 

j:? 

-S 2 

.a =2 

S.-8 


'43 

8 

' 



i 

rO 

1 

oS 

'd 

<D 


^3 

S S^ 

.5 ja g 

co +3 ;r 

4^2 

P* * <D 

-S.S 1 

s^a^ 

-O rrj 
O> CD S 


S o g 

o P '43 > -S 

5 i .1 ? 11 

"Il5'i > sl" <fi 

.G cfa ^ D ^~" d> 

2^ JS 8^| 

* *- 3 S* i M !x* ^ "^ 

L||.||jl:1 

T OQ a rO 40 f> <D 

.8 -8 I 


i 

<D 




1 

. w 

0) 

tf 
bo 

I 

<D 
^3 
-ij 


^ 

eg 

2 
pq 


-d 
8 
3 


1 

m 


43 

-i-= 

w 


5 

eg 

g 

PQ 


^CJ r" 

^ -s 

o> &o 

w W 


^ ^ n3 ^ ^ C * H ""O ^ 

(D -t- 3 -t- 3 ,_i QJ <D 

o o cS cS ^ o o 
'S 'o g 2 .SP'S 'o 
!>> pq PQ W ^ > 


aximum 1 




+0 

rt 

1 














M> 


S 


Q 

^3 














^ 




4^ 








r ." % * 






-*H*_ 




43 


oU 






c 






*" 





ce 
-^ 


'i's -je 

a w n> 




03 


ft 


W" 


^5 


4. i 


^ 


CO 


| 




1 


a 




-H Jj 


|- L |- 


d 


1 


tf 

A 


! 


6 
g 


If 


rfS 

S 


g S^ a guff 


'a 

a? 


e fl 

^s 



o ^ 



si. 



- 







o p 

^- 
*o 



ill 



^ s 

? fr 



- PH 



>j N CO 



XVlll 



VALUES OF PHONETIC SYMBOLS 






th 



raph 



10 




i-l *0 



CO 



d r^S 



1 



o 



t2 



00 




g 

1 



CD -U 

8 2 

o 



<M ^ 

00 ^ 



.s -i 



CD c 

-8 g 

O jg 

> H 



o 

T I 

(M 



X! 



O 
J 






co d 

CO 

^ a 
2 

P-H 

B -g 

^CD CD 

1 I 



CD 

rQ 
>> 

a 

I 




63 



O | Oj 

_, o 

O 02 

fli-s 



CONTRACTIONS 



E. *Literary English as pronounced in Scotland by the majority of 

educated speakers. 

Sth. E. *Literary English as pronounced in London and the South of 

England by the educated majority. 

O.E. Old English, chiefly as it has come down to us in West Saxon 

Texts. 

Sc. Standard Scots the language spoken in the mid area of 

Scotland. See Introduction. 
N.S.E.W. North, South, East, West. 

M.Sc. Middle Scots (from 1450-1600). 

Mod. Sc. Modern Scottish (from 1600). 

Ph. Phonetics. 

Gr. Grammar. 

Du. Dutch. 

Fr. French. 

Gael. Gaelic. 

Ger. German. 

Gr. Greek. 

It. Italian. 

Lat. Latin. 

Port. Portuguese. 

Scan. Scandinavian. 

Sp. Spanish. 

sb. Substantive. 

adj. Adjective. 

pro. Pronoun. 

vb. Verb. 

adv. Adverb. 

prep. Preposition. 

conj. Conjunction. 

inter. Interjection. 

part. Participle. 

pres. Present. 

pret. Preterit. 

* See Pronunciation of English in Scotland, by W. Grant, and Pronunciation 
of English, by D. Jones. Cambridge University Press. 



INTRODUCTION 

THE phonetic texts in this volume are intended chiefly for 
the use of students of Scottish literature who have few or 
no opportunities of hearing the language in its spoken form. 
A study of the texts will enable the student to read or recite 
any passage from Scottish literature with a pronunciation which 
would be recognised as Scottish wherever it be spoken. In our 
Colonies, in the United States, in educational centres all over 
the world, are to be found lovers of our national literature who 
will welcome the means we offer, of increasing their enjoyment 
of its masterpieces. It is a keen artistic pleasure which is, 
indeed, not a small thing to be able 

To lend to the rhyme of the poet 
The beauty of the voice. 

We have seen in recent years a revival of interest in Scottish 
history, literature and antiquities. This renaissance has ex- 
tended to our Scottish Schools, and Scottish literature is now 
not only studied but read aloud and recited by our pupils. We 
trust that the description of Scottish sounds and the series of 
phonetic texts contained in this volume may prove helpful to 
our teachers in settling difficulties of pronunciation and in 
establishing a certain amount of uniformity in the public use 
of our ancient national speech. 

At the present time, Scottish dialect varies from one district 
to another all over the Lowland area, in pronunciation, idiom, 
vocabulary, and intonation. Most of our Scottish writers, how- 
ever, have refused to bind themselves to any local form of 
dialect. Like Moliere, they take their good where they can get 
it. They use the Scottish tongue and address themselves to 
Scottish speakers everywhere. They aim to be understood by the 
nation and not merely by the parish or county. "I simply wrote 
my Scots as I was able," remarks Stevenson, "not caring if it 
hailed from Lauderdale or Angus, Mearns or Galloway ; if I had 
ever heard a good word, I used it without shame, and when 



INTRODUCTION xx i 

Scots was lacking or the rhyme jibbed I was glad, like my 
betters, to fall back on English." It is this ingrained conscious- 
ness of a general Scottish speech of a real "Lingua Scottica" 
apart from dialect varieties that explains the almost passionate 
insistence of patriotic Scotsmen on the use of the term " Scottish 
Language." And certainly the term "language" is as applicable 
to our speech as it is to Danish or Norwegian, for like these, it 
has a national life and a national literature behind it. Our 
literature goes back to the time when Scotland had a King and 
Court of her own itf Edinburgh, when Scottish was the language 
of the University, the School, and the fashionable courtiers of 
the ancient capital. The language was used all over Scotland 
in official documents, Session Records, Town Council Minutes, 
with practically no distinction of dialect. In The Heart of Mid- 
lothian Scott makes the Duke of Argyll say of Lady Staunton 
(Effie Deans) that her speech reminded him of " that pure court- 
Scotch which was common in my younger days, but it is so 
generally disused now that it sounds like a different dialect, 
entirely distinct from our modern patois." Even at the present 
time, however, we have still a vague belief in a standard pro- 
nunciation corresponding to the written language. This belief 
manifests itself in the public reading or recitation of whatever 
is not patently topical in purpose. An Aberdonian reciting a 
national ballad in public would instinctively avoid his local " fa " 
for " wha " (who), and " meen " for " mune " (moon). So also a 
Glasgow man would avoid as far as he could his local pronun- 
ciation of WQ?ar (water), i.e. he would certainly insert the t. 
Neither would completely veil his locality from the average 
audience, but he would undoubtedly tone down his district pecu- 
liarities. "That is not my Scots," a critic might say of his speech, 
"but it is very good all the same." 

Literary Scottish is undoubtedly founded on a Lothian dialect. 
The Lothian type of Scottish speech is spread over a wide area 
of Mid Scotland, comprising the counties of Berwick, Peebles, 
Haddington, Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Fife, Clackmannan, Kinross, 
Stirling, Dumbarton, Renfrew, Bute, Ayr, Lanark, Wigtown, 
Kirkcudbright, and West Dumfries. The language spoken over 
this Mid district might be conveniently styled "Standard 



XX11 



INTRODUCTION 



Scots." It is not absolutely uniform over this area, but the 
points of agreement are sufficient to mark it off distinctly from 
the dialects of the Southern and North-Eastern Counties. It 
corresponds better than the other dialects to the spelling of the 
literary language, and it comprises the area of the Old Scottish 
Court and the largest present Scottish population. We shall 
use it, therefore, for the interpretation of literary Scottish in the 
great majority of our phonetic texts, carefully noting variant 
pronunciations and eliminating localisms which do not correspond 
with general Scottish usage. 

A few texts with suitable explanations are also given of 
other Scottish dialects. These are the dialects (1) of the 
Southern Counties Selkirk, Roxburgh, East and Central Dum- 
fries ; (2) of the North-Eastern Counties Aberdeen, Banff, 
Moray, Nairn, Caithness; (3) of the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands (founded on Standard Scottish with Scandinavian ele- 
ments) ; (4) of Kincardine and Forfar (intermediate to the Mid 
and North-Eastern). 

The Alphabet used in the phonetic descriptions is that of 
the International Association, with certain modifications to adapt 
it to Scottish needs. The formation of the sounds is fully de- 
scribed and key- words are given from modern European languages. 
The authors hope that anyone with an elementary knowledge of 
Phonetics will find little difficulty in following the texts. 



PAETI 

PHONETICS 



G. 



CONSONANTS 

1. TERMS USED IN DESCRIBING CONSONANTS 

Back Part of tongue opposite soft palate. 

Blade Part of tongue between the point and the front 

(i.e. middle) and opposite the upper teeth ridge. 

Breathed Means that the consonant is produced with the 
vocal chords wide apart so that breath passes. 

Consonant Is a speech sound, breathed or voiced, in which the 
breath current is completely or partially checked 
in some part of the throat or mouth, or forces its 
way out with audible friction. 

Fricative Is a consonant in which the breath current, in its 
passage out from the lungs, is so narrowed that it 
has to force its way out with audible friction. 

Front The middle of the tongue, opposite the middle of 

the hard palate. 
Glottal Implies that the stop or friction takes place in the 

glottis, i.e. the space between the vocal chords. 

Hard palate Part of the roof of the mouth between the upper 

teeth ridge and the soft palate. 
Lateral Is a consonant in which the breath current is 

partially checked by some part of the tongue but 

finds egress by the side or sides. 
Nasal Is a consonant in which the breath current is 

completely checked in the mouth but passes 

through the nose. 
Plosive Is a consonant in which the breath current is 

momentarily checked ,on its way out and then 

issues with a plosion. 

Point Tip of tongue. 

12 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Soft palate Is the soft, fleshy part in the roof of the mouth, 
behind the hard palate. 

Trill Is a consonant, produced by the vibration of some 

flexible part of the vocal organs, e.g. by the tongue 
or the uvula. 

Uvula Pendulous tongue at the extremity of the soft 

palate. 

Vocal chords Are two elastic folds of mucous membrane, so 
attached to the cartilages of the larynx and to 
muscles that they may be stretched or relaxed 
and otherwise altered so as to modify the sounds 
produced by their vibration. (Imperial Dictionary.) 

Voiced Means that the consonant is produced with the 

vibration of the vocal chords and hence has a 
musical quality. 



PHONETICS 



m 



II 



1 
J 



Lat 



3 

I 



1 

i 










BO 



HP 
O 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



PLOSIVES 



3. A plosive is a consonant in which the breath current, 
breathed or voiced, is completely checked in some part of the 
mouth, generally issuing with a burst or plosion. 



4. Breathed lips plosive. The breath current is blocked at 
the lips, issuing after a short pause in a plosion. 

5. The sound is the same as the E. p and is written with p 
or pp (after short vowels). 

Sc. Ph. 

taupie 'taipi 

tappit 'tapat 

6. Notice p for E. b in 
lapster 'lapstar 
nieper (N.E. Sc.) 'nipar 



E. 

a foolish woman 
topped. 

lobster 
neighbour. 



7. Voiced lips plosive. Same sound as b in E. " but." 

8. Generally spelled b or bb (after short vowels). 

Sc. Ph. E. 

birk birk birch 

scabbit 'skabat scabbed. 

9. Between in and ar, and m and 1, b does not occur in Sc., 
though found in E. 

chalmer 'tfaimar chamber 

lammer 'lamar amber 

timmer 'tjmar timber 

rummle rAml rumble 

skemmel skeml shamble 

thummle OAHI! thimble 

tummle tAml tumble. 

10. m and b are both voiced sounds and formed at the lips. 
In m, however, the nasal passage is open. If, in pronouncing m, 
the nasal passage is closed prematurely, the consonant b will be 
heard. 



PHONETICS 



11. Note b in Sc. instead of E. p in 'barlj "parley," 
'babtist(W. and Sth. Sc.) " baptist," kabtn (W. Sc.) "captain!" 



1 2. Breathed point plosive. This consonant is formed gene- 
rally as in E., the breath current being blocked at the point of 
the tongue and the apex of the upper gum. In some dialects, 
e.g. in Orkney and Shetland, the point of the tongue is advanced 
to the teeth. 

13. t is dropped 

Sc. Ph. E. 

(1) after k: 

perfec 'perfak perfect 

reflec ra'flek reflect 

stric str^k strict ; 

(2) after p: 

corrup ko'rAp corrupt 

empy 'empj empty 

temp temp tempt; 

(3) after x medial in a few words : 

lichnin 'Ipman lightning 

tichen tjxn tighten 

frichen frpm frighten 

fochen foxn fought. 

14*. Note that in dialects in which the suffix vowel is dropped, 
inflectional t is retained after p and k : e.g. sipped, sjpt ; 
keeked, kikt. 

15. The loss of final t in the words in Ph. 13 (1), (2) may 
have been begun in such combinations as strict truth, strjkt try9 
where t after k becomes first a pure stop and then disappears 
completely. In E. "empty" (O.E. l&mtig) the p is originally 
intrusive. If the sound m is unvoiced and denasalized before 
the tongue takes the position for t, p will be the result. This 
new formation mpt is not an easy one and therefore not long 
stable. In E. ordinary pronunciation p is generally dropped, 
hence 'emtt ; in many Sc. dialects the original t is lost, hence 
'empi. 



8 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

16. t is usually unsounded between f and n, s and 1, s and n : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

cuisten kysn cast (pt. part.) 

soften safn soften 

wrastle or} rasl ) 

, . \ wrestle ; 

warsle j warslj 

but castle is very generally pronounced 'kastal. 

17. The verbal or adjectival termination ed becomes at 
after p, t, k, b, d, g, except in Caithness dialect where it is ad. 

So. Ph. E. 

Tiappit . 'hapat covered 

frichtit 'frprtat frightened 

gairdit 'gerdat guarded 

raggit 'rag at ragged 

rubbit 'rAbat rubbed 

swickit 'swjkat deceived. 

18. An inorganic t occurs in suddent, SAdnt, suddently, 
'sAdntlf, probably due to the influence of words like evident, 
apparent, etc. So also we find inorganic t in oncet, WAnst, 
jfnst; twicet, twaist (Lnk.), perhaps on the analogy of the 
regular ordinal termination t in fift, sixt, etc. 

19. In anent, foranent, a'nent, fora'nent, "in front of," "in 
comparison with," the t is excrescent. The O.E. is anefn (lit. 
on even) which later became anemn and anen, then anent In 
Wyclif 's time a Genitive ending in es was added on the analogy 
of words like ihennes = " thence," etc., and his form of the word 
is anentis. 

20. t replaces k in twAlt " quilt," in many dialects. 

21. In Forfar and East Perth, t 1 takes the place of k 

before n as 

Sc. Ph. E. 

knee tni: knee 

knife tnaif knife 

knock tnok clock 

knowe tnAU knoll. 

1 This t must have been preceded by a sound intermediate to t and k, properly 
a breathed front plosive formed in the same part of the mouth as the fricatives j 5. 






PHONETICS 9 

22. t takes the place of E. 9 in ordinals : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

sixt sfkst sixth. 

23. In the Orkney and Shetland dialects t and d (both 
point teeth sounds) replace th in such words as thin and the, 
thus dat tin tji] = " that thin thing." 

24. For tu and ton = " thou," see Ph. 217 (d). 

d 

25. Voiced point plosive. This is the voiced sound corre- 
sponding to t and is pronounced generally in the same way as 
in E. In the Orkney and Shetland dialects, the point of the 
tongue is advanced to the teeth. 

26. Many of the Scottish dialects, especially the North East, 
have no d after n and 1 as in E. 

(1) after n : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

can'le kanl 1 candle 

hari nan 1 hand 

Ian Ian 1 land 

leri Un lend 

souri (noise) sun sound 

souri (healthy) sun sound 

thunner 'OAnar thunder 

wunner 'wAnar wonder. 

In leri, souri (noise) and thunner the d in E. is inorganic. 

(2) after 1: 

auV ail old 

caul' kail cold 

fauV fail fold. 

Usage in Mid. Sc. varies, so we write such words in the texts 
land 1 , aild, etc. 

26 (a). In the N.TZ.feedle, fidl ; wordle, wordl show a meta- 
thesis of d and 1 as compared with the E. forms. 

27. The sound d in hand is produced by closing the nasal 
passage, without stopping the emission of voice. If the nasal 
passage is kept open till the end of the word, no d is heard, but 

1 a: 



10 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

only a prolongation of the n. This prolonged n may still be 
heard in some dialects, although in most it has now been' short- 
ened. 1 and d are likewise formed in the same part of the mouth 
i.e. between the tip of the tongue and upper teeth ridge only 
in 1 the sides of the tongue droop to allow the emission of the 
voiced breath. The change from Id to a lengthened 1 is there- 
fore a very simple one. 

28. In some Mid. and Sth. dialects, it = it becomes d after 
voiced sounds : e.g. 

aa meind oad fine. 

a maind od fain. 

" I remember it well." 

hwaat izd ? hwaat wuzd ? 

A\dt IZd ? AVat WAZd ? 

" What is it ? " " What was it ? " 

Wilson's Lowland Scotch, p. 86. 

hi gies the marid. 

hei giiz $e mand. 

" He gives it to the man." 

Murray's Dialect of Sth. Sc. p. 191. 
t however is also found. 

28 (a). Notice d in bodm, "bottom," and in dffz'lako, 
dishilago, from " tussilago, coltsfoot." 

29. d takes the place of 9 or $ in E., in 

Sc. Ph. E. 

study or stiddy 'stAdi or 'stidi stithy 
smiddy 'smidi smithy 

widdy 'widi, 'wAdi withy hangman's noose, 

the gallows. 

30. In the Buchan dialect d is used for ft before ar. In the 
fisher dialects of Aberdeenshire d in these words is point teeth 
plosive. 

fader 'fadar father 

midder 'midar mother 

bridder 'bridar brother 

idder 'idar other 

badder 'badar bother. 



PHONETICS 1 1 

31. At an early period in the history of the language, a 
change of d to S before er, ar had occurred all over the country. 
Thus we get forms like ether, father, blether (see Ph. 85), 
O.E. nledre, feeder, bltedre. In the N.E. (also in Linlithgow and 
Edinburgh to some extent) a further change took place. All 
words having $ar substituted dar : thus ether, father, blether, 
become edder, fader, bledder, and, further, words like " brother, 
other, feather," O.E. broftor, ofter, fefter, become bridder, idder, 
fedder. 



32. Voiced front plosive. This is the plosive corresponding 
to the fricative j in " young " (see Ph. 105). The front (i.e. the 
middle) of the tongue rises further than for j until it presses 
against the hard palate so as to form a stop to the breath 
current, j is not common in Sc. but may be heard in some 
parts of Buchan, e.g. am jaan a'wa: hem, am gyaun awa' 
hame, " I am going away home." 



33. Breathed back plosive. This sound is the same as k in 
E. "cook" and is formed by the back of the tongue pressing 
against the soft palate. When a front vowel follows k, the area 
of articulation is further forward on the roof of the mouth. 

34. k is written with the letter c. 

(1) Before back vowels : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

cauf kaif chaff 

cour ku:r cower 

cowt kAut colt 

curchie 'kArtfi curtsey. 

(2) Before r, 1 : 

crap krap crop 

. deed klid clothe. 



12 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



(3) Before front vowels derived from back vowels, c also 
is more common than Jc : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

cairts kerts cards 

cuinie 'kynji coin or corner 

caits kyts ankles 

scuil (old) skyl school. 



But 



kail 

kaim 

skule 



kel 

kem 

skyl 



cole 

comb 

school. 



Note also schule as a common spelling for " school." 

35. The letter k is used regularly before e and i and y, i.e. : 
(1) before e, i, j, ai : 

keckle kekl 

ken ken 



kep 
kist 
kivvy 
kypie 



kep 
kist 
'kivi 
'kaipi 



cackle 

know 

catch 

chest 

covey, group 

a game of marbles played 
with a hole in the ground 
make or become known 

belly. 




kythe kai6 

kyte kait 
(2) before n : 

knee kni: knee 

kneel knil kneel 

knock knok clock. 

36. The pronunciation of k before n is still to be heard in 
the North-East, but it is practically obsolete in the Mid. district. 

37. Many Sc. words have k instead of E. ch, = tj, supposed 
by many to be the result of Scandinavian influence. 

kirk k^rk church 

birk bjrk birch 

poke pok pouch 

breeks briks breeches 

sic sjk such 

lerrick, larick 'lerjk, 'lank larch. 



PHONETICS 13 

38. ski replaces E. si in many words and is written scl 

or ski. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

sclice (O.Fr. esclice) sklais slice 

sclate (O.Fr. esclat) sklet slate 

sclent sklent slant 

sdender (O.Fr. esclendre) 'sklencfor slender. 

39. sk often stands for E. sh = f . 

skelf(O.K scilfe) skelf shelf 

skemmels (O.E. scamel) skemlz shambles. 

40. N.B. : 

paitrick 1 'petrik partridge 

acqueesh a'kwif between. 

9 

41. Voiced back plosive. Corresponds to the so-called hard g 
in E. " gun." It often stands for E. final dge = d5 as in : 

42. Sc. Ph. E. 
brig b r l9 bridge 
rig rig ridge 
segg seg sedge. 

43. g is rarely pronounced now before n as in gnaw. In 
Buchan it may still be heard, e.g. " a gnawing tooth " becomes 
a gnyauvin teeth a 'gnjaivan ti9. 



44. Glottal stop or plosive. This sound is produced by the 
sudden closing of the glottis followed by a slight plosion. It may 
occur before the voiceless plosives p, t, k, and sometimes before 
n and n. It may be heard occasionally in other positions, for 
instance finally in exclamation No ! no? ! It is most common 
in the Mid. region, especially between Glasgow and Stirling, but 
does not extend into the Southern Counties or Galloway. ? very 
frequently takes the place of a medial or final consonant, e.g. 
" butter, water, that " may be pronounced 'bA?ar, 'waPar, Sa? 
as in the Glasgow district. The reader may use this sound before 
1 Fr. perdrix, Lt. perdicem. 



14 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

t, p, k or omit it. We have used this symbol in the extract from 
J. J. Bell's Wee Macgreegor. 






NASALS 

45. A nasal consonant is a speech sound in which the breath 
current is checked in some part of the mouth, but finds free 
passage through the nose. 

m 

46. Voiced lips nasal. The same sound as m in E. " more," 
etc. This sound differs from the stop consonant b in the fact 
that the breath current passes through the nose. Hence m often 
develops into b arid b is often changed into m. Many words in 
Sc. have no b after m as in E. See Ph. 9. 

n 

47. Voiced point nasal. This sound is identical with E. " n " 
in " no," etc. The point of the tongue touches the apex of the 
upper gum. Only in cases of assimilation is it advanced to the 
teeth, e.g. in lenth, Ien9, " length." In the Insular dialects it is 
generally of the point teeth variety. 

48. n differs from the stop d only in one detail, viz. that 
the breath current passes through the nose. Hence nd may 
easily change into n and n develop into nd. Sc. generally has n 
instead of E. nd. See Ph. 26 (1). 

49. Note n for E. 1 and E. r in 

Sc. Ph. E. 

flannen 'flanan flannel 

garten 'gertan garter 

and the loss of n in upo, a'po = " upon." 

50. n takes the place of TJ (see Ph. 51) by assimilation in : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

lenth Ien9 length 

strenth strenO strength. 



PHONETICS 15 



51. Voiced back nasal. In this sound the breath current is 
checked between the back of the tongue and the soft palate and 
finds egress through the nose. It is practically the stop g nasal- 
ized. The sound is heard in E. " song." 

52. It is written ng at the end of a syllable and n before a 
back consonant. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

bink birjk shelf 

gang garj go 

King hji] hang 

singe SITJ singe. 

53. In words of the following class, g is not heard in Sc. : 

hungry 'hATjn 

langer r lai)ar 

single SITJ! 

54. The E. verbal termination ing is replaced by in, or 
more commonly an in Sc. Most Sc. dialects have lost the dis- 
tinction between the old Pres. Part, in an(d) and the infinitive 
or verbal noun in in(g). The Caithness and Southern dialects 
still mark the distinction. 

Siena gutterin a noor saw. 

'sikna 'gAtajin a nu:i so,:. 

" Such messing I never saw." 

Fat ir ye gutteran aboot. 

fat u ji 'gAtajan a' but. 

" What are you messing about ? " 

Nicolson's Caithness Dialect, p. 19. 

The heale beakin o neuw beak'n breid 'at schui was thrdng 
beakand yestreen. 

$e hial 'biakin o niu 'biakrj brid at J0 WAZ 9rarj 'biakan 
je'strin. 

" The whole baking of new baked bread that she was busy 
baking last night." 

Murray's Dialect of the Sth. Comities of Sc. p. 211. 



16 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

55. The breathed nasals m, n, TJ, are not regular sounds in 
most of the Sc. dialects ; m may be heard in the exclamation 
mmm = iphm I 

T) occurs in the Shetland dialect : 

knee fjrji: knee 

buncle bjofjkl a knot or lump. 

P 

56. Voice front nasal. Raise the front of the tongue (as in j) 
until it blocks the breath current across the middle of the hard 
palate, then drive the voice through the opened nose-passage 
and the result is the sound ji. Heard in Fr. sign6, It. degni, 
Sp. canon, Port, minha. In Sc. this sound survives only in the 
dialect of the Sth. Counties. In Middle Scots it was written nj, 
(cf. I % Ph. 61) ; this n% was confused with nz and hence arose 
the modern spelling pronunciation of some proper names that 
had originally p. 

E. Ph. Modern Sc. Ph. Middle Scots Ph. 

Menzies 'menziz 'miniz 'mijiiz 

Mackenzie ma'kenzi ma'kini (rare) ma'kipi 

Cockenzie ko'kenzi ko'ken(j)i ko'kejii 

Gaberlunzie gaber'lAnzi gabar'lunji gaber'lupi. 

This old sound is now generally represented by TJ or TJJ or nj, e.g. : 



Middle Sc. 
feinzit 
meinzie 
spanzie 
cuinzie 

57. 


Ph. 
'fejut 
'mejn 
'spojii 
'kypi 

Words like 


Mod. Sc. 
feinyit 
meingie 
spaingie 
cuinyie 

"sing" and 


Ph. E. 

'fenit (rare) feigned 
'meni crowd 
'speni Spanish cane 
'kynji (rare) coin. 

"reign" (Fr. rbgne) were rhymes 



or half-rhymes until a comparatively recent period : 
" Yes, in the righteous ways of God 
With gladness they shall sing, 
For great's the glory of the Lord 
Who shall for ever reign." 

Scottish Metrical Psalms (138. 5). 

58. Note form drucken \ , , I " drunken." 



jdrAkn) K 
(drAkTjJ 






PHONETICS 17 

LATERALS 



59. Voiced point lateral, (a) This sound is formed by the 
point of the tongue touching the apex of the upper gum while 
the breath current escapes by the side or sides of the tongue. 
The back of the tongue is not raised. This is the sound that is 
commonly heard in E. words beginning with 1. It does not ring 
so sharp and clear as Fr. 1, in which the point of the tongue is 
always more advanced touching the teeth. This form of 1 is 
rare in Sc. 

60. Voiced point-back lateral. (6) This variety of 1 is formed 
in the same way as (a) except that the back of the tongue is 
also raised as for the vowel u or o. The acoustic effect is that 
of a deeper sound. It is common in E. after a vowel or consonant. 
In the E. little the first I is (a) and the second (6). In Sc. little 
both I's are of the (b) variety and the vowel is not I as in E. but 
I or a or A. 

61. Voiced front lateral, (c) In this sound the front, i.e. the 
middle of the tongue, presses against the hard palate and the 
breath current escapes at the side or sides of the tongue. The 
French call this sound I mouille. It is replaced now in Standard 
French by j but survives in the dialects and it is heard also in 
It. egli, Sp. llano, Port, filho. It is still used in Sth. Sc. (see 
Murray's Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland, p. 124), 
but in the other dialects it has been replaced by 1 or Ij. Its 
phonetic symbol is A". In Middle Scots this A was written 1} 
(cf. n%, Ph. 56). The printers confused this digraph with Iz 
and this new spelling has influenced the pronunciation of some 
words ; e.g. Dal^ell was printed Dalzell and many people now 
pronounce it dal'zel instead of dal'jel or the popular di'el and 
da'el. 

Middle Scots. Pb. Mod. Sc. Ph. 

bailzie 'be^Ci baillie 'baili, 'bety'i 

spulzie 'spy^ 1 spulyie 'spyli, 'spuli 

toilzeour 'te^ur teyler 'teityer, 'teller. 
G. 2 



18 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



62. When I occurs between back consonants, a peculiar 
sound is often heard in Sc., which is formed in the back of the 
mouth by a narrowing of the breath passage. This sound may 
be heard instead of 1 (6) in such phrases as muckle gowk, " big 
fool," muckle gweed, " much good." 

63. In our general texts, we shall use only the symbol 1 
denoting in most cases the voiced point-back lateral. 

64. After short back vowels in Sc., 1 became a vowel and 
formed a diphthong with the preceding vowel. 

(1) When the preceding vowel was a, the resulting diph- 
thong au was monophthongized at an early period into a:, 
sometimes shortened. 



Sc. 

ba' 

ha' 

cauk 

hause 

palmie 

saut 

scaud 

W attie 



Ph. 

ba: 
ha: 

ka:k 
hais 



E. 
ball 
hall 
chalk 

halse (neck) 
a stroke on the hand 
salt 
scald 
Walter. 



sa:t 

skaid 

'watt 

In Mid. Sc. this a: is also pronounced 9:. 

(2) ol becomes ou and remains so in Sth. Sc. (Ph. 209). 
In the other dialects ou has been levelled under AU (Ph. 207). 

bowe bAU boll 

cowt kAUt colt 

knowe knAU knoll 

powe PAU poll 

rowe TAU roll. 

(3) ul became uu and then ui, sometimes shortened to u 
and in stressless position unrounded to A. 

buik buk bulk 

kum culm 



coom 

couter 

foo 



'kutar 
fu: 



culter 
full 



PHONETICS 19 

Sc. Ph. E. 

foomart,fumart l 'fumart fulmart 

poo, pu pu: pull 

poopit 'pupit pulpit 

shoother 'fuftar shoulder 

sud sAd, sud should. 

65. The letter " I " in the above cases was retained in the 
written language long after it ceased to be sounded. Its appear- 
ance came to indicate a long vowel or diphthong and consequently 
it was often inserted in words to which it did not belong etymo- 
logically. Examples of this curious spelling may be found in 
Modern Sc. 

nolt nAUt neat (cattle) 

chalmer 'tfaimar chamber. 

This intrusive " 1 " was sometimes even pronounced, thus the 
" Nolt Loan " in Arbroath, Forfar, is now pronounced nolt Ion. 

66. Note 1 for n in 

chimley 'tfimli, 'tf Ami; chimney. 



THE TRILL 



67. Voice point trilled. This sound is formed by the trilling 
of the point of the tongue against the upper gum. It occurs in 
words in all positions. 

68. In Celtic districts a point fricative consonant with the 
point of the tongue turned backwards is commonly heard, the 
symbol for which is J. The voice point fricative, commonly called 
untrilled r, is not a Sc. sound. 

1 Fumart=ful(to\il)mart. w = u: was shortened in the compound, ul became 
a diphthong and then a long vowel. The u is now generally short. 

22 



20 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



69. In many Sc. words as compared with E., r exchanges 
position with the preceding or following vowel. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

corss kors, kors cross 

girse girs grass 

Curshanks 'kArfaijks Cruickshanks 

kirsen 'kjrsan christen 

warsle warsl, wairsl wrestle 

brunt brAnt burnt 

crub krAb kerb 

truff trAf turf 

rhubrub 'rubrAb rhubarb 

provribs 'provribz proverbs 

wrat wrat wart. 

70. In many speakers a vowel is heard (1) before "r" in 
words like 

shrub JarAb 

shrill f aril , 

(2) Occasionally after r, before 1 and m, as in : 

farrel 'farAl a quarter of cakes 

airm 'erAm arm 

worm 'wArAm 

71. In the Avoch dialect of the Black Isle, Rosshire, r takes 
the place of n in words like knife, knee, knock, etc. = kraif, kri:, 
krok. 

72. In the N.E. fre:=/rom becomes fe:. In Sth. Sc., an 
unvoiced r is heard in some parts in words like three, thrae (frae), 
throat, rii, rae:, rot. 



FRICATIVES 

73. A fricative is a consonant breathed or voiced where the 
breath passage is narrowed so that the breath has to force its 
way out with audible friction. 



74. Breathed lip-teeth fricative. This consonant is formed 
between the lower lip and upper teeth as in E. f. 



PHONETICS 



21 



75. v is the voiced counterpart of the last sound and is also 
similar to E. v. 

76. f takes the place of E. v in the plurals of some nouns. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

knifes 1 knaifs knives 

leafs lifs leaves (sb.) 

wifes waifs wives. 

77. f and v often disappear medially and finally in Sc. 



e'en 


i:n 


even 


ower 


Aur 


over 


weel-faurt 
doo 
gie, gya, gae 
lea' 


'wil r fa:rt 
du: 
gi:, gja:, ge: 
li: 


well favoured 
dove, pigeon 
give, gave 
leave 


lo'e 


lu: 


love 


pree 
shirra 


pri: 
'fira 


prove, taste 
sheriff. 


78. f and v are often 


lost after 1 and r. 





del' 


del 


delve 


twal' 


twal 


twelve 


sel' 


sel 


self 


ser 


seir 


serve 


hairst 


herst 


harvest 


siller 


'sflar 


silver, money. 



79. f for 9 occurs in 'fjrzdf, Fuirsday, "Thursday," in a 
number of Scottish dialects. The N.E. has Feersday, r fi:rzdj, 
also frok for throck, " the lower part of the plough to which the 
share is fastened." In Roxburgh feet fit is used for theet, " the 
rope, chain or trace by which the horse draws the plough." In 
Caithness, " thresh " (vb.) and meeth, " sultry " are pronounced 
fief, mif. Cf. prov..E.yftfc for think and Russ. Feodor Theodore, 

1 In Sth. Sc. leaf, thief, knife, life, wife, take v in PI. half, laif (loaf), 
shelf, elf, take f (Murray, Dialect of S. Counties, p. 157). 



22 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

80. For fas a substitute for IA see Ph. 122. 

81. v is often a substitute for an original w (1) initially 
before r and (2) finally. This change is mostly confined to the 

N.E. 

Sc. Ph. E. 



vrang 


vraT) 


wrong 


vrat 


vrat 


wrote 


blauve 


bljaiv 


blow 


gn(y}auve 


gnjaiv 


gnaw 


lavyer 


'laivjar 


lawyer 


myauve 


mja:v 


mew 


schauve 


fa:v 


sow (corn) 


snauve 


snjaiv 


snow. 



e 

82. Breathed point-teeth fricative. This sound is formed 
between the point of the tongue and the upper teeth. It is the 
same sound as is heard in E. " thin " and is written th in Sc. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

baith be9 both 

bothy 'bo9i bothy 

graith gre9 harness 

tho 9o: though 

thole 9ol endure 

threip 9rip insist upon, argue. 

83. (1) 9 may replace xt in some Northern dialects in : 

micht, mith . mi9 might (vb.) 

dochter, dother f do9ar daughter. 

drouth and drucht, dru9, drAxt are heard in Sc. for "drought" 
and " dry ness." 

In Middle Sc. cht is a spelling for an original th in many 
words, e.g. aicht, baicht, facht, for aith (oath), baith (both), 
faith. 

(2) 9 replaces f in Sth. Sc. infrae, i.e. " from," = 9rae:, 9re 
(unaccented). 






PHONETICS 23 



84. Voiced point-teeth fricative. As in E. " the " and written 

tk in Sc. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

thae $e: those 

thir ftp* these 

thon Son yon, that 

thonder 'Sondar yonder 

$u: thou. 



85. Sc. has developed $ from an original d where it does 
not occur in E., generally before ar. See, however, Ph. 30, 31. 

blether 'blfeftar bladder 

consither kan'si<5ar consider 

ether 'etSar adder 

ether 'e$ar udder 

lether 'leftar ladder 

poother 'pillar powder 

shoother 'fuftar shoulder. 
These words may also be heard with d probably through the 
influence of E. , 

86. 6 or ft is often lost in final position. 

fro fro: froth 

lay le: lathe 

mou mu: mouth 

quo kwo: quoth 

unca 'ATjka very or extraordinary. 

From O.E.uucup with 
change of accent. 
wi* wj with. 

87. In Sc. generally S is lost in the relative that which 
becomes at or t. In the N.E. the dropping of $ in the pro- 
nominals this, that, they, their, there, was once universal and 
may still be noticed in some parts and with old speakers. In 
Caithness it is the rule yet. In the Strathearn dialect of Perth- 
shire, when the combines with the prepositions of, in, at, on, to, 



24 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

with, by, the result is ee = i, e.g. dhe haid ee toon, $a hed i tun = 
" the head of the town " ; ee big hoos, i big hus = " in the mansion 
house" (Wilson's Lowland Scotch, pp. 110 112). In Galloway 
we may hear such phrases as i' e toon, i e tun ; intae e inns, 
'inte e inz, " into the inns " ; i' e mornin, i e 'mornin, " in the 
morning " (Trotter's Galloway Gossip). 



88. Breathed fore-blade fricative. The same sound as in 
E. "some." The breath forces its way between the blade (just 
behind the point) and the apex of the upper gum, the breath 
passage is shaped like a pipe, the sides of the tongue pressing 
against the upper teeth. 

89. As in E., s is generally written initially with s, some- 
times with c in romance words before e medially by ss and s 
(especially in derivatives), finally by ss, se and ce. se and ce are 
used as in the corresponding E. words, but less regularly. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

soop sup sweep 

ceety 'siti city 

bossie 'bosi basin 

fousom fusm nauseous 

mousie 'rnusi a little mouse 

foustie 'fusti fusty 

hooses 'husaz houses 

cess ses a tax 

gress gres grass 

lass las girl 

loss los lose 

corss kors, kors cross 

crouse krus bold, brisk 

grice grais a young pig 

'tice tais entice 

wyce, wise wais wise. 

90. In the Sh. dialect fornenst appears instead of foranent. 
See Ph. 19. We may have here a metathesis form for Wyclif s 



PHONETICS 25 

anentis, influenced perhaps also by such words as against. In 
the English dialects also the st forms of this word are quite 
common. See E.D.D. under forenent. 

91. Note 8 for E. f (sh) : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

ase es ash (of coal, etc.) 

buss bAS bush 

sal sal shall 

sud SAd, sid, sad, sud should 

wuss WAS wish. 



92. Voiced fore-blade fricative. Same sound as in E. " zone." 

93. z occurs medially and finally. Medially it is generally 
written s, but z and zz are also used by writers who wish to 
indicate the exact pronunciation. Finally z is written s (1) in 
words like is, his, was, has, which originally had an s sound : 
(2) in the plural termination s and es after voiced sounds : in 
other cases se and ze are used 1 . 

Sc. Ph. E. 

bosie 'bo:zi bosom 

cruisie, cruizie 'kruizi, 'kr0:zi oil-lamp 

mizzour 'mizar, 'mezar measure 

rouser 'ruizar -watering-can 

heese hiiz hoist 

roose, reese, rooze ruiz, ri:z, r^iz praise 

grieves gri:vz farm bailiffs 

lugs 1 A 9 Z ears 

mutches 'mAtfaz women's caps. 

94. N.B. In words ending in sure the pronunciation is z, 
though E. influence has also introduced 5. 

layser 'leizar, r li:zar, r le:sar leisure 

pleiser 'pleizar, r pli:zar, 'pleisar, 'pillar pleasure. 

1 Final z before a pause or a breath consonant is generally partially unvoiced 
and in a very exact transcript would be written zz. 



26 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



f 

95. Breathed after-blade fricative. The after-blade is raised 
towards the after-gum and the point of the tongue hangs down. 
The breath passage is wider and shallower than for s. 

96. This sound is generally written sh in Sc., older sch. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

shim fim hoe 

shogue fog shake or swing 

cowshen 'kAufan caution 

gabbie-gash 'gabi'gaj chatterbox. 

97. / takes the place of E. s in many Sc. words : occasionally 
the original s spelling is retained. 

(1) Initially: 

schir 1 
shoo 

shunners 
suet 



suit 
sune 



fu: 

'JAiiarz 
fuat 
Jut, fyt 

fyn 



sir 

sew * 

cinders 

suet 

suit 

soon. 






(2) Medially: 






Elshiner 


'elfmar 


Alexander 


gushet 


'gAfat 


gusset 


offishers 


'ofifarz 


officers 


veshel 


vefl 


vessel. 


(3) Finally: 




' 


creish 


krif 


grease 


hersh 


her/ 


hoarse 


minsh 


minj 


mince 


notis 


'noti/ 


notice 


rinsh 


nnf 


rince. 



1 Note gutcher = " grandfather 5> from guid schir, pronounced ' 



PHONETICS 27 



98. These two sounds make a sort of consonantal diphthong. 
Initially they are written ch : medially and finally tch, since ch in 
these two positions generally stands for x in Sc. Some Romance 
words still retain ch for tf when no ambiguity arises. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

channer 'tfanar mutter 

chowks t/Auks jaws 

latch latf idle (v.) 

wutchuk 'wAt/Ak swallow (bird) 

mooch mutf sneak about 

pooch put/ pocket. 

99. tf often takes the place of E. dfr 

parritch 'pantf porridge 

marriage 'merit f marriage 

Note eetch it/ adze. 

100. In some districts of Scotland, e.g. Caithness, Avoch in 
Eastern Ross, Cromarty, Chirnside in Berwicksh., f takes the 
place of tf in many words initially, e.g. Serz az gyd fiiz t 
'fjrset az waz 'ivar Joud wt Jafts, There's as gude cheese in 
Chirnside as was ever chewed with chafts (jawbones). On the 
other hand we find chop, t/op, in Nth. Sc. for " shop," and chingle, 
tf ITJ! in general use = " shingle." 



101. Voiced after-blade fricative. Same sound as in E. 
" pleasure." 

Sc. Ph. E. 

pushion puigan, pAgan poison 

fashion 'fuijan, r fA5an 2 pith 

Fraser f fre:5ar Fraser. 

1 Also 'paizan. 2 Also 'fijan, 'fisan. 



28 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



102. This consonant diphthong has the same spellings as 
in E. Initially j, medially dg, finally dge or in Romance words 
ge, when no ambiguity arises. 



Sc. 

jaud 
jile } 
jeyle} 
jouk 
jow 
fodgel 
brain(d)ge] 
breenge j 
ginge-bread 
waages 
wadge 



Ph. 



brands] 
brinds J 



E. 

jade 
jail 

duck 

toll 

fat 

dash or 

plunge 

ginger-bread 

wages 

wedge. 



103. A number of words, generally of Romance origin, 
beginning with d5, are spelled with g when the vowel following 
is i, 6, i, \. 



geal 

gee 

gentie] 

gentle) 

geeble 

gigot 

gimp 



d 3 ibl 



freeze 

a fit of temper 

gentle 

splash 

leg of mutton 

slender. 



dsjmp, 

Many of these are also written with j, no doubt to avoid 
ambiguity, e.g. jeal, jeeble, jimp. 



104. In N.E. Aberdeenshire gang is pronounced 
(see Ph. 32) from gJiTj from 



from 



PHONETICS 29 



j 

105. Voiced front fricative. It is the sound of initial y in 
E. young, and is generally so written in Sc. 

106. (1) It occurs initially (a) arising out of an earlier 
diphthong : 



Sc. 


Ph. 


E. 


yerl 


jerl 


earl 


yertli) 
yird } 


jer9) 
Jirdj 


earth 


yernin 


'jernan, 'jjrnan 


rennet 


yin 


jm 


one 


yowe 


JAU 


ewe. 


(b) From 


fronted g : 




yeld 


jeld 


barren 


yett 


jet 


gate. 



(2) Before u followed by a back consonant or by r, written 
iu or eu or ui. 

beuk, Uuk bjuk book 

heuk ' hjuk hook 

kyeuk kjuk (N.E.) cook 

muir mjuir moor 

leuch Jjux laughed. 

(3) In some words it takes the place of 1 in some dialects. 

ploo pju: plough 

Woo bju: blue 

ploy pjoi pastime 

kyuk (Strathearn, kjAk cloak 

Perthsh.) 

yokes (neighbour- jeks laiks, marbles staked 

hood of Glasgow) in the game. 

107. j is dropped in your = i:r (N.E. and Sth. Sc.) and in ye 
(unemphatic) = i in other dialects. 



30 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



108. Breathed back fricative. The final consonant sound in 
Sc. loch, lox and in Ger. ach. When the preceding vowel is a 
front one the tongue advances almost into the front position as 
in laigh, lex+ (low), heich, hix+ (high). It then resembles ch 
in Ger. ich but in our texts we have not thought it necessary 
to use a separate symbol. 

109. In Orkney and Shetland x takes the place of k before 

w, thus : 

question becomes 'xwestjan. 

110. In many of the Mid. 1 dialects x stands for 9 before r, 

thus : 

twa or three becomes r twaxri, 

thrice xrais, 

throo xru:, 

throat xrot. 

111. In Sth. Sc. x occurs with simultaneous lip-rounding 
after a back vowel in words like lauch (laugh), leuwch (laughed, 
O.E. hloh), lowch (loch), ruwch (rough), thus written phonetically 
lax*, ljux*, lox*, TAX*. The existence of this rounded x has 
to be postulated to explain the development of O.E. final h = x 
into a vowel or f as in modern English " dough," " laugh." See 
note to Ph. 160. 



112. Breathed front fricative. Formed between the front 
of the tongue and the hard palate. It is similar to the sound 
in German ich and is the breathed counterpart of j. It is heard 
in Sc. often in the beginning of words, instead of h as in Hugh, 
hook, SJu:, 9Juk. It is also heard finally after a front vowel 
(more especially i) as a substitute for x, thus : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

heich hi9 high. 

1 e.g. Stirling. 






PHONETICS 31 

In general the tongue is never so far advanced on the roof 
of the mouth as for the German sound, and the sound might 
be described as an advanced x. In the general texts x will be 
used indifferently for the back and advanced forms of the sound 
written ch. 

w 

113. Voiced lips-back fricative. This sound is written and 
pronounced in much the same way as in E. The back of the 
tongue rises simultaneously with the rounding of the lips, w used 
to. be pronounced regularly before r in words like wright, wring, 
write, wrong, wren, wretch, wrought, but its use is becoming rarer. 
Sometimes a distinct vowel is heard between w and r. 

114. In the North East w becomes v. This v was originally, 
no doubt, a bilabial sound like the Ger. u in Quelle, but it is 
now labio-dental. vrprt, vrait, vraij, vratj = wright, write, 
ivrong, wretch are still current in the N.E. Sc. 

115. w is lost very frequently before vowels, especially 
before u. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

oo (Sth. Sc.) u: we 

oo' u: wool 

athin a'9;n within 

athoot a'9ut without 

ook uk week 

soom sum swim 

soop sup sweep 

towmont 'tAumant twelvemonth 

umman 'Aman woman 

toonty (Sth. Sc.) 'tunti twenty. 

116. Occasionally w is developed from u as in E. "one" = 
WAH. 

wir (unemphatic) wjr, WAr, war our 
oonerstan wunar'stan understand. 

117. For its development in N.E. Sc. before an original o 
see Ph. 152, and in Sth. Sc. before initial o see Ph. 210. 



32 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



118. In some of the Sc. dialects w often replaces v: for v w 
see Ph. 81. We have a similar phenomenon in the Cockney 
speech of Dickens' time, e.g. winegar and weal for vinegar and 
veal. So in Sc. we may hear wirtuous, weggybun, wanish, for 
virtuous, vagabond, vanish. If v was at one time bi-labial, the 
confusion between it and w, in Middle Sc. texts, may be easily 
understood. 

119. w sometimes takes the place of E. j, developing in 
most cases out of an original u. 

Sc. 

actwally 
anwall 
gradwal 
richtwis (O.E. rihtwls) 



Ph. 


E. 


'dktfwali 
'anwal 


actually 
annual 


'gradwal 
'r^xtwis 


gradual 
righteous. 



Al 

120. This sound is produced in the same way as w, only 
breath is used instead of voice. 

121. wh is the common modern spelling, taking the place 
of the older quh, qwh. In some dialects the back action of the 
tongue is very marked so that the result might be represented 
almost by XAI or X A . AY is almost unknown in Sth. Eng. but may 
be heard in the North of England. It is the rule in Scotland in 
all words spelled wh. Examples : 



Sc. 

whan, quhan 
whare, quhar 
whitrit, quhitrit 
whilk, quhilk 
wha, quha 



Ph. 
Aian 
Atair 
'AiAtrjt, ' 

Alglk, AlAlk 

Aia.:, Aie: 



E. 

when 
where 
weasel 
which 
who. 



121 (a). For AIA in Sth. Sc. = hua see Ph. 210. 

122. In the N.E. the back action of the tongue has been 
eliminated, producing (1) a bi-labial f and (2) later on, the 
lip-teeth f of ordinary speech. Hence the above words are pro- 
nounced fan, far, etc., fan, fair, etc. in the N.E. 



PHONETICS 33 

123. In the dialect of Avoch (Eastern Ross) and Cromarty 
A\. is lost in the interrogatives wha, whase, what, whan, whare, 
which become a, as, at, an, ar, respectively, e.g. 

" Where are you going, boy ? " 
air t$u gean, bjox ? 



124. Breathed glottal fricative. This sound is produced by 
the friction of the outgoing breath on the edges of the vocal 
chords, or against the interior walls of the larynx. It is really 
a stressed breath. Hence its liability to disappear to conscious- 
ness when the syllable in which it occurs loses the stress. As 
in E., words with the minimum of stress tend to lose the " h," 
e.g. him, her, his. See Ph. 217 (6). On the other hand, notice 
that us AS when stressed becomes hAZ, hjz. 

125. As in E., the pronoun " it " has generally lost its 
aspirate, but unlike E. the " h " may be retained under emphasis, 
e.g. " You are it," in the game, i.e. the person who has to pay 
the penalty, e.g. to stay in the house, becomes in Sc. ye re hit, 
jir h^t or jir hAt. For other examples see Gr. 23. 

126. In some dialects the "h" is omitted or inserted 
contrary to E. usage, e.g. in the fisher speech of Avoch and 
Cromarty in the Black Isle, in Footdee Aberdeenshire, and in 
Cove in Kincardineshire. In his History of Buckhaven, Fife- 
shire, Dougal Graham (18th century) records a like peculiarity 
in that fishing village. If we may judge from the literary 
texts and public records that have come down to us, there was 
a similar hesitancy in the use of h in Middle Scots on the part 
of many writers. 



G. 



VOWELS 

127. A vowel is a speech sound in which the breath 
current, normally voiced, issues from the mouth without a 
check complete or partial and without audible friction. 

128. TERMS USED IN DESCRIBING VOWELS 

High indicates that the tongue is raised as far as it can go 
without producing audible friction, the mouth opening being 
small. 

Low indicates that the tongue is as far down as possible, 
and the mouth-opening at its maximum. 

Mid indicates that the tongue is midway between high and 
low and that the mouth is half open. 

Front indicates that the highest point on the surface of the 
tongue is in the front and opposite the middle of the hard 
palate. The short slope is to the front and the long slope to 
the back. 

Back indicates that the highest point on the surface of the 
tongue is in the back and opposite the soft palate. The long- 
slope is to the front. 

Central indicates that there is a very slight rise on the surface 
of the tongue midway between the point and the back. The 
tongue lies very nearly flat on the floor of the mouth in the 
position for easy breathing. Other names used by phoneticians 
for this position are mixed, flat, neutral. 

Tense indicates that the muscles of the tongue are drawn 
tight, a condition of the tongue that generally produces a clearer 
and more ringing sound. 

Lax indicates that the muscles of the tongue are relaxed so 
that the upper surface is not so convex as in the tense sound. 

Rounded indicates that the contraction of the lips has come 
into play to modify the sound. In back vowels the cheeks also 
play an important part in the production of the sound. 



PHONETICS 



35 




32 





rd in ordinary 
spelling 


s l^-i 

| g At/oJ 

a^ o * !, 1 llS-a^^l 

Illllf^ bb^|S.^^ 




o 


X"^ ^^*^ x^**~ X"~X ^^*^ 




t* 


i I <N T I (N ^ 


^3 







1 

a 
a 


II 

bD <3 

fl '3 


D ^ & & ^~^ ^ 
& .p .p., -5100^ P 


Modern ! 


H a 
d 

2 & 


"O D !O O "S "M M W rj* pj 
3 

rH^ sT" Cl-^S ""^ 







O) 




o 






-si 


O J3 cv 




'43 "8 

-4-3 J 


cr ^ * - >M ^ ^^ ?, 




r/^ S3 


^^ ^"^ ^"^ x*-^. v> ^ 1 ^ 




2 


r ( (M 




PH 








<D .^ -S 






m CD 2^ g, *- O Q^ 


4* 


I 


i S?3c.i 

iiiiii-?lii! 


0) 




'^^ ^*~^ fl x^-^x Vx^-N 


3 




r 1 (M i 1 (N T^H 


Q 






A 




O 


03 




uf 




1 

O 


x_^ v^^ "IH" .^ 

T-H C^ 


d 


1 


i Ja s Ji l f ( 


1 


1 


3 5 is i^ 1 ! !l So^ /I ^ ^ ^ 


CQ 




^^s x^s -> |^ ^^ 


1 




1 8 




3 


^ ,op ^ 




is 


^ t^QpI^ .-^ ^ j^ ^ 03 1r^ 




1(8 , , , . KD ,0 , ,0 



B 

O 



Modern Eng 



Sth. Englis 
ronunciatio 



Scot 



ft 

8 









s 




u> --j 



c<i 






SH 

S 



g-s 










rH CO 



3S 




02. O 



^H CO 







-g 






31 



OQ 



1 



5 &CT3 



- 
II 



40 fl 

^H Q. a 






CO 



Sod 



^d 



o rt o 

o o* d G^I ^^* o ^ s * 01 G^I d 

rH (N CO OO^d - <>CO 

rH JO CO rH rH 



I 

O P 
S k-^ 

H ^ -U3 



I 1 



O) 

oT 



d d 

rH CO CO 



G<1 02 



- d 
g g 

0) u) 



13 






CM (N 02 



02 co PH CD <1> i-O ^ 

rH 01 CO rH^CO^ CO^ r7 rH^O? 



^ O 

CD CD CD 



11 


^ U g fl I 


40 s~^ 


43| 


'^^:3 |3 


8 2 ^1 a ^ ^ 


O 


* 


O 02 02 ^ 


Modern Eng] 

>th. English 
renunciation 


000 

&-S & 
:o : g =o 


1-4 

9 

:O 


" e. 






G 

.2 

8 


w <& w O "Q O 


O *o O < "3 


1 








'ft 


"En 




^r ^ 


43 a 


t i 



3 
5 


>> fl o 

llf jl 

^3 rJO 02 

^ 


111 1 S: r 
1 


1 


M>M * S3 3j ^ p- 


OJ 


0) 

P 


o 


1 

fl 



M 


1 ^ ^ III) 

^5 O 


ii 8 ^ 

S-f^ s S)^ 

O rO O 02 -CO *"3 
S 


CO 

s 






1 




3 


P-H 




J 


1 


SH -^ bO 

.M -rH >i OO O 

1 1 


o "o o ^ ^ ^ 

I 1 
hH 



40 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

NOTE TO VOWEL TABLES 

Literary English and Scots are descended from sister dialects 
of Teutonic speech in Britain. The first comes from an East 
Midland form, the second from the Northern or Anglian dialect 
which from a very early period was spoken between the Humber 
and the Forth and subsequently extended to all the Scottish 
Lowlands. The only Old English dialect that has come down 
to us in a satisfactory literary form is the West Saxon speech of 
King Alfred. This dialect has been written with great phonetic 
accuracy and as we cannot put our hands on the original form of 
Teutonic from which all these dialects presumably have sprung, 
it serves as a very valuable test of the development of the vowels 
in English and Scots. Naturally West Saxon stands in closer 
relationship to the Teutonic languages of the Continent than 
do its modern collateral descendants, and so it serves to link up 
our modern dialects with Teutonic speech in general. 

FRONT VOWELS 



131. High front tense. The tongue occupies the forepart of 
the mouth, the point rests on or close behind the lower teeth 
ridge and, behind the point, the tongue arches up towards the 
teeth ridge and hard palate. The front of the tongue is opposite 
the middle of the hard palate, the space between being just 
sufficient to allow of the egress of the breath current without 
audible friction. The muscles of the tongue are tense, and the 
lips form a large ellipse with the corners well apart. This 
vowel is heard in E. deep ; in Fr. id ; in Ger. Biene, ihn ; in Sp. 
and It. vino. In Sth. E., i is either much prolonged or diph- 
thongized, when i becomes ri or ij, thus deep is drip or dijp. 

132. In Sc. i is spelled (1) ee, (2) ie, (3) ei, (4) ea, (5) e-e. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

(1) cleek klik hook 

deevil diivl devil 

dree dri: undergo 

eelie-lamp 'ili'lamp oil-lamp 



PHONETICS 41 

Sc. Ph. E. 

reek rik smoke 

seeven siivn seven 

speer, speir, spier spiir ask 

weel wil well (adj., adv.). 

(2) bield bile? protection 
Hieland 'hilanc? Highland 
shieling 'fil^n summer hut. 

(3) dreich drix wearisome 
heich hix high 
wm nist next 
reive riiv plunder. 

(4) gear giir property 
raira rim, cream. 

(5) recfe rid advice 
remede and remeid n'mid remedy. 

For final i diphthongised in Sth. Sc., see Ph. 203. 

133. N.B. Words of Romance origin retain this vowel in 
Sc., e.g. : 

bapteese bap'tiiz baptise 

ceevil siivl civil 

obleedge a'blid5 oblige 

peety 'piti pity 

poseetion pa'zi/n position. 



134. High front lax. This vowel is formed in very nearly 
the same position as for i, only the tongue is a little lower and 
its upper surface less convex owing to the muscles being relaxed. 
It is identical with the vowel in E. hit etc., Ger. mit y nicht. It 
occurs also as the first element in the Sth. E. diphthong in " sea, 
heafc," etc. ; sii, hrit, sij, hijt. 

135. In Sc. i is generally spelled with the letter "i" : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

brither 'briflar brother 

fivver 'fivar fever 

mither 'mitJar mother. 



42 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

136. This sound or (i) frequently takes the place of A especi- 
ally before a nasal. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

din din dun 

nit nit nut 

simmer 'simar summer 

sin sin son 

sin sin sun 

sinery 'sinri sundry 

sipper 'sipar supper 

winner 'wmar wonder. 

137. In Sc. Dialect generally, the pure i sound is not so 
common as in E., its place being taken by \. 



138. High front lax lowered. The tongue is still further 
lowered from the i position until it is at least half way down 
to the mid position. The vowel in acoustic effect is midway 
between i and e, i.e. between the sounds in E. " pit " and " pet." 
In some dialects, especially in the North, the tongue is flattened 
as well as lowered, so that the sound in acoustic effect approaches 
9. See Ph. 188. In other dialects e (see Ph. 144) is heard 
instead of i in many words in all positions, e.g. pit becomes pet 
In E. the second vowel in " pity" is often pronounced as \. 

139. The vowel i is generally spelled "i" in Mod. Sc., and 
in final position (2) ie or (3) y. In Middle Sc. it was generally 
written " y." 

Sc. Ph. E. 

(1) find f\nd find 
Kill nil hill 
nicht npct . night 
things Ojrjz things 
will J wjl will. 

(2) tassie 'tasi cup. 

(3) tuppenny 'tfpnf, 'tApnt twopenny. 

1 WA! is more common. 



PHONETICS 43 



140. Mid front tense. The tongue is now lower than for 
any of the previous vowels, and the mouth more open. As the 
tongue is tense, the acoustic effect is sharp and clear, e is 
heard in E. mate', Fr. ete\ Ger. See', Du. reel. It is always 
diphthongized in Sth. E. : thus mate is meit or meit. 

141. The most common spellings for e 1 in Sc. are (1) cw 2 , 
(2) ae, (3) a-e, (4) ay 2 . 

Sc. Ph. E. 

(1) mair me:r more 
pairt pert part 

stravaig stra'veg wander aimlessly. 

(2) blae ble: blue, livid 
mae me: more 
strae stre: straw 

tae te: toe. 

1 In some Sc. dialects, e.g. Morayshire, when e is short or half-long, it 
changes somewhat in quality. The sound is formed with the tongue lower and 
less tense as in baith, ane, bale (fester) = be T 0, c T n, be T l which might be written 
also b|6, tn, b^l. 

2 The spellings at, ay, for the vowel e have a curious origin. They indicated 
first a diphthong as in dai, mai, sayde, paie, for "day, may, said, pay." In 
course of time this diphthong was monophthongized, resulting in a long vowel. 
The old spelling was retained for this long vowel. The i or y came to be 
regarded as a sign of length and was later extended to mark length in the 
vowels e and o and u. Again in words like name, schame, O.E. nama, scamu, 
the a standing in open position (see Ph. 146 (2)) had been lengthened in the 
13th century and the suffix e, representing nearly all the old terminations, had 
come to be regarded as a mark of length and was added to many words which 
had originally a long a, as bane O.E. ban, " a bone." Thus there arose two 
ways of indicating a long a, viz. : ai, ay, and a + consonant + e. 

E. 

battle 
have 
more. 

dead 
remedy 
before 
good 





Old Sc. 


Middle Sc. 




batale 


bataill 




have 


haiff 




rnare 


mair 


So also 


with e, o, and u : 






dede 


deid 




remede 


remeid 




before 


befoir 




gude 


guid 



44 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



(3) 



(4) 



Sc. 
blate 
quate 
splay 



Ph. 
blet 
kweit 
sple: 



E. 
shy 
quiet, 
split. 



142. In Sth. Sc. a diphthong is used instead of e in words 
derived from original long a or open a (see Ph. 146 (2)), 
e.g. stane, stian, O.E. stdn, hate (vb.), hiat, O.E. hatian. 

143. In Forfar, Kincardine, Aberdeen and on the Banffshire 
coast, this e becomes i before n as bin, stin = E. " bone, stone "; 
O.E. ban, stan. 



144. Mid front lax. In Sc. Dialect, the tongue is always 
lower than for e, the mouth more open and the tongue-surface 
less convex, owing to the laxness of the muscles. E. " men, pen," 
etc. Ger. Fest, Thrdne. 

145. e is spelled in Sc. (1) e, (2) ai. 



(1) 



(2) 



Ph. 

'etarkap 
ben 
'bletSsr 
bres 
gles 
ken 
epl 
bern 
kern 
'menar 
sedl 

Note e may also be heard in (2). 

146. Many words in Sc. have an e or e vowel where E. has 
an a vowel. This is frequently the case (1) in words ending in 
r + cons., and s + cons., e.g. E. "arm, harm, sharp, yard," become 
in Sc. erm, herm, Jerp, jerd, and " brass, fast, glass," become, 
bres, fest, gles ; (2) in words where a short a (ea, &) stood 
originally in an open syllable. A syllable is said to be open 
when it ends with a vowel as a in " la-dy " and ow in "low." When 



Sc. 

ettercap 
ben 

blether 
bress 
gless 
ken 
aipple 
bairn 
cairn 
mainner 
saiddle 



E. 

spider, spitfire 
inside room 
bladder 
brass 
glass 
know. 
apple 
child 

heap of stones 
manner 
saddle. 



PHONETICS 45 

the syllable ends in a consonant, it is said to be closed as in " lad, 
bath." In early Middle English and Sc. the short vowels, a, e, o, 
in open syllables were lengthened and had a different develop- 
ment from the same vowel in a closed syllable. Thus O.E. 
ba&ian becomes bathe, but O.E. bte& becomes bath. E. " glad " 
comes from O.E. nom. gfoed, but Sc. " glaid " from an oblique case 
of the adjective like glade or gladum, where a was in open 
position. So Sc. r fear goes back to Nom. Sing, f seder, but E. 
" father " to some form like fsedres orftedras, where se is in closed 
position.. Chaucer's "small" in smale foules would give Mod. 
Eng. "smail," a form which actually occurs in the proper name 
Smail and the Sc. place-name Smailholm. The nominative 
smsel is the ancestor of Sc. " sma'," and E. " small," by regular 
process of change in each of the dialects. 

y 

147. High front lax rounded, y is an i pronounced with 
lip-rounding. It is like the vowel in Ger. Hutte, and is generally 
heard short and occurs before all consonants except r and voiced 

fricatives. In a few dialects this vowel is tense and very nearly 
equivalent to Fr. u in mur. 

148. y is commonly written (1) ui, (2) u-e, (3) oo. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

(1) buist byst mark on cattle 
cuit kyt ankle 

fruit fryt fruit 

guim gym gum 

tuim tym toom (empty). 

(2) bude byd behoved 
excuse (sb.) ek'skjys excuse 
guse gys goose 
mune myn moon 
schule skyl school 
spune spyn spoon 
use (sb.) jys use. 

(3) loof lyf hollow of hand 
shoon fyn shoes. 



46 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



149. Mid front tense rounded. In pronouncing this vowel, 
the tongue is in the position for e (Ph. 140), with the lips 
slightly rounded. The vowel eu in Fr. pen has very nearly the 
same sound. $ occurs in final position and before voiced frica- 
tives, such as z, v, 9 and r, and is normally long. 

150. is written (1) ui, (2) u + e, (3) oe, (4) o, (5) oo. 



Sc. 

(1) cruive 
fuird 
muir 
pair 

(2) excuse (vb.) 
use (vb.) 

(3) shoe 

(4) do 

(5) too 



Ph. 
kr^iv 

m0:r 
eks'kj^iz 



tf. 



E. 

pen for live stock 
ford 
moor 
poor, 
excuse 
use. 
shoe, 
do. 
too. 



151. The original vowel in most of the words containing y 
or appears to have been a long o in O.E. and Scan, and u in 
Fr., e.g. O.E. mona, Sc. myn ; Scan, hrosa, Sc. r^iz ; Fr. user, 
Sc. J0:z. This o (or u) was fronted and became 0. remained 
before voiced fricatives and r and in final position, but in other 
cases it was generally raised and shortened to y. In many dis- 
tricts of the Mid. area, recent unrounding has taken place so 
that y becomes i and ^ becomes e. Thus fruit, use (sb.), shoon 
become frit, jis, fin, but puir, use (vb.), shoe become pe:r, jeiz, 
f e:. In some districts this unrounding is so recent that middle- 
aged people remember the difference between their own sound 
and that of the older generation. In other cases the change goes 
back to the seventeenth century. In the Records of Stitchil 1 
(1674) there is an entry of "5/6 as the price of 'shin,'" i.e. "shoes." 
Another instance from Kirk Session Records is given in Henry's 
History of the Parish Church of Galston 1 (Ayrshire) under date 



1 We are indebted to the Rev. Mr McKinlay, Galston, for pointing out these 
instances. 



PHONETICS 47 

Oct. 1635 : "The collection to the pare (i.e. poor) sail be gathered 
at the entrie of the people to the kirk." The conventional spelling 
disguises this change but it crops out occasionally, e.g. in the 
song of " Guid Ale." Burns writes : 

I sell'd them a' just ane by ane 

Guid ale keeps my heart abune. 

ane and abune 'would make a perfect rhyme in Burns' local pro- 
nunciation, al though the spelling conceals this fact : 

a seld Sam a: djist jm bs jm 

gid jil kips ma hert a'bin. 
See also verse 4 in Burns' poem " To a Mouse," p. 335. 

152. In the N.E. this vowel (derived from O.E. o, Scan. 6, 
Fr. K) was raised at a very early period to y without being 
shortened and was then unrounded to i. It is possible that 
may have been unrounded to e and then raised to i. In either 
case the result was i. Thus : 

N. Sc. Ph. Mid. Sc. Ph. 

freet frit fruit fryt 

meen min mune myn 

peer piir pair p0:r 

shee /i: shoe ffo 

sheen Jin shoon Jyn. 

When a back consonant preceded the original long o, it seems 
to have been rounded, and a glide developed between it and the 
vowel, which afterwards became w. Thus : 

N. Sc. Ph. Mid. Sc. E. 

cweed kwid cuid a small tub 

cweet kwit cuit ankle 

gweed gwid gude good 

skweel skwil schule school. 

153. For heuk, heuch, etc. see Ph. 160. 

154. y and are eminently unstable vowels in Sc. and the 
variations perceptible in different districts and in close proximity 
are very numerous. Sometimes the distinction between y and 
does not seem to hold, or a rounded central vowel is used instead 
of either. 



48 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



155. Low front lax. This is the same sound as the vowel 
in Sth. Eng. man. It does not occur regularly in Mid. Scottish 
but may be heard in the dialect of the Southern Counties as a 
substitute for e in words like beg, men, pen, Berwick, Nellie. The 
symbol is not used in the general texts. 



156. Low front tense. Sth. E. "fair," fa; Fr. fete, pere. 
This is a very broad substitute for the e of "men" in some 
dialects (e.g. in the Langholm dialect of Dumfries) but the 
symbol is not used in the general texts. 



BACK VOWELS 

u 

157. High back tense rounded. The highest point on the 
surface of the tongue is in the back, the tongue is raised as far 
as possible without producing audible friction, its muscles are 
tense so that its surface bulges upwards, the lips are drawn 
together at the corners and protruded. E. " food, rue, blue " (in 
Sth. E. this vowel is often diphthongised = uu or uw) ; Fr. roue, 
foule ; Ger. Buhle ; It. and Sp. uno ; Du. goed. 

158. u is commonly spelled in Sc. (1) oo, (2) ou, (3) u : 



S. 

(1) broon 
coo 
doo 

(2) doute 
goun 
roun(d) 
soun(d) 

(3) /' 
pu 



Ph. 

brun 

ku: 

du: 

dut 

gun 

rund 

sum/ 

fu: 
pu: 



E. 

brown 
cow 
dove, 
doubt 
gown 
round 

sound (sb., vb.). 
full 
pull. 



PHONETICS 49 

159. In some parts of the country, e.g. in Celtic districts 
and in the neighbourhood of Glasgow, the tongue is decidedly 
advanced from the back position and a sound is produced that 
in acoustic effect is midway between u and y. 

160. In the N.E. and in some parts of the Mid. area an 
original long o before a back consonant becomes ju 1 or iu. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

beuk (buik) bjuk book 

eneuch a'njux enough 

heuk hjuk hook 

heuch hjux crag, gully 

leuch ljux laughed 

sheuch /UX (from sjux) ditch. 

In the N.E. district between Moray and Caithness original 
long o before r has also been developed into ju. 

muir mju:r moor 

puir pju:r poor. 

161. In some districts of the Mid. area the u of ju before a 
back consonant has been lowered and unrounded, hence eneuch, 
heuk, heuch, etc. become a'njAX, hJAk, hjAx, etc. 

162. In the dialect of the Sth. counties, u in final position 
has been diphthongized, producing AU. Thus coo, poo, you 
become kAU, PAU, JAU. 



163. High back lax rounded. The tongue is slightly lower 
than for u, its surface less convex and the lips are not so pursed. 
Same vowel as in Sth. E., bull, full. Rare in Sc. except in the 
Southern Counties where it is the first element of the diphthong 
ua, used instead of o in words like bore, buar ; sole (of a shoe), 
su9l(seePh.210). 

1 The process may have started with the rounding of the back consonant, 
i.e. the action of the lips used in forming o may have been kept up while k or x 
was being sounded. Then a strong glide may have developed between o and k 
or x. The development of leuch = " laughed" may be thus summarised, O.E. 
hloh (/i = x), hloh<", louh, l^ux, leux, liux, ljux. See Ph. 111. 

G. 4 



50 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



O 

164. Mid back tense rounded. The tongue is lowered from the 
u position but is still kept tense, the lips are less rounded, o is 
the same vowel sound as in E. load, rode (Sth. E. diphthongizes 
this sound): Fr. beau, tdt\ Ger. Sohn, Boot', Du. wonen. The 
most frequent source of o is O.E. short o standing in open position 
(see Ph. 146 (2)) and lengthened in early Middle English and Sc. 

165. o is generally written (1) o, (2) o-e, (3) oa. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

(1) corn korn corn 
horn horn horn. 

(2) hole hoi hole 
thole 6ol bear. 

(3) body 'bodi body 
foalie 'foil foal 

" woa wo: whoa. 

166. This vowel is frequently diphthongized in Sth. Sc. and 
becomes uo. See Ph. 210. 

o 

167. Mid back lax rounded. The lips are less rounded than 
for o and the tongue position lower, o is the same vowel as in 
E. cost, on, etc. ; Fr. tort ; It. notte ; Ger. Sonne. It is quite dis- 
tinct from the Sth. E. sound in cost which is a low backgrounded 
vowel, o is common in the Sc. of the Sth. Counties and in the 
North in words where an original o stood in close position (see 
Ph. 146 (2)). In the Mid. districts there has been a strong 
tendency to make this vowel more tense, so that in many words o 
has completely displaced o and in others o and o seem to be used 
indifferently, the latter being preferred for emphatic utterance. 

168. o is the common spelling of the vowel o. 

Sc. Ph. 

coft (bought) koft 

frost frost 

knock (clock) knok 

lot lot 

post post 

rod rod 









PHONETICS 51 

169. This vowel is generally unrounded in Sc. to a when 
it is in contact with a lip-consonant seemingly by a process of 
dissimilation. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

bather 'baftar bother 

baimet 'banat bonnet 

craft kraft croft 

drap drap drop 

hap hap hop 

la.fi laft loft 

pat pat pot 

Rab rab Rob 

saft saft soft 

stammick 'stamik stomach 

tap tap top. 

170. In districts where the original o becomes o, the vowel 
is unrounded to A in many words, e.g. 

bunnet 1 'bAnat bonnet 

buther 'bA$ar bother 



munny mAiif many 

Rubbert 1 'rAbart Robert 

stummick 1 'stAmik stomach. 



171. Low back tense rounded. The tongue is in the lowest 
position in the back of the mouth, but the lips are less rounded 
than for o. The vowel occurs in E. law, cause, ball. It is common 
in Mid. Sc. In the North, in Galloway and in the Southern 
Counties it is of rare occurrence, being replaced by a broad a 
sound. It varies over the country from 9 to o and o on the one 
hand and to a and a (in Celtic areas) on the other. 

172. (1) a, (2) aa, (3) a, (4) aw, (5) au, (6) al are the most 
common spellings of 9. All the words given in Ph. 176 may 
be pronounced with 9 instead of a. 

1 In these words A may possibly be the unrounded form of Anglo-French u. 

42 



52 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



173. Low back lax. This is the most open sound of a which 
is heard very commonly in E. father, Fr. pdte, Ger. Name. 

174. A lighter sound of a is often heard where the mouth 
is only half open and which might be described as mid back lax. 

175. a is generally fully long when final, and before a voiced 
fricative and r. It is also long when it represents an older diph- 
thong, arising generally from a lost consonant (1, g, w) with the 
spellings al, aw, au. 

176. Common spellings for this long sound are (1) a, (2) aa, 
(3) a', (4) aw, (5) au, (6) al. 



(1) 



(2) 



Sc. 

da 

twa 
wha 

haar 
haave 



(3) a' 



(4) 



(5) 



ca 

f* 
sa 

blaw 
chaw 
saw 
tawse 

baur 
cauk 
daur 
fause 



Ph. 
dai 
twa: 
Ava: 

hair 
haiv 

a: 
ka: 
fa: 
sa: 

bla: 
tfa: 
sa: 
ta:z 

ba:r 
ka:k 
da:r 
fa:s 

saix 



bauld 
cauld 
fauld 
auld 



E. 

father 

two 

who. 

cold sea mist 
grey. 

all 

call, drive 

fall 

salve. 

blow 

chew 

sow 

strap (for punishing). 

joke 

chalk 

dare 

false 

willow 

bold 

cold 

fold 

old. 



PHONETICS 53 

Sc. Ph. E. 

(6) chalmer 'tjaimar chamber 

kalflin 'haifltn half-grown 

halse ha:s neck. 

177. In the Mid. Sc. dialects 9 is used very widely instead 
of a: in words of this class. See Ph. 171. 

178. In other cases a is of medium length or short, i.e. when 
it does not occur finally or before voiced fricatives and r and 
when it does not represent an older diphthong. Ph. 175. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

chafts tfafts jaws 

dag dag rain or wet 

fallow 'fala fellow 

lass las girl 

sax saks six 

thack Oak thatch. 

179. For a representing an older o, see Ph. 169. 



180. Low back lax advanced. In this vowel the tongue is 
advanced bodily from the position of a but without the pro- 
nounced rising in the front which characterizes genuine front 
vowels. The sound is used regularly in the Northern English 
in words like man. It is similar to the vowel in the Fr. patte. 
It may be heard in Scottish dialect in districts that have come 
under Celtic influence in the North as a substitute for a. The 
symbol is not used in the general texts. 



181. Mid back tense. This vowel is heard in E. but, hut, cur, 
etc. In Sth. E., the tongue is generally advanced and before r 
invariably flattened in words of this class. The short a in the 
German mann sounds very like this Sc. vowel, only in the German 
vowel the tongue is lax. In some Scottish dialects the tongue 
is lowered. 



54 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



182. The common spellings of A are 


(1) u } (2) ou, (3) o. 


Sc. 


Ph. 


E. 


(1) lull 


bAl 1 


bull 


cut 


kAt 


cut 


putt 


pAt 


put (at golf). 


(2) young 


JATJ 


young 


touch 


tAtf 


touch. 


(3) come 


kAm 


come 


work 


WArk 


work (vb.). 


183. Words with 


the spellings whi, 


wi in E. generally have 


A in Sc. 






whustle 


MASl 


whistle 


whurl 


ALATl 


whirl 


swirl 


swArl 


swirl 


wull 


WAl 


will 


wutch 


WAtf 


witch. 



184. In some districts, especially those on the Highland 
Border, this A sound very commonly takes the place of i or j as 

Sc.andE. Ph. 

ditch dAtf 

fill fAl 

fish fAf 

hill hAl 

little lAtl 

185. For son, summer, etc., see Ph. 136. 

186. For A in eneuch, etc., see Ph. 161. 

187. For A unrounded from o, see Ph. 170. 



188. Mid central. In the formation of this vowel the tongue 
lies nearly flat in the mouth, the centre being slightly raised, 
the mouth is half open as for easy breathing. This sound may 
be heard in the first syllable of E. " attack." It occurs generally 
in unaccented position as a substitute for any vowel, but it may 
be heard also in Sc. before r in accented position, instead of t 
or A and is then tense as a rule. Examples : third, bird ; 6ard, 
bard. 

1 Also bil or bil. 



PHONETICS 55 

189. In some of the Northern dialects another flat vowel 
may be heard, viz. the high central lowered. It takes the place 
of i in words like put, foot, hit, him, and occurs also in termina- 
tions such as er. Thus in Sc. on^ may hear five variants of the 
word "put" sometimes more than one in the same dialect, 
viz. pit, pet, pi't, pAt, pat. 

190. In nearly all suffixes the original vowel is reduced 
to 9, e.g. : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

visible 'vizabl visible 

kalian 'halan cottage partition 

oxter 'okstar armpit 

painfu 'penfa painful 

barra' 'bars barrow 

elbuck 'elbak elbow. 

191. Note: na = not, in dinna, winna (will not), etc., is 
pronounced na, although ne is also heard. 

192. The termination y or ie is generally sounded \, though 
a short e is also heard in some dialects. After a voiced plosive i 
is also common. 

nappy 'napg ale 

ony 'onj any 

bonnie 'bon; bonnie 

Sannie 'sa.ni Alexander 

taupie 'taipi a silly person 

tawtie 'taitf, 'tati potato. 

193. In the N.E. after a voiced plosive or fricative y or ie 
is more commonly sounded i, as in hardy, Robbie, windy, bosom ; 
'hardi, r robi, 'wAndi, 'boizi. In Sth. Sc. i is also very common. 

194. When the vowel in the syllable preceding y or ie final 
is i (written ee or ea), ai (written i), y or ie final is generally 
sounded i. Thus : 

creepie (stool), greedy, Jeannie, whilie, wifie 
are pronounced 

'kripi, 'gridi, 'd&ni, 'Aiaili, 'waifi. 



56 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



DIPHTHONGS 

195. A diphthong consists of two vowel sounds pronounced 
with one breath impulse so as to form one syllable. One of the 
vowels carries a predominant stress. In Sc. the stress is gene- 
rally on the first vowel, i.e. most Sc. diphthongs are falling ones. 
Diphthongs with the stress on the second element rising diph- 
thongs were once common in Scottish speech, but now the first 
element has generally become a consonant; thus ane = one is now 
pronounced in Mid. Sc. yin=fan\ heuch, buik, once hiux, biuk, 
are now generally hjux, bjuk. In Sth. Sc. huope = " hope " has 
become hwAp. 

ai 

196. This diphthong is not very common in Sc. It may be 
heard in final position and before voiced fricatives and r, but is 
frequently replaced by ai. 

197. Its common spellings are (1) uy, (2) ui, (3) ie, (4) ye, 
(5) ire, (6) y-e. 



Sc. 

(1) buy 

(2) guiser 

(3) lie 1 
tie 

(4) aye 
kye 

(5) five 
rise 

(6) lyre 



Ph. 

bai 

'gaizar 

lai 
tai 

ai 
kai 

faiv 
raiz 

bair 



E. 

buy. 
mummer. 

lie (recline) 
tie. 

yes 
kye. 

five 
rise. 

byre. 



198. The personal pronoun / is a and ai in stressed position 
and a when unstressed. 

199. ai is heard in some dialects instead of ai. 

1 The older form Ixg is almost obsolete. 



PHONETICS 57 

ai 

200. This diphthong is quite different from the Sth. E. 
diphthong in fade = feid or feid. The first element is rarely a 
pure e or e sound. It is really a vowel between e and 9 and is 
always tense. So also is i the second element of the diphthong. 
Another, but less convenient method of writing it, might be ei. 
In some dialects A is the first element ; in others, especially in 
the fishing villages of the N.E. coast, the first vowel of the 
diphthong is a slightly rounded A, giving the impression of a 
sound which lies acoustically between o and o ; examples boide, 
foine, loike, koine, moine, poipe for " bide, fine, like, kind, mine, 
pipe." 

201. ai is spelled : (1) i-e-, (2) y-e, (3) ei, (4) ey, (5) ai. 

E. 
jail 
lose 
white, 
belly 
blame, 
diligent, 
doomed 
hay. 
boil 
coin 
join 
oil. 

ei 

202. In the dialect of Avoch, Eastern Ross, the diphthong 
ei may be heard in many words which have e or i in Sc. The 
original vowel is generally a: or a and e in open position (see 
Ph. 146 (2)): e.g. bein, stein, eim, eit, peir, Jeip, feir for 
" bone, stone, home, eat, pear, cheap, chair." 

ei 

203. ei is heard in Sth. Sc. in final position, where i is the 
rule in Mid. Sc., e.g. bee, free, he, me, pea, we, dee (die), flee (fly), 
lee (a lie) are the Sth. Sc. bei, frei, hei, mei, etc. 



Sc. 


Ph. 


(1) jile 
tine 


d 3 ail 
tain 


white 


A\ait 


(2) Icyte 
wyte 


kait 
wait 


(3) eident 


'aidant 


(4) fey 
hey 


fai 
hai 


(5) boil or byle 
coin 


bail 
kain 


join or jine 
oil or He 


ail 



58 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



ta 

204. For this diphthong in Sth. Sc., see Ph. 142. 

01 or 01 

205. This diphthong is rarer in Sc. than in E. Words with 
oi or oy spelling are generally pronounced with the ai diphthong 
except when oy is final. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

boy boi, boi boy 

ploy ploi, ploi pastime. 

206. " Joist" is generally dsist in Sc., but cyclist and egoist 
are also known. 

AU 

207. This diphthong is spelled (1) ou, (2) ow, (3) owe, (4) ol 
In most cases the diphthong arises from the loss of a consonant 
h, g, 1, or w. 



Sc. 


Ph. 


E. 


(1) goud 


gAud 


gold 


loup 


IAUP 


leap 


throu (N. Sc.) 


9rAU 


through. 


(2) bow (brig) 


bAU 


bow (bridge) 


chow 


t/AU 


chew 


cowt 


kAUt 


colt 


fowk 


fAUk 1 


folk 


grow 


grAU 


grow 


howp 


hAUp 


hope 


owsen 


'Ausan 


oxen 


row 


TAU 


roll 


towmon(d) 


'tAumam/ 


twelvemonth. 


(3) fower 


fAU9r 


four 


lowe 


IAU 


flame 


ower 


Auar 


over. 


(4) boll or bowe 


bAU 


boll (a measure) 


bolster 


'bAustar 


bolster 


stolen 


stAum 


stolen. 



1 Also fok. 



PHONETICS 



59 



208. AU is used in Sth. Sc. in words which in the other 
dialects end in long u, e.g. 

Mid. Sc. Sth. Sc. Ph. * E. 

600 bAU bend 

coo kAu cow 

doo dAU dove 

500 SAU SOW 

2/oo JAU you. 

ou 

209. This diphthong is heard in Sth. Sc. in words which 
originally had (1) ol, (2) oh, (3) og, (4) ow t (5) oh. All except (2) 
and (5) have AU in Mid. Sc., e.g. 



(1) 


bolster 


'boustar 


bolster. 


(2) 


sowcht 


souxt 


sought. 


(3) 


bow (sb.) 


bou 


bow. 


(4) 


stowe 


stou 


stow. 


(5) 


dowchter 


douxtar 


daughter. 



ua 



210. This diphthong is heard in Sth. Sc. in words that 
have o or o in the other dialects. 



born 
corn 
morn 
bore 



buarn 
kuarn 
muarn 
buar 



sole (of a, shoe) sual 
Rome ruam 

ua is derived from O.E. open o or classical o. Later additions 
to the dialect have o. When the diphthong is initial, it may 
appear in Sth. Sc. as WA, e.g. WApan, open, WArt/et, orchard ; 
when preceded by h, it becomes A\A, e.g. MA!, a hole, MAP, hope. 
See Murray's D. of S. C. of Sc., pp. 112, 147. 



VOWEL AND CONSONANT LENGTH 

LENGTH OF VOWELS 

211. As contrasted with Sth. E. pronunciation, quantity 
in Scottish vowels tends more to medium length with greater 
freedom in shortening and lengthening. The tense vowels i, e, 
o, u, 9, and the vowel a may all be heard fully long in final 
accented position and before voiced fricatives and r. The short- 
ening of these tense vowels before all voiced plosives and 1, m, 
n, TJ is much more marked than in Sth. E. and does not gene- 
rally result in any loss of tenseness as in Sth. E. 

212. It should be noted that the addition of an inflectional 
ending does not usually alter the quantity of a preceding long 
vowel. Thus both fee pr. t. and feed pt. t. have a fully long i, 
but the verb feed has a comparatively short i. Compare also 

Sc. Ph. E. 

broo bru: brew 

brood bruid brewed 

brood brud brood 

'gree gri: agree 

'greed gri:d agreed 

greed grid greed 

loo lu: love 

loo'd luid loved 

lood lud loud 

lay le: lay 

laid leid laid 

lade led load 

brayd breid pushed 

braid bred broad. 

213. When a word is in frequent use, the natural tendency 
to shorten before t, d, n manifests itself, especially if there is no 
danger of confusion with another word, e.g. 

gaed = " went " may be geld or ged, 
gied = " gave " gild or gid. 



PHONETICS 61 

214. (a) Sometimes a vowel is long because it represents 

a diphthong in the older form of the word or the loss of a con- 
sonant. 

Sc. Ph. E. 

quote kwe:t quiet 

rael re:l real 

vain ve:n vain 

ain e:n own ; 

but en = one. For other examples see Ph. 176. 

(6) In the case of words like auld, laugh, saugh, the diph- 
thong arose from the glide before 1 and x. The tendency to 
shorten a vowel before x, a breathed consonant, accounts for the 
double forms la:x, lax, straixt, straxt, for laugh and straight. 

(c) The ending er seems in some dialects to have a short- 
ening influence. Hence couter, shoother have generally a short u, 
and f aither, raither are heard in different districts with both 
long and short e. 

(d) For shortening through lack of stress, see Ph. 216. 

(e) Meaning sometimes influences length, e.g. 
bat nu: $e ar 'moinan in 'ilka grin 'loman, 

but now they are meaning in ilka green loaning. 

The Flowers of the Forest (Elliot). 

(/) In the texts the mark for length (:) will be used after 
the tense vowels e, i, o, u and a when they are final and accented, 
or when they stand in the accented syllable before voiced frica- 
tives and r. 



LENGTH OF CONSONANTS 

215. In many dialects (e.g. the Galloway dialect), when d 
is dropped after n, the n is noticeably lengthened. Sometimes 
the lengthening is equally distributed over the vowel and con- 
sonant. In the general texts we write such words land and 
laind 



STKESS 



216. Stress is the comparative force of the breath current, 
with which the syllables that make up a word are uttered. In 
Sc. and E. the root syllable of native words is generally the one 
that has the chief stress. As this root syllable is very often the 
first in the word, there is a tendency to stress foreign words in 
the first syllable. In Sc. we often find Romance words retaining 
their original stress contrary to English usage, e.g. 



April 

consequence 

discord 

massacre 

mischief 

novel 

soiree 

On the other hand we have 

dispute (sb.) 
police 



a'prail 

konsa'kwens 

dis'kord 

ma'sakar 

mis'tfif 

no'vel 

sa'ri:. 



'dispjut 

'polis. 



WOEDS IN THE BEEATH GEOUP 

217. (a) The sounds produced in a single breath for the 
purpose of conveying a thought or a definite part of a thought 
are styled a breath group. A breath group may be a single 
word but generally consists of a number. The lightly stressed 
vowels in the breath group are subject to change. Long vowels 
are shortened and often become lax or are graded down to a 
central vowel. This applies also to monosyllabic words that are 
generally employed with a minimum stress. These have nearly 
always a strong and a weak form, the latter being the more 
common. Words habitually used with minimum stress are the 
articles, pronominal words, monosyllabic prepositions, conjunc- 
tions and auxiliary verbs. Examples : 

E. Strong Weak 

you ji ji, ji 

/ ai, a 9 

my max, ma ma 

when Aian A\an 

us hjz, hAz as, s, z 

our u:r ur, war, wij, WAF. 

(6) Vowels may even be lost and consonants may disap- 
pear or be assimilated to neighbouring sounds in the breath 
group, e.g. h is regularly lost in unstressed pronominals like him, 
her, his and the auxiliary have. Examples : 

Sc. Ph. E. 

/ sepad (used by Barrie) asa r pad I shall uphold 
fousticat (N.E.) 'fustikat how is't ye call it ? 

guidschir 'gAtfar grandfather 

ne'er day 'ne:rdj New Year Day 

see till't sitlt, sidlt see to it, i.e. look at it 

see till 'im sitlm, sidlm see to him, i.e. look at him. 

(c) In the sentence "ye would na been sae shy," Gr. 61, 
na = na (not) + a (av = have). The two a's have coalesced to form 
one vowel, so that would seems to be followed by a past part. 



64 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Then the usage is extended to cases where na does not occur, 
e.g. " I would rather paid the needful repairs myself." Gait, in 
Annals of the Parish, ch. 27. 

(d) The curious form tu or ton for " thou " was once 
common in Mid. Scotland and survives in the nickname for 
Paisley, viz. seestu = " seest thou ? " For examples of its use, see 
Extract from Gait's Entail, and Gr. 23. It arose from an old 
assimilation in the breath group that was not unknown in O.E. 
and was very common in Middle E. where th = 9 following t, d, 
and often n and s became t, thus : 

" And tatt wass don, thatt witt tu wel." 
And that was done, that knowest thou well. 

Ormulum, 1004 (c. 1200). 
Often u or ou and e were written for &u and &e : 

" Wilt u se a wel fair flur ? " 
Wilt thou see a well fair flower ? 

Floris and Blancheflur (13th cent.). 
" Wreche bodi wgy list ou so ? " 
Wretched body why liest thou so ? 
The Debate of the Body and the Soul (13th cent.). 

" hi bye]? brigte and .clene ase hi weren at e point and at e 

time." 

they be bright and clean as they were at the point and at 
the time (of their christening). 

The Ayenbite of Inwit (1340). 

Thus one or all pronominal words beginning with th might have 
alternate forms without th. Sometimes one form might prevail 
for one or all pronominal words in a dialect, sometimes another. 
In spoken Sc. at the present time there is only one form of the 
relative that, viz. at ; yet it is but very rarely used in written 
Sc. which has either that, Sat, or the highly artificial wha, MO.:. 
In one dialect, viz. the Caithness Sc., all the pronominal words 
beginning with th = ft still drop the consonant and so for this, 
that, the, they, their, them, there, then, thence we get is, at, at 
(relative), i, e:, e:r, em, e:r, en, ens. For instances in other 
Sc. dialects, see Ph. 87. 



PHONETICS 65 

(e) This close binding of words into a sort of compound 
in the breath group also explains such forms as the tane and 
the tuther, t$a ten, Sa 'tiftar or 'tA^ar, " the one and the other," 
from the O.E. ptet an, ptet offer. So also O.E. mln agan, pm agan 
would be in Sc. main e:n, Sain em, and give rise to a new 
possessive ne:n. Hence his nain son, hjz ne:n sin; his nain 
seV, hiz ne:n sel, i.e. " his own self." In a tantrin ane or twa, 
"an odd one or two," the t of the definite article has been 
prefixed to antrin, "odd." (Mid. Eng. auntren "to come by 
chance," Mid. Fr. aventurer.) The dropping of d in words like 
cauld, find may also be susceptible of a similar explanation, but 
see Ph. S 27. 



INDEX 

TO WORDS REFERRED TO IN PART I, 1217 



a 123 


awe 130 


biuk 106 (2) 


a' 176 (3) 


aye 197 (4) 


blae 141 (2) 


aa28 




blffidre (O.E.) 31 


abune 151 


ba' 64 (1) 


blate 141 (3) 


ach (Ger.) 108 


babtist 11 


blauve 81 


acqueesh 40 


badder 30 


blaw 130, 176 (4) 


actwally 119 


bffijj (O.E.) 146 


blawan (O.E.) 130 


iemtig (O.E.) 15 


baicht 83 (1) 


bledder 31 


8eppel{O.E.)130 


baillie 61 


blether 31, 85, 145 (1) 


agan (O.E.) 130, 217 (e) 


bailyie 61 


bloo 106 (3) 


agree 212 


bailzie 61 


blow 130 


aht (O.E.) 130 


bairn 145 (2) 


blue 157 


aicht 83 (1) 


baith 82, 83 (1), 141 1 


boc (O.E.) 130 


ain 214 (a) 


bale 141 ! 


body 164 


aipple 130, 145 (2) 


ball 171 


boga (O.E.) 130 


airm 70 (2), 130 


ban (O.E.) 130, 141 2 , 143 


boide 200 


ait 130 


bane 130, 141 2 


boil 201 (5) 


aith 83 (1) 


bannet 169 


boll 207 (4) 


ale 151 


bapteese 133 


bolster 130, 207 (4), 209(1) 


an 123 


baptist 11 


bone 130, 141 2 , 143, 202 


ane 141 \ 195 


barra 190 


bonnie 192 


anefn (O.E.) 19 


bataillUl 1 


boo 130, 208 


anemn 19 


batale 141 1 


book 130 


anen 19 


bath 146 


boot (Ger.) 164 


anent 19 


bathe 146 


bore 163, 210 


anentis 19, 90 


bather 169 


born 210 


annual 119 


banian (O.E.) 146 


bosie 93 


antrin 217 (e) 


bauld 176(5) 


bosom 193 


anwal 119 


baur 176 (5) 


bossie 89 


apparent 18 


beakand 54 


bothy 82. 


apple 130 


beakin 54 


bottom 28 (a) 


April 216 


beau (Fr.) 129, 164 


bow(e) 130, 207(2), 209(3) 


ar 123 


bed 130 


bow(e) 64(2), 207(4) 


arise 130 


bedd (O.E.) 130 


bowster 130 


arm 130, 146 


bee 203 


boy 205 


as 123 


befoir 141 2 


braid 212 


ase 91 


before 141 2 


brainge 102 


at 87, 123 


beg 155 


bray'd 212 


athin 115 


ben 145 (1) 


breast 130 


athoot 115 


Berwick 155 


breeks 37 


attack 188 


beuk 106 (2), 130, 160 


breendge 102 


aucht 130 


bide 200 


breost (O.E.) 130 


aught 130 


bield 132 (2) 


bress 145(1), 146 


aul' 26 (2) 


biene (Ger.) 131 


bridder 30, 31 


auld 176 (5), 214 (6) 


bink 52 


briest 130 


auntren 217 (e) 


bird 130, 188 


brig 42 


aventurer (Mid. Fr.) 217 (e) 


birk 8, 37 


brither 135 



PHONETICS 



67 



brocen (O.E.) 130 


cleek 132 (1) 


deop (O.E.) 130 


broken 130 


Cockenzie 56 


depe 130 


broo 212 


coft 168 


din 136 


brood 212 


coin 201 (5) 


dinna 191 


broo'd 212 


combr 130 


discord 216 


broon 158 (1) 
broftor (O.E.) 31 


come 182 (3) 
consequence 216 


dishilago 28 (a) 
dispute 216 


brother 31 


consither 85 


ditch 184 


brunt 69 


coo 130, 158 (1), 162, 208 


do 150 (4) 


bude 148 (2) 


cook 33 


dochter 83 (1) 


bugan (O.E.) 130 


coom 64 (3) 


doo 77, 158 (1), 208 


buhle (Ger.) 157 
bulk (bulk) 64 (3) 


corn 130, 165 (1), 210 
corrup' 13 (2) 


dother 83 (1) 
dough 111 


bulk 160, 195 


corss 69, 89 


doute 158 (2) 


buist 148 (1) 


cost 167 


dowchter 209 (5) 


bull 163, 182 (1) 


cour 34(1) 


dragan (O.E.) 130 


buncle 55 


couter 64 (8), 214 (c) 


drap 169 


bunnet 170 


cow 130 


draw 130 


burd 130 


cowshen 96 


dream 130 


buss 91 


cowt34(l), 64 (2), 207 (2) 


dream (O.E.) 130 


but 129, 181 


craft 130, 169 


dree 132 (1) 


buther 170 


crap 34 (2) 


dreich 132 (3) 


butter 44 


creepie 194 


dreme 130 


buy 197(1) 


creish 97 (3) 


drouth 83 (1) 


byle 201 (5) 


croft 130 


drucht 83 (1) 


byre 197 (6) 


crouse 89 


drucken 58 




crub 69 


drunken 58 


ca' 176 (3) 


cruisie 93 




cairn 145 (2) 


cruive 150 (1) 


e 217 (d) 


cairts 34 (3) 


cruizie 93 


e'87 


camb (O.E.) 130 


cu (O.E.) 130 


earm (O.E.) 130 


can'le26(l) 


cuid 152 


eat 130, 202 


canon (Sp.) 56 


cuinie 34 (3) 


edder 31 


captain 11 


cuinyie 56 


ee 87 


castle 16 


cuinzie 56 


eelie-lamp 132 (1) 


cauf 34(1) 


cuisten 16 


e'en 77 


cauk64(l), 176(5) 


cuit 148 (1), 152 


eetch 99 


caul' 26 (2) 


cuits 34 (3) 


egli (It.) 61 


cauld 176 (5) 


cur 181 


eident 201 (3) 


cause 171 


curchie 34 (1) 


elbuck 190 


ceety 89 


curshanks 69 


elf 76 1 


ceevil 133 


cut 182 (1) 


Elshiner 97 (2) 


cess 89 


cweed 152 


empty 15 


chafts 100, 178 


cweet 152 


empy 13 (2), 15 


chair 202 




eneuch 160, 161 


chalmer 9, 65, 176 (6) 


da 176(1) 


eowu 130 


channer 98 


dffig (O.E.) 130 


esclat (O.F.) 38 


chaw 176 (4) 


dag 178 


esclendre (O.F.) 38 


cheap 202 


dai!41 2 


esclice (O.F.) 38 


cheese 100 


Dalzell 61 


etan (O.E.) 130 


chewed 100 


daur 176 (5) 


ete (Fr.) 129, 140 


chimley 65 


day 130 


ether (adder) 31, 85 


chingle 100 


dede 141 2 


ether (udder) 85 


Chirnside 100 


dee (die) 203 


ettercap 145 (1) 


chop 100 


deep 130, 131 


evident 18 


chow 207 (2) 


deevil 132 (1) 


ewe 130 


chowks 98 


defile 130 


excuse (sb.) 148 (2) 


claw 130 


degni (It.) 56 


excuse (vb.) 150 (2) 


clawu (O.E.) 130 


deid 141 2 




deed 34 (2) 


del' 78 


fa' 176 (3) 



52 



68 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



facht 83 (1) 


ford 150 (1) 


good 130 


fade 200 


forenent 90 


goud 207 (1) 


fader 30, 31 


fornenst 90 


goun 158 (2) 


fader (O.E.) 31, 130, 146 


foule (Fr.) 157 


gowk 62 


fsedras (O.E.) 146 


foules 146 


gradwal 119 


fair 129, 156 


fousom 89 


graith 82 


faith 83(1) 


fousticat 217 (6) 


'gree 212 


faither 214 (c) 


foustie 89 


gree'd 212 


fallow 178 


fower 207 (3) 


greed 212 


fan 122 


fowk 207 (2) 


greedy 194 


far 122 


frae 83 (2) 


green 130 


farrel 70 (2) 


Fraser 101 


grene 130 


fast 146 


free 203 


gress 89 


father 31, 129, 130, 146, 173 


freet 152 


grice 89 


fauP 26 (2) 


frichen 13 (3) 


grieve 93 


fauld 176 (5) 


frichtet 17 


green e 130 


fause 176 (5) 


fro' 86 


grow 130, 207 (2) 


fayther 130 


from 72 


growan (O.E.) 130 


feather 31 


frost 168 


gude 141 2 , 152 


feaw (O.E.) 130 


fruit 148 (1), 151 


guid 130, 141 2 


fedder 31 


fu' 130, 158 (3) 


guidschir97(l) 1 , 217(6) 


fee 212 


fuird 150 (1) 


guim 148 (1) 


fee'd (pt. t.) 212 


Fuirsday 79 


guiser 197 (2) 


feed (pr. t.) 212 


full 130, 163 


guse 148 (2) 


feedle 26 (a) 


fumart 64- (3) 


gushet 97 (2) 


Feersday 79 


fushion 101 


gutcher 97 (I) 1 


feet 79, 129 


fylan (O.E.) 130 


gutteran 54 


feinyit 56 


fyle 130 


gutterin 54 


feinzit 56 


fyowe 130 


gweed 62, 152 


Feodor (Buss.) 79 




gya' 77 


fest (Ger.) 144 


gabbie-gash 96 


gyaun 32 


fete (Fr.) 156 


Gaberlunzie 56 




feSer (O.E.) 31 


gae 77 


ha' 64(1) 


few 130 


gaed 213 


haar 176 (2) 


fey 201 (4) 


gairdit 17 


haave 176(2) 


fif (O.E.) 130 


gang 52, 104 


hffito (O.E.) 130 


fift 18 


garten 49 


haiff 141 2 


filho (Port.) 61 


geal 103 


hairst 78 


fill 184 


gear 132 (4) 


half 76 * 


find 139 (1) 


gee 103 


halflin 176 (6) 


fine 200 


geeble 103 


hallan 190 


fink 79 


gentie 103 


halse 176 (6) 


fish 184 


gentle 103 


ham (O.E.) 130 


fit 129 


gie77 


hame 130 


five 130, 197(5) 


gie'd 213 


han' 26 (1) 


fivver 135 


gigot 103 


hand 27 


flannen 49 


gimp 103 


hap 169 


flee (fly) 203 


ginge-bread 102 


happit 17 


flogen (O.E.) 130 


girse 69 


hardy 193 


flowen 130 


glade (O.E.) 146 


harm 146 


flown 130 


glad (O.E.) 130, 146 


has 93 


foalie 165 (3) 


gladum (O.E.) 146 


hate 142 


fochen 13 (3) 


glaid 130, 146 


hatian (O.E.) 142 


fodgel 102 


glass 146 


hause 64 (1) 


foine 200 


gless 145 (1) 


have 141 (2), 217(6) 


foo 64 (3), 130 


gnaw 43 


hay 130 


food 129, 157 


gn(y)auve 81 


he 203 


foomart 64 (3) 


gn(y)auvin 43 


heah (O.E.) 130 


foot 189 


god (O.E.) 130 


heat 130, 134 


foranent 19, 90 


goed (Du.) 157 


heese 93 



PHONETICS 



69 



heg (O.E.) 130 


jow 102 


leuwch 111 


heich 108, 112, 130,132(3) 




lichnin 13 (3) 


heit 130 


kail 34 (3) 


lie (recline) 197 (3) 


heort (O.E.) 130 


kaim 34 (3) 


lie (fib) 130 


her 124, 217 (6) 


keckle 35 (1) 


lig 197 (3) 


hersh 97 (3) 


keeked 14 


like 200 


hert 130 


ken 35 (1), 145 (1) 


little 60, 184 


heuch 160, 161, 195 


kep 35 (1) 


llano (Sp.) 61 


heuk!06(2), 160, 161 


kettle 44 


load 164 


hey 130, 201 (4) 


kind 200 


loan 65 


hieland 130, 132 (2) 


kirk 37 


loaning 214 () 


high 130 


kirsen 69 


loath 130 


hill 130, 139(1), 184 


kist 35 (1) 


loch 108 


him 124, 189, 217 (b) 


kivvy 35(1) 


lo'e 77 


hing 52 


knee 21, 35 (2), 55, 71 


loike 200 


his 93, 124, 217 (b) 


kneel 35 (2) 


loo 212 


hit (pro.) 125 


knife 21, 71, 76 l 


loo'd 212 


hit (v.) 134, 189 


knifes 76 


lood 212 


hloh (O.E.) Ill 


knock 21, 35(2), 71, 168 


loof 148 (3) 


hole 165 (2), 210 


know(e) 21, 64 (2) 


loss 89 


home 130, 202 


koine 200 


lot 168 


hook 112 


kye 197 (4) 


loup 207 (1) 


hoose(s) 89, 130 


kyeuk 106 (2) 


lowch 111 


hope 195, 210 


kypie 35 (1) 


lowe 207 (3) 


horn 165 (1) 


kyte35(l), 201(2) 


lugs 93 


house 130 


kythe 35 (1) 




howp 207 (2) 


kyuk 106 (3) 


Mackenzie 56 


hrosa (Scan.) 151 




mae 141 (2) 


Hugh 112 


lade 212 


mai 1412 


hungry 53 


lady 146 


mainner 145 (2) 


huope 195 


laft 169 


mair 141 (1), 1412 


hus (O.E.) 130 


laid 212 


man 129, 180 


hut 181 


laif 76 1 


man'd 28 


hutte (Ger.) 129, 147 


laigh 108 


mann (Ger.) 181 


hyll 130 


laiks 106 (3) 


mare -141 2 




laith 130 


marriage 99 


1198, 217 (a) 


lammer 9 


massacre 216 


i' 87 


Ian' 26 (1) 


mate 140 


ich (Ger.) 108, 112 


land 215 


me 203 


ici (Fr.) 131 


langer 53 


meen 152 


idder 30, 31 


lapster 6 


meeth 79 


ihn (Ger.) 131 


larick 37 


meind 28 


ile 201 (5) 


lass 89, 178 


meinzie 56 


in 87 


latch 98 


men 144, 155, 156 


iphm 55 


la$ (O.E.) 130 


Menzies 56 


is 93 


lauch 111 


micht 83 (1) 


it 125 


laugh 111, 214 (b) 


midder 30 


izd28 


lavyer 81 


min agan (O.E.) 217 (e) 




law 129, 171 


mine 2'00 


jaud 102 


lay 86, 212 


minha (Port.) 56 


jeal 103 


layser 94 


minsh97(3) 


Jeannie 194 


lea' 77 


mischief 216 


jeeble 103 


leaf 76 l 


mit (Ger.) 134 


jeyle 102 


leafs 76 


mith 83 (1) 


jile 102, 201 (1) 


lee 130, 203 


mither 135 


jimp 103 


len' 26 (1) 


mizzour 93 


jine 201 (5) 


lenth 47, 50 


moaning 214 (e) 


join 201 (5) 


lerrick 37 


moine 200 


joist 206 


lether 85 


mona (O.E.) 130, 151 


jouk 102 


leuch 106 (2), 160 


mooch 98 



70 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



moon 130 


oxter 190 


quilt 20 


moor 130 




quo' 86 


mor (O.E.) 130 


paie 141 2 




morn 210 


painfu' 190 


Bab 169 


mou' 86 


pairt 141 (I) 


rael 214 (a) 


mousie 89 


paitrick 40 


raggit 17 


muckle 62 


palmie 64 (1) 


raither 214 (c) 


muin 141 2 


pare 151 


ream 132 (4) 


muir!06(2), 130, 150(1), 


parley 11 


rede 132 (5) 


160 


pat 130, 169 


reek 132 (1) 


mune 130, 141 2 ,148 (2), 152 


pate (Fr.) 173 


reel (Du.) 140 


munny 170 


patte (Fr.) 129, 180 


reese 93 


mur (Fr.) 147 


pea 203 


reflec' 13 (1) 


mutches 93 


pear 202 


regne (Fr.) 57 


my 217 (a) 


peer 152 


reign 57 


myauve 81 


peety 133 


reive 132 (3) 




pen 129, 144, 155 


remede 132(5), 141 2 


na 191, 217 (c) 


perdlcem 40 * 


rerneid 132(5), 141 2 


nffidre (O.E.) 31 


perdrix (Fr.) 40 * 


rhubrub 69 


nain 217 (e) 


pere (Fr.) 156 


richtwis 119 


nama (O.E.) 130, 141 2 


perfec' 13 (1) 


rig 42 


name 130, 141 2 


pet 138 


rihtwls (O.E.) 119 


name (Ger.) 173 


peu (Fr.) 129, 149 


rinsh 97 (3) 


nappy 192 


pipe 200 


rise 197 (5) 


neat 65 


pit 130, 138 


Bobbie 193 


ne'erday 217 (6) 


pity 129, 138 


rod 168 


neist 132 (3) 


pleiser 94 


rode 164 


Nellie 155 


ploo!06(3) 


Borne 210 


nicht 139 (1) 


ploy 106 (3), 205 


roose 93 


nicht (Ger.) 134 


poipe 200 


rooser 93 


nieper 6 


poke 37 


rooze 93 


nit 136 


police 216 


roue (Fr.) 157 


no! 44 


poo 64 (3), 130, 162 


roun(d) 158 (2) 


nolt 65 


pooch 98 


row(e) 64 (2), 207 (2) 


notis 97 (3) 


poopit 64 (3) 


Bubbert 170 


notte (It.) 167 


poother 85 


rubbit 17 


novel 216 


porritch 99 


rue 157 




poseetion 133 


rummle 9 


oad28 


post 168 


ruwch 111 


obleedge 133 


pot 130 




offishers 97 (2) 


pott (O.E.) 130 


sa' 176 (3) 


oil 201 (5) 


powe 64 (2) 


saft 169 


old 130 


pree 77 


saften 16 


on 87, 167 


provribs 69 


saiddle 145 (2) 


oncet 18 


pu' 130, 158(3) 


sal 91 


one 214 (a) 


puir 150(1), 151, 152, 160 


salt 130 


ony 192 


pushion 101 


Sannie 192 


oo 115 


pull 129, 130 


saugh!76(5), 214(6) 


oo' 115 


put 189 


saut 64(1), 130 


ook 115 


putt 182 (1) 


saw 176(4) 


oonerstan 116 


pytt 130 


sax 178 


open 210 




sayde 141 (2) 


orchard 210 


quate 141 (3), 214 (a) 


scabbit 8 


5J>er (O.E.) 31, 217 (e) 


quelle (Ger.) 114 


scamel (O.E.) 39 


ou 217 (d) 


question 109 


scamu (O.E.) 141 2 


our 217 (a) 


quha 121 


scaud 64 (1) 


owe 130 


quhan 121 


schame 141 2 


ower 77, 207 (3) 


quhar 121 


schauve 81 


own 130 
owsen 207 (2) 


quhilk 121 
quhitrit 121 


schir 97 (1) 
schule 34(3), 148(2), 152 



PHONETICS 



71 






scilfe (O.E.) 39 


smert 130 


teeth 43 


sclate 38 


smiddy 29 


teir 130 


sclender 38 


sn(y)auve 81 


temp 13 (2) 


sclent 38 


sohn (Ger.) 164 


teran (O.E.) 130 


sclice 38 


sole 163, 210 


teyler 61 


scuil 34 (3) 


sonne (Ger.) 129, 167 


thack 178 


sea 134 


soo 130, 208 


thae 84 


see 217 (b) 


soom 115 


beet (O.E.) 217 (e) 


see (Ger.) 140 


soop 115 


that 23, 87, 217 (d) 


seestu 217 (d) 


soun(d) (healthy) 26 (1), 


the 217 (d) 


seeven 132 (1) 


158 (2) 


theet 79 


segg 42 


soun(d) (noise) 26 (1), 


their 87, 217 (d) 


sel' 78, 217 (e) 


158 (2) 


them 217 (d) 


sepad 217 (6) 


sow 130 


then 217 (d) 


ser' 78 


sowcht 209 (2) 


thence 217 (d) 


sharp 146 


spaingie 56 


thennes 19 


shee 152 


spanzie 56 


Theodore 79 


sheen 152 


speer 132 (1) 


there 87, 217 (d) 


sheuch 160 


splay 141 (4) 


they 87, 217 (d) 


shieling 132 (2) 


spulyie 61 


thin 23 


shim 96 


spulzie 61 


blnagan (O.E.) 217 (e} 


shin 151 


spune 148 (2) 


thing 23, 139(1) 


shirra 77 


stammick 169 


think 79 


shoe 150 (3), 151, 152 


stan (O.E.) 142, 143 


thir 84 


shogue 96 


stane 142 


third 188 


shoo 97 (1) 


stiddy 29 


this 87, 217 (d) 


shoon 148 (2), 151, 152 


stolen 130, 207 (4) 


tho82 


shoother64(3), 85, 214 (c) 


stone 143, 202 


thole 82, 165 (2) 


shriek 70 (1) 


stowe 209 (4) 


thon 84 


shrill 70 (1) 


stown 130 


thonder 84 


shrub 70 (1) 


strae 141 (2) 


thoo 84 


shunners 97 (1) 


straight 214 (b) 


thrane (Ger.) 144 


sic 37 


stravaig 141 (1) 


three 110 


sicna 54 


strenth 50 


threip 82 


signe" (Fr.) 56 


stric' 13 (1) 


thresh 79 


siller 78 


strict 15 


thrice 110 


simmer 130, 136 


study 29 


throat 110 


sin (son) 136 


stummick 170 


throck 79 


sin (sun) 136 


sud 64 (3), 91 


throo 110 


sinery 136 


suddent(ly) 18 


throu 207 (1) 


sing 57 


suet 97(1) 


thummle 9 


singe 52 


sugu (O.E.) 130 


thunner 26 (1) 


single 53 


suit 97(1) 


Thursday 79 


sipped 14 


summer 130 


'tice 89 


sipper 136 


sumor (O.E.) 130 


tichen 13 (3) 


sit 130 


sune 97 (1) 


tie 197 (3) 


sittan (O.E.) 130 


swicket 17 


till 217 (b) 


sixt 18, 22 


swirl 183 


timmer 9 


skelf 39 




tine 201 (1) 


skemmels 9, 39 


tae 141 (2) 


tither 217 (e) 


skule 34 (3) 


tailzeour 61 


to 87 


skweel 152 


tane 217 (e) 


too 150 (5) 


sma' 146 


tantrin 217 (e) 


toonty 115 


sma?l (O.E.) 146 


tap 169 


tort (Fr.) 167 


smail 146 


tappit 5 


tot (Fr.) 164 


Smailholm 146 


tassie 139 (2) 


tou 217 (d) 


smale 146 


taupie 5, 192 


touch 182 (2) 


small 146 


tawse 176 (4) 


towmon(d) 207 (2) 


smart 130 


tawtie 192 


towmont 115 


smeort (O.E.) 130 


tear 130 


truflf 69 



72 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



truth 15 

tu 217 (d) 

tuim 148 (1) 

tummle 9 

tuppenny 139 (2) 

tuther 217 (e) 

twa 110, 130, 176(1) 

twae 130 

twal' 78 

twicet 18 

two 130 



umman 115 

unca 86 

uncuj? (O.E.) 86 

understand 116 

uno (It., Sp.) 157 

upo' 49 

us 124, 217 (a) 

use (sb.) 148 (2) 

use(vb.) 150(2), 151 

user (Fr.) 151 

vagabond 118 
vain 214 (a) 
vanish 118 
veal 118 
veshel 97 (2) 
vinegar 118 
vino (It., Sp.) 131 
virtuous 118 
visible 190 
vrang 81 
vrat 81 

waages 102 
wadge 102 
wall 130 



wanish 118 


woa 164 (3) 


warsle 16, 69 


wonen (Du.) 164 


was 93 


wool 115 


water 44 


wordle 26 (a) 


Wattie 64(1) 


work 182 (3) 


we 203 


worm 70 (2) 


weal 118 


wrastle 16 


week 115 


wrat 69 


weel 132 (2) 


wren 113 


weel-faurt 77 


wretch 113, 114 


weggybun 118 


wright 113, 114 


well 130 


wring 113 


welle (O.E.) 130 


write 113, 114 


wha 121, 123, 176 (1), 


wrong 113, 114 


217 (d) 


wrought 113 


whan 121, 123 


wull 183 


whare 121, 123 


wunner 26 (1) 


whase 123 


wuss 91 


when 2 17 (a) 


wutch 183 


whilie 194 


wutchuk 98 


whilk 121 


wuzd 28 


white 201 (1) 


wyce 89 


whitrit 121 


wyte 201 (2) 


whoa 164 (3) 




whurl 183 


yakes 106 (3) 


whustle 183 


yard 146 


wi' 86 


ye 107 


widdy 29 


yeld 106 (1) (b) 


wife 76 1 


yerl!06(l)(a) 


wifes 76 


yernin 106 (1) (a) 


wine 194 


yerth 106 (1) (a) 


will 139(1) 


yett 106 (!)(&) 


windy 193 


yin 106(1) (a), 195 


winna 191 


yird 106 (1) (a) 


winner 136 


yoo 208 


wir 116 


you 162, 208, 217 (a) 


wirtuous 118 


your 107 


wise 89 


yow(e) 106 (1) (a), 130 



1 






PART II 

GEAMMAE 



CHAPTER I 

THE ARTICLES 

1. Indefinite article as ane. There seems to be a trace of 
French influence through Middle Scots literary usage in the use 
of ane, en, for " a " before consonants, yet it was always more or 
less of a literary affectation, and took no root in popular speech 1 . 

" Ane herrand damysele, and ane spekand castell sal nevyr 
end with honour." (A hearing damsel and a speaking castle 

1 This is a moot question with philologists, who regard such an intrusive 
influence as contrary to philological usage. It has been explained as a survival 
in the Northern dialect, the English having dropped the "n" before a consonant 
before 1200 A.D. But facts are against such an explanation : e.g. Barbour writing 
in the 14th century uses a and an just as we do to-day, while Henryson, before 
the close of the 15th century, uses ane freely before consonants, and Lyndsay in 
the 16th century has ane constantly before consonants, recalling the Fr. une : 
" Tyll Jamys of Dowglas at the last 
Fand a litill sonkyn bate." The Bruce, 1375 A.D. 

" With that ane Paddock, on the watter by,..." 

Henryson, The Mouse and the Paddock, i. 10. 

"Intyl ane garth, under ane reid roseir, 

Ane auld man, and decrepit, hard I syng." 

Henryson, The Prais of Aige, circ. 1473 A.D. 
"And sett ane seage proudlye about the place. 



They have ane boumbard braissit up in bandis." 

Lyndsay, The Papyngo, 1538 A.D. 

See Murray, Dialect S. C. Sc., The Middle Period, French Influence, p. 55. 
Also Gregory Smith, Specimens of Middle Scots, who remarks in his Introduc- 
tion, p. xxxiii : 

" It is more difficult to settle the question of Mod. Sc. indebtedness to French 
in its use of ane. According to Dr Murray, it ' was introduced in literature and 
set speech in imitation of the French, so that the Sc. ane kijng answered to the 
French un roi....The proposition cannot be brought under any of the ordinary 
categories of linguistic imitation, for it implies more than the mere Gallicising 
of native forms. It amounts to the admission of a grammatical interference in 
a quarter least liable to interference of any kind, and to an absolute recognition 
by every writer and scribe of the propriety of an affectation as ingenious as 
uncalled for.' " 



76 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

will never come to a good end.) Complaint of Scotland, p. 167. 
(Quoted by Andrew Cheviot, Proverbs, p. 40.) 

2. Use of " a " before vowels. In many modern dialects the 
tendency is to use "a" indifferently before vowels and consonants, 
although most modern authors seem to adopt the ordinary English 
usage 1 . 

"It's no a boat,... it's a beast." 

"A beast?" 

" Aye, a aggilator." J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 5. 

3. Emphatic " a " as ae, e:. " a " is found as ae when em- 
phatic ; pronounced je: in G. S. W. 

" Sir, my Lord, if yell believe me, there was no ae single 
ane,...that would gie your Lordship a bawbie for auld lang 
syne." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 18. 

1 Examples of this use of " a " before vowels are to be found sometimes in 
literature : 

" Thare he of chance a ymage fand." Legends of the Saints, Alexis, 156. 
" It war a our hie thing 
Agayne the faith to reyff my rychtwis king." 

Blind Harry's Wallace, vm, 639640. 

Lauder of Fountainhall in his Journal (Scot. Hist. Society) scarcely ever 
uses "an" before a vowel. "A ignorant fellow,"-" a old woman," "a emblem," 
etc. His Journal may be taken as a good example of the colloquial in Edinburgh 
in the seventeenth century. Cf. also Pitscottie's History, 1. 158: " Licherie 
and wenus lyfe hes oft a euill end" (Scot. Text Soc. Edition). 

Examples are also to be found in documents written by the less educated, 
e.g. in Town Council Kecords : 

" James of Loche layd the sayd penny in a ymage hand." Peebles Records, 
17 Jan., 1462. 

" Dik Bulle sal gef a aktre." ib., 25 Oct. 1452. 

Such writers frequently use "a" before a consonant where literary men would 
have written "ane": 

"Ilk persoun sail pay a penny on the mercat day." Stirling Records, 12 
March, 1519. 

" The officer of the quarter, a principall man." Aberdeen Records, 12 May, 
1514. 

"Ane suord, a quhinger,...a pair of blak hoiss." ib., 12 Jan., 1572. 

"A consent to transact with my Lord of Fentoun." Stirling Records, Feb., 
1615. 

(Contributed by Kev. K. McKinlay, M.A., Galston.) 






GRAMMAR 77 

The indefinite article is found along with ae (one), when ae 
signifies " solitary," " single " : 

"An auld maid leevin' in a flat wi' an ae lass." Ramsay, 
Reminiscences, c. 5. 

4. Definite article for indefinite article. Scottish usage 
often prefers the definite article to the indefinite: 

"He had gotten into roving company, and had taken the 
drap drink." Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 6. 

" It was an unco thing to bid a mother leave her ain house 
wi'. the tear in her ee." Scott, Antiquary, c. 22. 

So with St. " apiece," originally a pece or a piece, " a " being 
the St. indefinite article, Sc. has the piece : 

" We had a gweed stoot stick the piece." . Alexander, Johnny 
GM, c. 18. 

5. Definite article for pronoun. The definite article is found 
in Scottish where a pronoun is used in standard speech : 

" 'Wanting the hat/ continued my author Kirstie." Stevenson, 
Weir of H., c. 5. 

" ' But I maun see the wife (your wife), Patie/ says she." 
Wilson, Tales of the B., "The Hen-pecked Man." 

6. Definite article in adverbial combinations, (a) The defi- 
nite article takes the place of " to " or " this " in connection with 
"day," " morrow," v night," or their equivalents, to form adverbial 
combinations. " To-day " is the day ; " to-morrow " is the morn ; 
"to-morrow morning " is the morns morning ; "to-morrow night" 
is the morn's nicht; the streen is "last night (yester even) of 
yesterday " : 

" Wear them the day, hizzie." R. L. Stevenson, Weir ofH., c. 6. 

" Ye'll come in sune again, Welum ? " 

" The morn's nicht, gin it be possible." Ian Maclaren, Days 
ofA.L.S., " Drumsheugh's Love Story." 

"But I've tellt him he's to get nae gundy till the morn's 
(to-morrow) morning." J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 1. 



78 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Yon's no a bad show o' aits ye hae in the wast park the 
year, Hillocks." Ian Maclaren, Days of A.L.S., "Triumph in 
Diplomacy." 

" Says she, ' Dawvid was up by the cairts the streen, wusnin 
he ? " Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 19. 

(b) " Just now " is the now or the noo, fta nu:. The now 
is " genteel Scottish " : 

" He cannot leave the shope any earlier the now." J. J. Bell, 
Wee Macgreegor, c. 13. 

" I maun see ." 

"No the noo, John, I think he's sleepin' again." ib. c. 14. 

By analogy, " together " becomes thegither, 'da'gj'Sar : 

"She winna speak a word, they say, for weeks thegither." 
Scott, Antiquary, c. 40. 

7. Intrusive definite article in Sc. The definite article in 
Sc. is used in the following cases where it would be omitted 
in St.: 

(a) Before the names of all diseases : " suffering from the 
headache," " ill of the rheurnatiz." 

(6) Before the names of trades or occupations : " learnin 
the carpenterin." 

(c) Before the names of sciences or departments of learn- 
ing : " He knows the chemistry " ; " The boy is good at the 
Latin." 

(d) Before the names of days, months, seasons, especially 
when any particular circumstance is associated therewith: "He'll 
come at the Martinmas " ; " Wae's my heart, I had been tender 
a' the simmer." 

(e) In phrases, with words like " kirk," " school," " bed," 
" tea " (evening meal) : " My oe (grandchild) is at the school " ; 
" I never gang to the kirk twice a day " ; " It's gey wearisome 
lying in the bed." 

" I forgot aboot that. Weel, I I'll wait an' see what she's 
got in for the tea first." J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor as a Soldier 
of the King. 



CHAPTER II 

NOUNS 

8. Plurals in en. There are several Sc. plurals in en : een, 
in, " eyes " ; shoon, shuin, fyn, Jin or shaen, fen, " shoes " ; hosen, 
'hoizan, " stockings " ; owsen, 'Ausan, " oxen 1 " ; treen, trin, 
" trees " ; turven, r tArvan, " turfs " ; breeken, 'brikan, " breeches." 

" Can this be you, Jenny ? a sight o' you's gude for sair een, 
lass." Scott, Antiquary, c. 26. 

" ' When did ye begin to dander in pink hosen, Mistress 
Elliot ? ' he whispered shyly." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 6. 

(Compare the passage in Daniel iii. 21 : "in their coats, their 
hosen, and their hats.") 

" Tak tent ye dinna o'erdrive the owsen." 

" Ye're e'en come back to Libberton to wait for dead men's 
shoon ! " Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 5. 

" I ate the half o' 't mysel, and rubbet the ither half into 
ma shaen." The Scottish Review, 1908, p. 545. 

Double plurals like shins, breeckens are met with. 

9. Plurals in r. There is a plural of "calf" (O.E. calferu) 
caur, carr, car, ka:r found in Aberdeenshire, Perthshire, W. For- 
farshire, Renfrewshire usage : 

"The caur did haig, the queis low." Jamieson, Popular 
Ballads, I, 286. 

"Bairns manna be followed like carr." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 5. 

Breer, breers, 'briirz, " eyebrows " or " eyelashes," are found 
in Aberdeen and Banff. Childer, the plural of child, so common 
in English and Irish usage, is almost never heard now in Scotland. 

1 The singular " ox " is not common in the Scottish dialect, but is replaced 
by stirk, stjrk; slot, stot; nowt, xiAut ("neat" of Shakespeare, Winter's Tale, 
i. ii. 125: "The steer, the heifer and the calf are all called neat"), etc. Owse, 
AUS is found in the N.E. 



80 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

10. Exceptional plurals. Coo, ku:, "cow," pi. kye, kai 
(O.E. cu, " cow," cy, " cows "). " Kine " is a double plural form, 
ky-en, and is used by Burns in " Auld Rob Morris " : 

" He has gowd in his coffers, he has owsen and kine." 
But the word is now obsolete, if it ever was in common use. 
Probably Burns used it here for the sake of the rhyme. 

11. Nouns expressing time, space, weight, measure, and 
number. Such nouns, when immediately preceded by a cardinal 
numeral, are frequently used without any plural sign in Sc. 
dialect : 

" The powny hasna gane abune thirty mile the day." Scott, 
Antiquary, c. 15. 

12. Singular words treated as plurals. Words like parritch 
"porridge," "pudding," "broth," "brose," take plural pronouns 
and verbs north of the Humber : 

" They'll be unco puir pudding athoot something mair than 
bluid in them." D. Gilmour, Paisley Weavers, c. 5. 

" ' They're gude parritch eneuch/ said Mrs Wilson, ' if ye wad 
but take time to sup them.' " Scott, Old Mortality, c. 5. 

" I doot some o' ye hae taen ower mony whey porridge the 
day." Ramsay, Reminiscences, c. 6. 

13. Spurious singular nouns. " Corpse " was regarded as a 
plural, and a spurious form corp, korp came into common use : 

"They pu'd him up like a deid corp." R. L. Stevenson, 
David Balfour, c. 15. 

(Compare glimp, glfmp for "glimpse" and hoe, ho: for 
"hose.") 

14. Simpler verb form in place of noun derivative. Note 
the common use of the shorter and more direct verb form in 
place of the noun derived from it : e.g. differ, 'djfar for " differ- 
ence " ; len, len for " loan " ; transacks, tran'saks for " transac- 
tions " : 

" ' Weel, I canna see nae differ in her,' returned the first." 
R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 1. 



GRAMMAR 8 1 

" Mony's the body that's hed their gullie i' ye aboot yer bits 
o' transacks." W. Alexander, Johnny GM, c. 23. 

" It's a sang-buik that I want the len' o'." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 23. 

" ' The modiewarts are castin a' up round the foun' (founda- 
tion) o' the hoose, an' they winna be lang there/ answered Jane." 
The Scottish Review, 1908, p. 525. 

" They've been haein' a gay on-cairry (carrying-on) doon at 
the Ward." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 17. 

15. Nouns intimately connected with family life: ation, efn; 
guidman, gyd'man ; guidwife, gyd'waif ; minnie,'mmi; luckie, 
'lAkt ; gudesire, gyd'sair, 'gAtf ar ; tittie, 'titj ; erne, im ; nevoy, 
'nevoi ; oe, o: ; get, get, git ; bairn, bern ; wean, wein ; loon, lun. 

Family connections are known as ation, efn : 

" She lows't the richt gate aboot the minaister an' a' 's ation." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 49. 

The head of the household, or husband, is goodman, guidman, 
gudeman (accented on final syllable). (Compare Scriptural "For 
the goodman is not at home" (Proverbs vii, 19).) The correlative 
is guidwife, " wife " or " lady of the house " : "I haena lived for 
five-and-twenty years without expectin' to get a guidman some 
day." Wilson, Tales B., Willie Wastle's Wife." 

" ' Whist ! whist ! gudewife/ said her husband." Scott, Guy 
Mannering, c. 24. 

Where the gudewife is supposed to be the abler partner, 
dominating the gudeman, she is popularly known as the " gray 
mare " or grey mear : " As he had a golden nag at his door, so 
he had a grey mare in his shop." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 3. 

" Rob has a grey mear in his stable." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 26. 

A John Tamsons man is one who lets his wife rule : " ' The 
deil's in the wife,' said Cuddie, 'd'ye think I am to be John 
Tamson's man, and maistered by a woman a' the days o' my 
life ? ' " Scott, Old Mortality, c. 37. 

" Mother " is found as mither, with diminutive minnie, minny: 

11 But i' my auld minny 's buiks, I hae read jist as muckle as 
that, an' waur too." G. Macdonald, David Elginbrod, I, c. 13. 
G. 6 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" ' But minnie was asking ye/ resumed the lesser querist.' ' 
Scott, Antiquary, c. 26. 

Luckie is used for the " mistress of a family " as well as for a 
grandmother : 

" ' Ay, ay/ exclaimed the mistress of the family. ' Hegh, sirs, 
can this be you, Jenny ? ' (Jenny answers.) ' Ay, ay/ answered 
Luckie Mucklebackit." Scott, Antiquary, c. 26. 

"Grandmother" is grandmither, granny, luckie, luckie-minnie: 

" Speak to your grandmither, Jenny." Scott, Antiquary, c. 26. 

" ' O what was it, grannie ? ' and ' what was it, gude- 

mither ? ' and ' what was it, Luckie Elspeth ? ' asked the 

children, the mother, and the visitor, in one breath." Scott, 

Antiquary, c. 26. 

" Luckie " also used of " the landlady of an inn " : 
" ' No, no/ said the Deacon, ' ye're clean out there, Luckie.' " 
Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 11. 

" Grandfather " is gudesire, grarifaither, luckie-dad : 

"The bits o' bairns, puir things, are wearying to see their 
luckie-dad." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 46. 

" ' Weel spoken, bairns ! ' cried your grand faither." Wilson, 
Tales B., " The Whitsome Tragedy." 

" Before our gudesire gaed into Edinburgh to look after his 
plea." Scott, Antiquary, c. 9. 

" Sister " is colloquially tittie : 

" A bonnie spot o' wark your tittie and you hae made o't." 
Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 25. 

" Uncle " is erne (German oheim, ohm ; O.E. earn, " maternal 
uncle ") : 

" Didna his erne die and gang to his place wi' the name of 
the Bluidy Mackenyie ? " Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 11. 

" Nephew " is nevo, nevoy (French neveu) : 

"If ye didna, your nevoy did." Scott, Antiquary, c. 36. 

"'Div ye mean to tell me/ asked his mistress,... 'that my 

nevo is comin' doon the burnside wi' a leddy ? " W. Cross, 

Disruption, c. 1. 



GRAMMAR 83 

" Grandchild " is oye, oe : 

"And grannies danced with their oyes." Gait , A . of Parish, c. 48. 

"'And,' continued Mrs Butler, 'he can wag his head in a 
pulpit now, neibor Deans, think but of that my ain oe.'" 
Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 9. 

Knave-bairn is a male child (compare German knabe) : 

"Wha could tell whether 'the bonny knave-bairn may not 
come back to claim his ain ? " Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 22. 

Lass-bairn is a female child ; lass, a young unmarried woman : 

" Verra improper o' you, wi' a young lass-bairn, to encourage 
the nichtly veesits o' a young gentleman." G. Macdonald, David 
Elginbrod, I, c. 6. 

Bairns and weans are both used commonly for " children " : 

"There was my daughter's wean, little Eppie Daidle my 
oe, ye ken, Miss Grizel." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 4. 

" Just to tak his meat, and his drink, and his diversion, like 
ony o' the weans." Scott, Antiquary, c. 26. 

But wean has often a contemptuous flavour, less present in 
bairn, so that we have the adjective weanly, " feeble " : 

" ' My bairn ! my bairn ! ' cried the distracted father, * where 
can he be ? ' ' Scott, Guy Mannering,, G. 9. 

"...and plaits rush-swords and grenadier caps for the weans." 
Scott, Antiquary, c. 12. 

" ' Aye/ said Brodie, * paidling in a burn's the ploy for him. 
He's a weanly gowk.' " G. Douglas, H. with Green Shutters, c. 5. 

But bairnly is also used for " childish " : 

" Man, Charlie, it's bairnly to make sic a wark for a bit tig 
on the haffet." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, i, c. 5. 

Get, gett (common gender) is a " child " : 

" ' He was the get of a Kilwinning weaver/ said Craiglands." 
Gait, Sir A. Wylie, m, c. 20. 

" And where's that ill-deedy gett, Giles ? " Scott, Bride of 
Lammermoor, c. 13. 

Loon is " son " or " boy " : 

" An' hedna he Jock Ogg, the gauger's loon, haill twa year 
at it ? " W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 12. 

In Forfar loon is = a " boy baby." A doctor will intimate to 
a parent that the child born to him is a " loon "; i.e. not a girl. 



84 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

16. Familiar masculine or general Personal Terms: body, 
'bodi ; buddy, 'bAdi ; chap, chappie, 't{ api ; creature, 'kretar. 

The term body, bodie or buddy is characteristically Scottish. 
It is used as an indefinite pronoun: "one," Ger. mann, Fr. on. 
It has been defined for us by George Douglas (Brown) in The 
House with the Green Shutters, c. 5 : " In every little Scottish 
community," he says, "there is a distinct type known as the 
bodie. ' What does he do, that man ? ' you may ask, and the 
answer will be, ' Really, I could hardly tell ye what he does 
he's just a bodie.'... The chief occupation of his idle hours (and 
his hours are chiefly idle) is the discussion of his neighbour's 
affairs." It has also been defined for us by Dr William Wallace, 
editor of the Glasgow Herald, in the National Review for October, 
1907 : "As used in the larger cities, it (buddy) is applied good- 
naturedly and not disrespectfully to a man who is not necessarily 
deficient in capacity or even in character, who is indeed as a rule 
somewhat noisily energetic and public-spirited, but who looks 
at everything, and especially every political question, from the 
standpoint of his sect, his class, his trade, or his crotchet ; who 
seldom thinks nationally or impersonally, but almost always 
provincially, if not parochially." 

Body is used as a familiar ending to a name, sometimes with 
a slight indication of contempt, as in " lawyer-body," " minister- 
body": 

" She was a Gordon of Earlswood the oldest stock in Gal- 
loway and brought up to be a lady-body." S. R. Crockett, 
Courtship of Allen Fairley. 

Chappie is used like bodie : 

" They're proposin' byuldin a hoose for a manse to the Free 
Kirk minaister chappie." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 42. 

" He af 'en calls for the letters fan the dog-dirder chappie's 
occupiet." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 38. 

Coof, kyf, is used contemptuously. It is probably a form of 
"cove"; cf. O.E. caf, "bold": 

" Though hundreds worship at his word, 
He's but a coof for a' that." Burns, For A' That. 



GRAMMAR 85 

" ' Me ken or care for him, ye spiritless coof, ye ! ' she replied." 
Wilson, Tales B., " Guidwife of Coldingham." 

Trypal, 'traipal, is a " sloven " : 

" Mair smeddum aboot 'im nor the like o' that gawkie trypal." 
W. Alexander, Johnny GM, c. 10. 

Hempie, 'hempt, is a "rascal," "rogue." Originally one 
destined for the hemp or gallows-rope : 

" This is the very lad Tirl that I raised a summons against 
before the Justices him and another hempie." Scott, St Ronan's 
Well, c. 8. 

Creature, creatur, crater is also used in this same familiar way : 

" Fat's he ? the sin o' a peer nace nyaukit beggar creatur." 
W. Alexander, Johnny GM, c. 21. 

" It's my idea that the creature Dougal will have a good 
action of wrongous imprisonment." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 30. 

" ' Eh ! ye crater ! ' said Robert Falconer, ' ir ye there after 
a' ? " G. Macdonald, Robert Falconer, c. 10. 

Hotch, hotf, is " a big lumbering person " : 

" ' Ou aye,' said he, ' ye great muckle fat hotch o' a decent 
bodie ye I'll gang in and have a dish o' tea wi' ye.'" G. Douglas, 
H. with Green Shutters, c. 21. 

Other familiar terms for "man," "person" or "fellow" are 
billy, 'bilt; callant, 'kalant; callan, 'kalan; cull, kAl; carle, 
karl ; carlie, 'karlj ; chield, chiel, t/il ; chielie, t/ili ; loon, lun ; 
stock, stok ; wight, wprt : 

" I was disturbed with some of the night- walking queans and 
swaggering billies." Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 3. 

" ' As I live by bread,' said Campbell. . .' I never saw sae daft 
a callant.' " Scott, Rob Roy, c. 25. 

" Ye wadna be doing your duty to the callan, if you learnt 
him naething but a jargon o' meaningless gibberish." Cross, 
Disruption, c. 8. 

" ' Na, na,' answered the boy, * he is a queer auld cull.' " Scott, 
St Ronan's Well, c. 30. 

" In the evenings Andrew had recourse to the firesides of the 
gash and knacky carles and carlines of the village." Gait, Sir 
A. Wylie, i, c. 4. 



86 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"An' Lachlan himself, though he be a stiff chiel (difficult 
fellow to manage)." Ian Maclaren, Days of A. L. S., " For Con- 
science' Sake," c. 5. 

" Mains's chiels (employees) wus lowst gin that time." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 40. 

"Gettin' a share o' a gill wi' a cheelie." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 14. 

" That I suld hae been left sae far to mysel' as to invite that 
writer loon till his dinner." Wilson, Tales B., "The Fatal 
Secret." 

" Ga'in was a ' fine stock ' with a fluent and compendious 
power of ' newsin.' " W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 36. 

" Every wight has his weird." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 34. 

"'I wonder what that auld daft beggar carle and our son 
Steenie can be doing out in sic a nicht as this ! ' said Maggie 
Mucklebackit." Scott, Antiquary, c. 36. 

"While Andrew... settled into a little gash carlie." Gait, 
Sir A. Wylie, i, c. 6. 

Buckie, 'bAki, " restless youth " or " mischievous boy " : with 
the stronger form deeviVs or deil's buckie : 

"The huzzy Beenie the jaud Eppie the deil's buckie of a 
callant." Scott, St Ronans Well, c. 2. 

"...That daft buckie, Geordie Wales." Burns, Lines written 
to a Gentleman. Ellisland, 1790. 

Taupie, tawpy, 'taipi, is a contemptuous word for " softy," 
" good for nothing," mostly applied to girls, but also to the other 
sex: 

"An inhaudin unedicat taupie chiel in a kwintra chop." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 35. 

" ' Ye're na to be a tawpy noo,' she went on, endeavouring to 
dry his eyes. ' Ye're to be a man.' " J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, 
c. 5. 

The " loons " are the " masses " as opposed to the " classes " ; 
" simple " as opposed to " gentle." The word is contrasted with 
laird or " proprietor " : 

" The lairds are as bad as the loons." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 26. 

" It's just the laird's command and the loon maun loup." 
Scott, Rob Roy, c. 26. 






GRAMMAR 87 

Waufie, 'waifi ; waf, waf (adjective and noun), is an " idle 
fellow," a " person of no account " : 

"A'll grant ye that the new factor is little better than a 
waufie." Ian Maclaren, Days of A.L. S., " The Country Tyrant." 

" Ilka waf carle in the country has a son and heir." Scott, 
Guy Mannering, c. 39. 

17. Feminine personal terms. Wife, waif, is the equivalent 
of " woman," with a diminutive wifie/WdiSL, " little woman," used 
freely : 

" Excuse a daft wife that loves ye, and that kenned your 
mither." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 8. 

" Meantime two of his congregation, sisters, poor old mutched 
wifies, were going home together." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, 
c. 56. 

Kimmer, 'kimar, is used loosely as a synonym of " woman," 
a " woman-friend " or " girl-friend " (Fr. commere) : 

" I'm saying she was naturally a bonny bit kimmer rather 
than happit up to the nines." J. M. Barrie, The Little Minister, c. 6. 

" She gecked and scorned at my northern speech and habit, 
as her southland leddies and kimmers had done at the boarding- 
school." Scott, Antiquary, c. 33. 

Garlin, 'karljn ; carline, 'karlain, is used of an " elderly 
woman," being the correlative of carle, karl : 

"But what can ail them to bury the auld carlin (a rudas 
wife she was) in the night time ? " Scott, Antiquary ', c. 26. 

Lass is a " young woman," with diminutive lassie and lassock. 
But it also is a general sex term : 

" They brought him tidings that his wife had given birth to 
a daughter; but he only replied, 'Is it so ?...then God's will be 
done. It came with a lass and it will go with a lass.' " Scott, 
Tales of a Grandfather, c. 28. 

(That is, in standard speech, " It (the Scottish crown) came 
with a woman, and it will pass from the Stuarts by a woman.") 

"I was but a lassock when ye cam." S. R. Crockett, Bog 
Myrtle. 

Lad, laid, lad, and lass, las = " sweethearts " ; e.g. " wull ye 
be ma lass ? " 



88 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Lass and woman is the Scottish equivalent for " maid and 
wife " : 

"I... that have waited on her, lass and woman." Keith, 
Indian Uncle, p. 340. (W.) 

Familiar and somewhat contemptuous names for young 
women are cutty, r kAtj ; deemie, 'dimi (diminutive of " dame ") ; 
girzie, 'girzt (diminutive of " Griselda ") ; Tiizzie, 'hiz; ; jaud, 
d3<i:d = "jade"; shilp, J?lp; limmer, 'Ipnar; besom, 'bizam ; 
callants and wenches " boys and girls " : 

" ' The cutty looks weel,' he had said." R. L. Stevenson, Weir 
of H., c. 6. 

" He's ta'en a fancy to yon bit shilp in the barroom o' the 
Red Lion." G. Douglas, H. with Green Shutters, c. 21. 

"That deemie that they said hed the bairn till 'im." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 33. 

" ' I'll leave that for your pairt of it, ye girzie,' said he." 
R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 6. 

" Wear them the day, hizzie." Ib. 

" Na, she's a kind of a handsome jaud a kind o' gypsy." Ib. 

Taupy, tawpy, 'taipi, is commonly applied to a "lazy, foolish 
woman " (Danish taabe and Swedish tap " a simpleton ") : 

" He was at first a farmer lad, but had forgathered with a 
doited tawpy." Gait, A. of Parish, c. 17. 

" I'm in an hour of inspiration, ye upsetting tawpie." R. L. 
Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 6. 

" The lazy taupy butt-a-house maun walk aboot her busi- 
ness." Wilson, Tales B., " Willie Wastle's Wife." 

Hempie, 'hempj, is also applied, to girls, as well as to men : 

" Aye, ye were a hempie o' a lassie, Jean." Ian Maclaren, 
Days ofA.L. S., " Endless Choice." 

18. Familiar terms of quantity. Colloquial Sc. is prolific 
in words signifying quantity, which precede nouns, usually with 
omission of the preposition. One of the commonest is bit, applied 
more strictly to a piece of ground : 

"She... certainly thought... the land a 'very bonnie bit if it 
were better seen to and done to.' " Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 25. 

A bit becomes the equivalent of " some," " a little " : 



GRAMMAR 89 

" A bunchie o' wormit to gi'e 't a bit grip." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 30. 

Bit is freely used as a diminutive : 

" Maybe some bit lassie brocht her copy-buke." Ian Maclaren, 
Brier Bush, " Domsie," c. 1. 

It takes the form bittie, a bittie, a bittock, "a short time, 
space or distance " : 

" Aifter I hed latt'n 'im get oot's breath a bittie, he cam' tee 
won'erfu." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

An augmentative form is " a bonnie bit " : 

" Geordie wud read a bonnie bit." Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, 
" Domsie," c. 2. 

Drap, drap, is used for small portions of liquid : 

"But Mattie gae us baith a drap skimmed milk." Scott, 
Rob Roy, c. 14. 

There is also a diminutive form, drappie : 

" Twa mutchkins o' yill between twa folk is a drappie ower 
little measure." Scott, Redgauntlet, c. 20. 

Other words are jilp, d3flp (used contemptuously) : 
" I can nedder dee wi' a jilp o' treacle bree, nor yet wi' that 
brewery stuff. . . ." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 30. 

A kenning, " a little," " somewhat " : 

" His father was none sa ill a man, though a kenning on the 
wrong side of the law." R. L. Stevenson, David Balfour, c. 9. 

Kneevelick, '&ni:vlik, " round lump," " large piece " ; what 
the kneeve, nieve or " fist " can hold : 

" Mrs Gibb produced an abundant store of cakes and butter 
ready spread, and the cakes placed face to face with several 
* kneevelicks ' of tempting blue cheese." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 2. 

A maitter o', " only," " merely " : 

" A mere trifle a maitter o' twa shillin's or half-a-crown." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 10. 

Note also haet, het ; starn, starn ; starnie, 'starni ; pickle, 
'pjkal, or puckle, 'pAkdl ; tait or tate, tet ; soup, sup (of liquids) ; 
thocht, 9oxt ; curn, curran, kAr^n ; grainy, 'greni : 



90 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" There's naething like a starn gweed maut." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 30. 

"Dead folks may sleep yonder sound enow, but deil haet 
else." Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 3. 

"It struck me she micht be a wee thocht jealous o' the 
lassie." Wilson, Tales B., " Willie Wastle's Wife." 

" So I took to the kist, and out wi' the pickle notes in case 
they should be needed." Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 45. 

" Winna ye hae a starnie jam, Isie I It's grosert-jam." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 73. 

"We hed to lay 'im down upon a puckle strae." W.Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 33. 

" ' There's a curran folk at the back door,' Jean announced 
later." J. M. Barrie, Little Minister, c. 3. 

Gey pickle, gai 'pjkal ; fell puckle, fel 'pAkal ; " a good 
many " ; " quite a little " : 

"A grand farmer he was, wi' land o' his nain, and a gey 
pickle bawbees." G. Douglas, H. with Green Shutters, c. 5. 

" It canna be coals 'at he's wantin' frae the station, for there's 
a fell puckle left." Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, "Domsie," c. 1. 

Tait is originally a " lump of wool or tow " : 

"Like a poor lamb that... leaves a tait of its woo' in every 
Southern bramble." Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 26. 

" ' Heard ye ever the like o' that, Laird ? ' said Saddletree to 
Dumbiedikes, when the counsel had ended his speech. ' There's 
a chield can spin a muckle pirn out of a wee tait of tow ! ' ' 
Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 20. 

Tait, tate is used freely of any small portion : 

" There was some half-fous o' aits, and some taits o' meadow- 
hay left after the burial." Scott, Bride of Lammermoor, c. 7. 

" Och, Lizzie, it was jist a tate the size o' yer nail." J. J. Bell, 
Wee Macgreegor, c. 10. 

" It's an ugly auld pictur ! I dinna like it a wee tate (a little 
bit)." /&., c. 8. 

"A curn or two of Greek would not be amiss." Scott, 
Fortunes of Nigel, c. 27. 



GRAMMAR 9 1 

" They war sayin' he had gotten a curn' o' that ga'ano stuff." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 15. 

" Ah, Thomas ! wadna ye hae a body mak' a grainy fun whiles 
whan it comes o' itsel' like ? " G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 68. 

Hantle, hantl, is used of a " considerable number." (Com- 
pare Danish antal, Dutch aantal, Ger. anzahl : perhaps " hand " 
and " tale ") : 

"There's a hantle bogles about it." Scott, Guy Mannering,c. 1. 

Hantle is also used of quantity = " much," both as an adjec- 
tive and an adverb : 

" Your father has always had a grand business, and I brought 
a hantle money to the house." G. Douglas, H. with Green 
Shutters, c. 14. 

"'It's a hantle easier gettin' a lass than a kirk ony day,' 
says I." S. R. Crockett, Probationer. 

Heap, hip, is also used in the same way : 

" A heap good she's like to get of it." R. L. Stevenson, Weir 
ofH.,c. 5. 

Cairn, kern, kjarn, is " a heap " : 

" Cairns o' them rinkin up upo' the dyke." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 18. 

Rickle, 'nkal ; ruckle, 'rAkal, is a " heap " (used contemp- 
tuously) : 

"There was a rickle o' useless boxes and trunks." Scott, 
Antiquary, c. 9. 

Gowpenfu, 'gAUpanfti, is what can be held in a gowpen or 
gowpin, i.e. with the palms extended in a cup-like fashion : 

" Ow, ay, she brocht him gowpenfu's o' siller." G. Macdonald, 
David Elginbrod, I, c. 13. 

" Left 'goud in goupins' with all those who had the handling 
of it." Gait, Provost, c. 34. 

Nievefu, neavefu, r ni:vfu, is a " handful," cf. kneevelick, p. 89 : 

" Awat ye may tak' a nievefu' on-been miss't." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 11. 

Routh, TAu9, is used for an " abundance " : 

" Ye'll have hair, and routh of hair, a pigtail as thick's my 
arm." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 5. 



92 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Tooshty tuft, is used of an " untidy quantity," " heap of loose 
stuff": 

"Aweel, a' the toosht aboot oor toon (farm) '11 mak' little 
odds." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 6. 

A wheen, a whin, Aiin, Aim " a few " or " a little," often in 
a contemptuous way : 

"That cost me telling twenty daily lees to a wheen idle 
chaps and queans." Scott, Bride of Lammermoor, c. 26. 

" ' Oh/ she would say in weary complaint, ' I just took it to 
break a wheen coals.' " G. Douglas, H. with Green Shutters, c. 4. 

" Sae aff a wheen o' them gaed followin' Rover up the road 
to the moor." Scottish Review, July 23, 1908, "A Black Day." 
(Here there is no contemptuous flavour.) 

"What use has my father for a whin bits o' scarted paper? " 
Scott, Waverley, n, c. 29. 

A wee, wi:, is " a little " : 

" ...Ance I got a wee soupled yestreen, I was' as yauld as an 
eel." Scott, Antiquary, c. 12. 

Note the use of the feck, fek, for " the most part," " the greater 
portion," with or without a qualifying adjective : 

"An ye sat still there the feck o' the aifterneen." W.Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 20. 

"I hae been through France and the Low Countries, and 
a' Poland, and maist feck o' Germany." Scott, Waverley, I, 
c. 36. 

"Ye see the muckle feck o' the. young chaps bed lasses." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 40. 

19. Standards of quantity, etc. Gill, d5$l, J- pint ; mutchkin, 
'mAtJkin, English pint; chappin, 'tfapin, quart; lippie, 'Igpi, 
'lipi, J peck;forpet,forpit, 'forptt, fourth of a peck; firlot, 'fjrlat, 
J- boll ; bow, bowe, bAU, boll or 6 imperial bushels ; chalder, 
'tfaldar, 'tfaidar, tfg:dar, 16 bolls : 

" Gettin' a share o' a gill wi' a cheelie." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 14. 

" Jist gang an' fess a mutchkin mair." G. Macdonald, Robert 
Falconer, c. 5. 



GRAMMAR 93 

"Mistress, I have had the twa ounces o' tea on boiling in 
a chappin o' water for the last twa hoors." Wilson, Tales B., 
"Willie Wastle's Wife." 

" Four lippies gweed mizzour will that dee ? " W. Alex- 
ander, Johnny Gibb, c. 1. 

" Mattie Simpson that wants a forpit or twa o' peers." Scott, 
Rob Roy, c. 14. 

" She had bought a firlot (of meal) selected with great care." 
Cross, Disruption, c. 15. 

" Four bows o' aitmeal, twa bows o' bear." Scott, Old Mor- 
tality, c. 20. 

" Drawing a stipend of eight hundred punds Scots and four 
chalders of victuals." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 43. 

The tappit-hen, 'tapathen, was a measure variously esti- 
mated; sometimes as a quart. The Aberdeen tappit-hen, or 
liquor-jar, holds three magnums or Scots pints : 

"Don't let the tappit-hen scraugh to be emptied." Scott, 
L. of Montr ose, c. 5. 

" Hoo's the tappit-hen ? " G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 66. 

" Their hostess appeared with a huge pewter measuring pot, 
containing at least three English quarts, familiarly denominated 
a tappit-hen, and which, in the language of the hostess, reamed 
with excellent claret." Scott, Waverley, I, c. 11. 

20. Scottish Coinage Terms. Note, pun' note, pAnnot, 
20 shillings (bank issue, and much more popular than the sove- 
reign, equal to the U.S. five dollar gold piece); merk, merk 
(13s. 4d = $3.30) ; pun Scots (of silver = Is. 8d. or 40 c.) ; bawbee, 
'bai'bi = halfpenny = one U.S. cent ; " bawbees " stands for cash 
in general, e.g. " Have ye ony bawbees wi' ye ? " ; boddle or 
bodle, bodl, bodl = one-third of a U.S. cent ; doit, doit, dait = a 
Scottish penny, one-sixth of a U.S. cent; plack, plak = one- 
third of a Scottish penny. 

The plural "pence" was used only for English values; 
"pennies" was applied to the Scots money: 

" ' Ye maun gie me twopence, I'se warrant,' said the woman. 
' Deed no, lucky,' replied Andrew ; ' fools and their siller are soon 



94 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

parted. I'll gie you twal pennies gin ye like to tak it.' " Gait, 
Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 10. 

" Were the like o' me to change a note, wha the deil d'ye 
think wad be sic fides as to gie me charity after that ? " Scott, 
Antiquary, c. 12. 

"My sma' means, whilk are not aboon twenty thousand 
merk." Scott, Waverley, I, c. 36. 

" He had ne'er a doit that didna burn a hole in his pouch." 
Gait, Sir A. Wylie, i, c. 12. 

" It stands me in three hundred, plack and bawbee " (i.e. 
counting minutely). Scott, Black Dwarf, c. 1. 

" They wad hae seen my father's roof tree fa' down and 
smoor me before they would hae gi'en ae boddle apiece to have 
propped it up." Scott, St Ronaris Well, c. 2. 

"Naebody wad trust a bodle to a gaberlunzie." Scott, 
Antiquary, c. 39. 



CHAPTER III 

PRONOUNS 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS 

21. Personal pronouns of the first person. Emphatic "I" 
may be ai as in St., but a is also used. The unemphatic form 
is 9, written a and aw. 

"Am thinking with auld John Knox that ilka scholar is 
something added to the riches of the commonwealth." Ian 
Maclaren, Brier Bush, "Domsie," c. 1. 

"Aw thoch aw had a' my material here." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

"'Aw'm gye an' well used to stickin' to my opeenion,' said 
the meal miller. 'Aw hae seen the Maitland fowk's verdick 
come roon' to mine a hantle deal oftener than mine whurl aboot 
to theirs." S. R. Crockett, Boanerges Simpsons Incumbrance. 

" My " is sometimes represented by o' me (cf. Fr. de moi). 

" I think the Hieland blood o' me warms at thae daft tales." 
Scott, Rob Roy, c. 26. 

" My " is usually pronounced like ma, ma, ma, and is often 
so written : 

" They're ma ain a' ma ain ! " G. Macdonald, Robert Falconer, 
c. 5. 

"Mine" takes the form mines or mines: 

" Mines is no to be mentioned wi' it." R. L. Stevenson, Weir 
o/#.,c. 5. 

"Keep your min' easy; mine's is a clipper." D. Gilmour, 
Gordons Loan, p. 8. 

The accusative " me " is colloquially us or 's. (The first ex- 
tract is a proposal of marriage, which is certainly not to be made 
in the plural): 

" ' Will ye hae's, Bell ?/ demanded Sam'l, glaring at her 
sheepishly." J. M. Barrie, A. L. Idylls, c. 8. 

"'Will ye no gie's a kiss, Dand?' she said, 'I aye likit ye 
fine." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of ff., c. 6. 



96 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



"Our" takes the form wir, wir; wur, WAI*, war, on the 
Northumbrian border, in Glasgow, Ayrshire, Perthshire and 
elsewhere : 

" Maist o' us is that engross't in wir wark." Saltcoats Herald, 
Nov., 1910. 

" But if I took it name, there would be sic talking and laugh- 
ing amang wur neighbours." Wilson, Tales B., " Whitsome 
Tragedy." 

" A guinea and a half, if you please, sir. That is wur usual 
fare." Wilson, Tales B., " The Minister's Daughter." 

" We roastit it an' toastit it an' had it to wur tea." J. J. Bell, 
Wee Macgreegor, c. 13. 

Its usual form is oor, ur; with oors for the predicative use : 

" There's a hantle to look after yet, and we maunna neglec' 
oor wark." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 21. 

"And whaur did ye fa' in wi' this stray lammie o' oors?" 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 21. 

"Us" takes the aspirated forms Tins, hAs; huz, hAz; hiz, hiz, 
and also us yins, thus distinguishing it from us for " me ": t 

" Though it may begin at hus, it canna en' there." W. Alex- 
ander, Johnny Gibb, c. 7. 

" But ye winna persuade me that he did his duty, either to 
himsell or to huz puir dependent creatures." Scott, B. of Lam- 
mermoor, c. 24. 

" I's warran he cares as little about hiz as we care aboot 
him." G. Macdonald, Robert Falconer, c. 4. 

"'Deed, she micht ha'e askit us yins till her pairty!,' said 
John." J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 8. 

22. Personal pronouns of the second person. The colloquial 
use of tu, tu (see Ph. 217 (d)); ton, tu; thoo, $u; tkee, fti; thou, 
$AU, is a distinctive mark of Paisley, which has been locally 
dubbed Seestu, Sistu (Do you see?) because the inhabitants 
were fond of using the phrase as a close to sentences : 

"At length, in a tremulous voice, the childless one asked, 
' Wha's tu in mournin for ? "' D. Gilmour, The Pen Folk, p. 36. 

" Thoo maun gie me something to pit it in, lad." D. Gilmour, 
Paisley Weavers, c. 4. 



GRAMMAR 97 

"Although thee and me thinks 't wrang tae eat bluid." 
D. Gilmour, Paisley Weavers, c. 5.. 

"Thou maunna lea' the deid burd in my keeping tak' it 
wi' thee." D. Gilmour, Gordons Loan, p. 9. 

The usage is also found in Dumfriesshire: 

" ' And wha is't tou's gotten, Wullie, lad ?,' said half a score 
of voices." Scott, Redgauntlet, Letter xn. 

In north-east Aberdeenshire, thoo was once in common use, 
and may still be heard occasionally among old people: 

" If thoo were a thrifty lass, as thoo're a fair." Old Rhyme. 

Cf. also Shetlandic: 

" An sood du try da lek agen, 
Dis twartee lines '11 lat dee ken 

Du sanna pass me." Burgess, Rasmie's Buddie. 

In the Sc. dialect of the Black Isle, Easter Ross, and in the 
Canobie dialect of the Sth. Counties, thoo and thee are still in use: 
Ar thoo get the water, Lugs ? 

" Where did you get the water, Lugs ? " 

"Your" and "you are" take the form yer, jer; yir, jir, jar: 

" Wull ye mak' a prayer for yir auld dominie afore we pairt ?" 
Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, " Domsie," c. 3. 

" When onybody passes ye yer tae say, ' Thank ye.' " J. M. 
Barrie, Thrums, c. 4. 

Your was, yir waa's are used in place of " away " : 

"An come your wa's wi me." Child's Ballads, Battle of 
Harlaw, st. 13, p. 401. 

" Gang ye yer waa's for the aifternoon." Life at a Northern 
University, c. 1. 

23. Personal pronouns of the third person 1 . Burns uses the 
old English form scho, f 0, for " she " : 

1 Highlanders are fond of the feminine pronoun for all genders. The story 
is told of a Highland domestic at Eothesay, who came in from the back yard 
one morning, carrying a rabbit. He explained the situation to his master in 
this fashion: " She was in the garden, an' she saw the rabbit; an' she took a 
stane, an' flung Vr at 'er an' kilt 'er. " 

"Here one of the gillies addressed her in what he had of English, to know 
what 'she' (meaning by that himself) was to do about 'ta sneeshin.'" E. L. 
Stevenson, David Balfour, c. 1. 

'"What the deil, man,' said an old Highland servant belonging to the 

G. 7 



98 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" The gossip keekit in his loof, 
Quo' scho, ' wha lives will see the proof.' " 

Burns, There Was a Lad. (Song.) 

Note the objective form of personal pronoun when two or more 
subjects are mentioned, e.g. "Me and hims awa tae the ploo." 

"Her" is often found as 'er: 

"'Er fader's to be latt'n gae to see his gweed-dother." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 49. 

The old form hit for " it " is in common use where emphatic. 
Hit is a survival of O.E. " hit," neuter singular form of the per- 
sonal pronoun: 

"It would take a heap to revolutionize hit." G. Douglas, 
H. with Green Shutters, c. 10. 

" Paw," said Macgreegor, " I see the zoo." " Ay, thon's hit." 
J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 2. 

To be hit or het " to be the player who is caught and has 
to take his turn at catching the others." 

" I wis playin' wi' Wullie an' the ither laddies at tig, an' I 
never was het!" J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 8. 

It is sometimes used as a preliminary subject in place of 
" there " or a plural form: 

" ' I tried to cry oot,' she said afterwards, ' for I kent 'at it 
were rottans.' " G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 8. 

Note that the order of pronominal objects, direct and indirect, 
when used consecutively, often differs in Sc. from St., the direct 
object coming first. 

" I'll show it ye some of thir days if ye're good." R. L. 
Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 5. 

24. Reflexive pronouns. " Self" takes the form seV or sell', 
masel' mo/sel 1 ; oorsel' ur'sel, w^r'sel; oorseVs, yersell, yersel's ; 
hjz'sel, hissell, herseV, itsel', themsel's, theirsel's: 

family, ' can she no drink after her ain master without washing the cup and 
spilling the ale, and be tamned to her ? ' " Scott, L. of Montrose, c. 4. 

1 The term is used to cover the varied uses with seV or sell, some of them 
differing from the standard usage with " self " : e.g. " I've hurt mys'l " (ordinary 
reflexive) ; " I've hurt ma'sel " (emphatic reflexive) ; "I did it ma'sel' " (emphatic 
nominative) ; " I did it ma'sel " (e.g. " by myself"). Compare the last with the 
use of lane (see par. 25) ; "I did it my lane." This is an adverbial use. 






GRAMMAR 99 

" A' mind gettin' ma paiks for birdnestin' masel'." Ian Mac- 
laren, Brier Bush, "Domsie," c. 1* 

" Weel, ye see, sir, your college is a great expense to heumble 
fowk like oorsel's." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 79. 

YourseV or yersel' is the form used with singular "you"; 
yoursel's with plural " you " : 

"But I'll appel to yersel', Jinse." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 14. 

" Put out the double moulds, and e'en show yoursel's to your 
beds." Scott, St Ronans Well, c. 28. 

" He couldna murder the twa o' them hissel'." G. Macdonald, 
Settlement, p. 165. (W.) 

" That hour had been the last of hursel'." S. R. Crockett, 
Raiders, c. 40. (W.) 

" But it cam' o' 'tsel'." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 58. 

" His ain dear Annie and her two sisters had to taigle home 
by theirselves like a string of green geese." R. L. Stevenson, 
David Balfour, c. 30. 

Note the form nainsell, nemsel (ownself ), specially common 
on the Highland border: 

"Ye's hae as mickle o' mine to your nainsel' as '11 clear 
Mrs Forbes." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 89. 

Ainsel is the usual Scottish form of "ownself": 

"I'll show an elder in Yarrow Kirk, ony Sabbath atween 
this and Christmas, that shall outmanner your ainsel'." Wilson, 
Nodes Ambro., c. 14. 

The sell o't is sometimes used for " itself " : 

" Kirkcaldy, the sell o't, is langer than ony town in England." 
Scott, Rob Roy, c. 14. 

So also the sell o' ye for "yourself": 

" I ken nae friend he has in the world that's been sae like a 
father to him as the sell o' ye, neibor Deans." Scott, H. of 
Midlothian, c. 9. 

Murray lays down this distinction in his Dialect of the Southern 
Counties of Scotland (p. 197): 

"In the plural there is a double form: oor-sel, yoor-sel, 
thair-sel, are used when the idea is collective : oor-sels, yoor-sels, 

72 



100 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

thair-sels, when the idea is segregate. Thus, ' Wey-11 dui'd oorsel; 
Ye maun keip thyr be thair sel.' But ' Gang awa' yer twa sels.' " 

25. Use of pronoun with "lane" len, " alone." The pronoun- 
adjectives my, yir, his, her, its are used with lane to make the 
equivalent of " alone." Oor, yir, their, are used with lanes, but 
oftener with lane. Sometimes the prefix lee, lii, and the adjec- 
tive leeful, 'liifo, or leaful are added for emphasis: 

" So being my leeful lane with the dead body." Gait, Steam- 
boat, c. 13. 

" So 'at we micht hae a kin' o' a bit parlour like, or rather 
a roomie 'at ony o' us micht retire till for a bit, gin we wanted 
to be oor lanes." G. Macdonald, David Elginbrod, i, c. 12. 

" A sturdy brat that has been rinning its lane for mair than 
sax weeks." Gait, Ayrshire Legatees, c. 5. 

" Nae lass gaed hame her lane." Taylor, Poems, p. 93. (W.) 

The indefinite pronoun "a body" takes the form their lane: 

" What a time o' nicht is this to keep a body to, waiting and 
fretting on o' ye, their lane ? " Wilson, Tales B., " Hen-pecked Man." 

Note the phrase her lanesome " alone " : 

"She'll shin be walkin' her lanesome wull ye no', honey?" 
J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 2. 

Note, however, the forms him lane, itlane and them lanes: 

"I reckon he micht hae thocht lang there, a' him lane." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 53. 

" There's nane (no poetry) 
That gies sic great insight to me 

As yours itlane." 
Letter to K. Fergusson, Perth Magazine, 1773. 

" Till the verry lasses are not to be lippent out them lanes." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 53. 

Note the Aberdeenshire form, their leens, $jr linz: 

"The Presbytery's ill eneuch their leens." W. Alexander 
Johnny Gibb, c. 18. 

By... lane is the predicative form: 

" Robes and foot-mantles that wad hae stude by their lane 
wi' gold brocade." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 4. 

" Is he by his lane ? " S. R. Crockett, Men of the Moss Hags, c. 4. 






GRAMMAR 101 

26. Interrogative pronouns. "Who" = wha, AMI:, AIQI; whae, 
Aie:; fa, fa: (Northern). 

"'Folks says sae,' replied the bard, 'Wha says sae?' she 
pursued/' R. L. Stevenson, Weir ofH., c. 6. 

"'What mistress do I forget? whae's that?' she pursued." 
Scott, Rob Roy, c. 6. 

" Fa wud ken fat ye wud be at ! " W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 16. 

The accusative form is wham: 

"Wham sal I lippen, O Lord, wham but thee?" H. P. 
Cameron, Sc. version of the Imitatio Christi, c. 45. 

But in ordinary dialect no change is made for the accusative. 

The possessive form is whas(e\ MCLIZ, AIQ:Z, Aie:z. In place 
of the possessive a periphrasis is common : 

Whas is this? = " Whose is this?" 

Wha is aught the wean ? = "Whose is the child ? " Wha be- 
langs this hoose? = " Whose house is this ? " 

"Which" takes the forms whilk, A\{lk; quhilk (archaic); 
filk, ftfk; full, fAl (Aberdeen). 

"'An' filk o' them wud be warst likein?' inquired Mains." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 23. 

The form whit yin = " which " is very common : " Whit yin 
will ye tak ? " 

"What" takes forms whit, AVjt; fat, fat (Northern): 

'"Maw, whit's the name o' thon spotit yin?' cried Macgreegor." 
J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 2. 

" An' fat ither lessons wud ye like to tak ? " W. Alexander, 
Johnny' Gibb, c. 15. 

Note the forms whatten, 'Aiatan, whatten a, whatna, what'n, 
fatten (Northern) ; all worn-down forms of " what kind of ? " : 

" Whatna hummeldoddie o' a mutch hae ye gotten ? " Ramsay. 
Reminiscences, c. 4. 

" But whaur will ye be the morn, and in whatten horror o' 
the fearsome tempest?" R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 8. 

" When it was announced that Mr Thomas Thomson was 
dead, an Aberdeen friend of the family asked, ' Fatten Thamas 
Tamson?'" Ramsay, Reminiscences, c. 5. 



102 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

27. Relative pronouns. That^at, Sat; 'a,at, at; ',t. The 
idiomatic relative pronoun in Sc. is Ma, taking the forms 'at, 
't, and often being omitted even when nominative of a clause : 

" My Maggie's no ane 'at needs luikin' efter." G. Macdonald, 
David Elginbrod, I, c. 6. 

" Yon's a snippit horsie 't was i' the secont pair yon young 
beastie." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 15. 

The relative is sometimes omitted along with the auxiliary 
have: 

"There's no mair than twa acre seen the ploo." Ian Mac- 
laren, Days of A.L.S., " Milton's Conversion." 

An idiomatic possessive for this relative is got by adding 
"his," "her" or equivalents: 

" That's the man 'at's hoose was brunt." 

Wha, whae, quha, fa, and oblique forms. The dialect forms 
of "who," wha, fa (Northern) are used as relative pronouns 
(masc. and fern.) in rhetorical prose and in poetry. 

" Scots, wha hae wi' Wallace bled." Burns. 

W ha and wham are not, however, modernisms, for they occur 
in the forms quha and quham frequently in Middle Scots : 
" (He) hid his blisfull glorious ene 
To se quham angellis had delyt." 

Dunbar. 

" Ane hasty hensure callit Hary 
Quha wes ane archer heynd." 

Chryst's Kirk. 

But quha and quham, as relatives, never passed into popular 
speech. The relative is always "that," " 'at." In Middle Sc. quha 
was often used for " he who " or " they who": in modern speech 
= " him that " or " them that." " Them that fin's, keeps." 

Oblique cases, whase, wham, are found in poetry and prose, 
especially where tinctured by biblical phraseology: 

"The Holy Ghost., whase temple we sud be, is wranged 
forby." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 85. 

" Scots, wham Bruce has aften led." Burns. 

The final m of the accusative is nearly always omitted in 
modern dialect usage. 



GRAMMAR 103 



Whilk, quhilk, filk, A^lk, f t lk. 

The neuter of this relative takes the forms whilk, quhilk, filk 
(Aberdeen) and whuch ("fancy" Scotch): 

"To ony body o' whuch they war jined members." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 68. 

'"They ca' them,' said Mr Jarvie, in a whisper, ' Daoine 
Schie, whilk signifies, as I understand, " men of peace." ' Scott, 
Rob Roy, c. 28. 

" And I tried to gie birth till a sang the quhilk, like Jove, 
I conceived i' my heid last nicht." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, 
c. 84. 



28. Ilk, tlk; ilkin, 'llkgn, as pronouns. 

Ilk for " every one," used as a pronoun, is rarely found sepa- 
rately, without ane. Ramsay in his Reminiscences, c. 3, quotes 
the toast: 

" May we a' be canty an' cosy, 
An' ilk hae a wife in his bosy." 

Murray, Oxford Dictionary, under " Ilk," mentions ilkin as 
in modern Scottish a frequent pronunciation of ilkane: 
" Take ilkin a dog wi' ye." 

Ilk, meaning " same," is found in the phrase " of that ilk " 
(proprietor of the estate from which the name has been taken, 
or vice versa): 

"Young Earncliff, 'of that ilk,' had lately come of age." 
Scott, Black Dwarf, c. 1. 

29. Indefinite pronouns. Ane, en, j^n, a body, 9 'bodi, or 
'bAdi; onybody, 'onibodi; a body, naebody, 'nebodi. The 

indefinite pronoun " one " takes the form ane, en, j^n : 

" Ane canna expect to carry about the Saut Market at his 

tail." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 34. 

Note the plural " their " in association with ane : 

" Eh, sirs ! yon's a awfu' sight, and yet ane canna keep their 

een aff frae it." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 17. 
The common indefinite term is a body: 



104 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Weel, weel, a body canna help a bit idle thocht rinnin i' 
their heid." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 47. 
" Gin a body meet a body 
Comin' through the rye, 
Gin a body kiss a body 
Need a body cry ? " Popular Song. 

"Anybody" is onybody: 

" I might grane my heart out or onybody wad gie me either 
a bane or a bodle." Scott, Antiquary, c. 12. 

" Everybody" is a'body (a' = "all"), 'aibodi, r Q:bodi: 
" Little wonder if a'body's talking, when ye make a'body ye're 
confidants." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 9. 
"Nobody" is naebody: 

" Naebody got onything by him, and mony lost." Ramsay, 
Reminiscences, c. 2. 

30. Equivalents of " anything," " nothing." 

" Anything," " aught," are usually represented by ocht, aucht, 
oxt, axt, although onything is also in use: 

" She whiles fetches ocht that there may be for us." S. R. 
Crockett, The Tutor of Curlywee. 

" Well ! weel ! I didna mean onything." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 2. 

Of ocht, a stronger form is aucht or ocht (anything whatever) : 

" Johnny got something very like crusty, and said he ' kent 
nedder aucht nor ocht aboot it.'" W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, 
c. 6. 

"Anything whatever" may also be rendered ocht or flee 
(Aberdeen): 

" There's nae occasion for you to say ocht or flee." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 36. 

Naething is the Sc. equivalent of " nothing ": 

" Naething should be done in haste but gripping fleas." Sc. 
Proverb (A. Cheviot, p. 261). 

Not a haet is the equivalent of " nothing " : 

" There's not a haet that happens at the Gourlays but she 
clypes." G. Douglas, H. with Green Shutters, c. 21. 



CHAPTER IV 



ADJECTIVES 



31. Cardinal numerals. 



ane, en, jm, jftn 

twa, twa:, twg:; twae, 

twe: 
thrie, 9ri: 
fower, r fAuar 
fyve, faiv 
sax, saks 
seeven, 'sivan ; saiven, 

'sevan 
aucht, axt; aicht, ext 



ten, ten 

eleeven, a'livan 
twal, twal 
thretteen, '9retin 
fowrteen, 'fAurtin 
fyfteen, 'f^ftm 
sax teen 
seeventeen 
auchteen 
nineteen 
twenty, 'tw^nti 



thretty, ' 
forty, 'forti 
fifty, 'ftfti 
saxty, 'sakst; 
seeventy, 'sivntj, 

'sevantj 

auchty, 'axtj, 'extj 
ninety, 'naintf 
hunner, 'huncfer 
thoosand, f 9u:zand, 

Ousnt 



nine, nain 

32. Idiomatic uses of cardinals. Ae, e:, or yae, je: (one), is 
the form of the cardinal before a noun: 

" It canna be but that in the life 3^6 lead ye suld get a Jed- 
dart cast ae day suner or later." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 36. 

" If it's sae graun' to listen to yae minister on Sabbath, what 
maun it no' be to hear a dizzen a' at yince?" S. R. Crockett, 
Trial for License by the Presbytery of Pittscottie. 

The tae is used for " the one." Here the ending of the O.E. 
neuter form of the definite article (demonstrative) survives, at- 
tached to the second word (the tae = " that ae"). See Ph. 217 (e). 

"The tae half o' the gillies winna ken." Scott, Rob Roy, 
c. 34. 

Twa three is a phrase implying "some," "a few": 

" Atweesh the shou'ders o' twa three o' them." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 18. 

33. Idiomatic compounds and phrases formed with cardinal 
numerals. " Twelvemonth " is toivmon, towmond, towmont, 



W. 



" Hoot, I haena been in Aberdeen this three towmons." 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 27. 



106 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Twal hours, twal u:rz, is the midday meal or dinner; four- 
hours, fAur u:rz, is the afternoon meal or tea: 

" I thought ye would hae had that o'er by twal hours." Gait, 
Sir A. Wylie, i, c. 10. 

" So I'll thank ye to get me a mutchkin of strong yill and a 
cooky, which will baith serve me for fourhours and supper." Ib., 
c. 12. 

Twosome, threesome, foursome, combinations of two, three,, or 
four persons, e.g. players at golf. In a " Scotch foursome " two 
players have one ball against the other two players, and strike 
it in turn. 

34. Ordinal numerals. The terminal -t after cardinals takes 
the place of -th in ordinary dialect: 

" Ye ken he's in the foort class." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, 
c. 10. 

"Syne he read the twenty-third and fourt psalms." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 85. 

"The places is to be set aboot the twenty-foift." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 34. 

" ' The boady of the saxt,' pursued Kirstie, ' wi' his head 
smashed like a hazelnit.'" R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 5. 

" . . .and begud, or ever I kent, to sing the hunner and saivent 
psalm." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 45. 

35. Uses and forms of " this," " these." " This " is sometimes 
used as a plural: 

"That self sam ministeris: this speichis: this werrien": 
Spalding's Historie (17th century). 

Also in modern use in the N.E. : 

" I'll knock aff some o' that loons' heids." " This twa three 
notes." Greig, Mains s Wooing. 

"These" is thir (O.N. %eir\ found in M.E. as &ir, for): 

" ' pir wurdes,' he sayd, ' er all in vayne.' " Death ofSt Andrew. 

"'Thir kittle times will drive the wisest o' us daft/ said Niel 
Blane." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 19. 

But " these " is sometimes thae: 

" They hae been a sad changed family since thae rough tim.es 
began." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 36. 



GRAMMAR 107 

36. Uses and forms of "that," "those." "That" is yon, thon: 

"'Yon divot 'at ye flang aff o' Luckie Lapp's riggin/ said 
Curly, ' cam richt o' the back o' my heid.' " G. Macdonald, A lee 
Forbes, c. 20. 

"Thon taiblet's jist fu' o' nits." J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 1. 

"Those" is thae: 

"'Upon my conscience, Rose/ ejaculated the Baron, 'the 
gratitude o' thae dumb brutes, and of that puir innocent, brings 
the tears into my auld een.'" Scott, Waverley, n, c. 35. 

"Are there really folk that do thae kind o' jobs for siller?" 
Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 30. 

That is found in place of the plural " those " (a North country 
idiom): 

" To mizzour aff some o' that bits o' places." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 30. 

"Keep awa' fae the edges o' that ooncanny banks." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 5. 

"Those" takes the form them when used pronominally: 

"Them that buys beef buys banes, as the aul' by- word says." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 25. 



37. Indefinite adjectives. " Other " is ither, 'i$ar ; tither, 
'titter. The tither, the tother, Ua 'tA^ar are used for "the other" : 

" Ance I thocht to gang across to tither side o' the Queens- 
ferry wi' some ither folks to a fair." Ramsay, Reminiscences, c. 5. 

"The probang we had the tither nicht." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 32. 

Note the combination "the tane or the tither," "the one or 
the other " : 

" It was the tane or the tither o' them, I am sure, and it maks 
na muckle matter whilk." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 11. 

The combination tane... tother is also used: 

" And the 'did promise and vow' of the tane were yokit to the 
end o' the tother." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 37. 

The combination tae... ither is also found: here the use is 
adjectival, not pronominal : 

" I'se warrant it was the tae half o' her fee and bountith, for 



108 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

she wanted the ither half on pinners and pearlings." Scott, Old 
Mortality, c. 14. 

38. Equivalents of " every," " each." " Every " or " each " is 
ilk, ilka: 

" Ilk lass takes her leglin, and hies her away." Jane Elliott, 
Flowers of the Forest (Song). 

"Ilka land has its ain land law." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 28. 

"That will be just five-and-threepence to ilka ane o' us, ye 
ken." Scott, Antiquary, c. 16. 

" In ilka-day meals, I am obligated to hae a regard for fru- 
gality." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 30. 

" What did ye do with your ilka-days claise (everyday clothes) 
yesterday?" Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 15. 

"Every" is akin, "aikra, or ir a:kain: 

" Wi a'kin kind of things." Child's Ballads, Lady Maisry, 
st. 2, p. 128. 

The phrase, the piece, takes the place of " each " (used pro- 
nominally) : 

" We hed a gweed stoot stick the piece." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 18. 

" Each " as a pronoun or its equivalent is not found collo- 
quially before "other" (ither) after verbs: 

" I thocht we understood ither on that matter." Gilmour, 
Pen Folk, c. 8. 

39. Uses of " severals," " antrin" " orra" 
"Several," 'sevralz, takes a plural in -s: 

" There's severals '11 hae to gae yet." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 30. 

"Occasional" is antrin, 'antrin ; tantrin, 'tantr^n; antrant, 
'antrant : 

" Pop the proverb in yer pooch 
An tak an antrin read." 

T. W. Patterson, Auld Saws. 
" Extra " or " odd " is orra, r ora : 

"Sanders was little better than an 'orra man' and Sam'l 
was a weaver." J. M. Barrie, A. L. Idylls, c. 8. 



GRAMMAR 109 

" Had a whin kegs o' brandy in them at an orra time." Scott, 
Guy Mannering, c. 9. 

40. Forms of "such." "Such" is sic, sjk; siccan, 'sjkan; 
sich ("genteel Sc."), sitf; siclike, 's^klaik, siccan-like: 

"Sic a man as thou wad be, draw thee to sic companie." 
A. Cheviot, Proverbs, p. 298. 

" And siccan a breed o' cattle is not in any laird's land in 
Scotland." Scott, Waverley, I, c. 36. 

"That lady, holding up her hands, exclaimed, 'Sich vul- 
garity.'" J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 13. 

'"I like na siccan work/ said some." S. R. Crockett, Accepted 
of the Beasts. 

" Such " in the form sic, siclike, is sometimes used without 
a following noun: 

"I could hae carried twa sic then." Scott, Antiquary, c. 33. 

" I wonder how ye can be fashed wi' siclike." Gait, Sir A. 
Wylie, I, c. 18. 

Siclike may follow its noun: 

"They're forced... to bide about the Broch, or some gate 
siclike (method of that kind)." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, 
c. 14. 

" Such as " is usually represented by " the like o'": 

" Fan the like o' 'im's amo' them (when such as he are among 
them)." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 23. 

41. Uses of "pickle," "puckle," "mair" "mae," "mickle," 
<( muckle." "Some" or "a few" is sometimes represented by 
puckles: 

" Nane but puckles o' the gentry gets 't deen in ae Sunday." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 16. 

A puckle, pAkl, or a pickle, p^kl, is used of "a few," both for 
quantity and number: 

" The laird has a puckle fine stirks i' the Upper Holm park." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 11. 

"A pickle's no missed in a mickle." A. Cheviot, Pro- 
verbs, 22. 

" More " is mair, me:r, or mae, me:, mair being originally 
of quantity and mae of number: 



110 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 






"And what mair me than another?" Wilson, Tales B., 
" Roger Goldie's Narrative." 

Mickle, muckle, meikle are all forms of " much ": 

" Muckle coin, muckle care." A. Cheviot, Proverbs, p. 254. 

" I couldna hae thought he would hae done so meikle for me 
already." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 25. 

Consequently the proverb as quoted, " Many a mickle makes 
a muckle" is tautological nonsense. The proper rendering is 
" Mony a pickle makes a mickle." 

42. Some common comparatives and superlatives. The com- 
parative of ill is waur (worse), wa:r : 

" I maun gae and get Rashleigh out o' the town afore waur 
comes o' it." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 25. 

The superlative of ill is warst, warst, wArst : 

" Do you think that folk wad expec' onything o' me gin the 
warst came to the warst?" G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 4. 

Muckle (''much" or "great") takes the comparative and 
superlative forms, muckler, mucklest. 

" Muckler sooms to them that it wouldna be easy to uplift 
it fae again." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 47. 

The form mae ("moe" of Shakespeare's "Sing no moe ditties, 
sing no moe ") is in use: 

" Sal-alkali o' Midge-tail clippings, 

And mony mae." Burns, Death and Doctor Hornbook. 

" I might hae broken my neck but troth it was in a venture, 
mae ways nor ane." Scott, Waverley, n, c. 30. 

"Later," "latter" is hinner, 'hjncfer, hint, hint: 

"There's a heep o' judgments atween this an' the hinner 
en'." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 60. 

" It happened at the hint end o' hervest " (Sth.). 

"Latest," "last" is hinmost, 'hjnmast: 

"My father's hinmost words to me was, 'It's time eneuch to 
greet, laddie, when ye see the aurora borealis.'" J. M. Barrie, 
The Little Minister, c. 26. 

" Lowest " is nethmost (neth = " beneath "): 

"Ye've keepit me sittin wytein ye till the vera nethmost 
shall o' the lamp's dry." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 14. 



GRAMMAR 111 

" Uppermost " is boonmost or bummost (boon, bune = " above "), 
'bynmast : 

"'O,' quo* the boonmost, Tve got a het skin.'" Chambers, 
Popular Rhymes, p. 33. (W.) 

Also eemest, umist, yimost, 'imast, 'jimast, O.E. ymest, 
Gothic auhumists: 

" Three feet eemist, cauld an deed, 
Twa feet nethmest, flesh an bleed." 

Gregor, Folk-Lore (1881, p. 79). 
'* Innermost " is benmost, 'benmast : 

" While frighted rattons backward leuk, 
And seek the benmost bore." Burns, Jolly Beggars. 

43. Free use of "-est." The termination -est for the super- 
lative of adjectives is used more freely in Scottish dialect than 
the standard usage allows. A phrase like, " An incident of the 
most extraordinary kind happened," would be rendered, "The 
awfu'estlike thing happened." 

" Ye wad spoil the maist natural and beautifaest head o' hair 
in a' Freeport." Scott, Antiquary, c. 10. 

44. Special comparative uses. Auld and young are used in 
the sense of " eldest," "youngest" (Wright, Grammar, p. 269). 
He compares this usage with auld = "first," "best," found in East 
Anglia, especially in the vocabulary of bowls and other games. 

45. Some intensive forms = " very." The adjective "gay," 
usually in the forms gey, gai, geyan, 'gaian, or gye an, is freely 
used to modify or intensify: 

"'Ay,' replied Andrew, 'they're gay and heigh.'" Gait, Sir 
A. Wylie, I, c. 13. 

"Lily's juist ower saft-hearted, and she hes a gey lot o' 
trimmies tae deal wi'." Ian Maclaren, Days of A. L. S., "A 
Servant Lass," c. 1. 

" My God, aye, it's a geyan pity o' me." G. Douglas, House 
with Green Shutters, c. 12. 

Braw and is sometimes used in the same way: 

" That loft above the rafters, thought the provident Wilson, 
will come in braw and handy for storing things." G. Douglas, 
H. with Green Shutters, c. 10. 



CHAPTER V 

VERBS 

46. Inflections of the Present Tense Indicative. In ordinary 
speech the termination -s is sometimes added to the 1st pers. 
sing., especially of habitual action: or when the present is used 
for a dramatic past: or when a relative pronoun is the subject 
of the verb : 

" I rises ilka day at sax." Murray's Dialect of the Sth. Coun- 
ties, p. 214. 

" Aa hears a reis'le at the doar an' thynks aa, quhat can that 
bey." Ibid. 

"I heard the clatter o' them an' throws on my waistcoat." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 18. 
" It's me at comes first." 

Occasional examples are found in Middle Sc.: 
" Quhilkis I obleissis me to redelevyr." Stirling Records,I638. 
The St. termination -t is not found in the 2nd pers. sing, 
pres. indie.; e.g. thou will, thou- sings, thou's for "thou wilt," 
"thou sing'st," "thou hast": 

" Thou'll break my heart, thou bonie bird, 

That sings upon the bough." Burns, Bonie Doon. 
" Wee, modest, crimson-tipped flow'r, 
Thou's (hast) met me in an evil hour." 

Burns, To a Mountain Daisy. 

With noun subjects, not pronouns, the verb has -s in the 
plural pres. indie.: 

" Yet he downa gang to rest, for his heart is in a flame, 
To meet his bonnie lassie when the kye comes hame." 

James Hogg (Song). 

But the pronouns we, ye, they, are followed by the uninflected 
form as in standard usage, unless separated from the verb by 
intervening words: 

You anes a' says that. 

You at comes last, jist gets the same. 

It's his at kens fine. 



GRAMMAR 113 

47. Note the idiom common in Mid and Sth. Sc. 

the're = there is, 
they wur = there was. 

" ! Paw, there a wee doug ootbye, an its worryin' my hat." 
J. J. Bell, W ee Macgreegor, c. 10. 

Dhay wur nay pailinz, yee see. 
" There was no fence, you see." 

Wilson's Lowland Scotch, p. 123. 

48. Marks of the preterit in weak verbs. The past tense 
indie, takes -it, -et, or -t for all numbers and persons 1 , but see 
Ph. 17andGr. App. D: 

"Dinna mind me, Paitrick, for a' expeckit this." Ian 
Maclaren, Brier Bush, "Doctor of Old School," c. 4. 

" He juist nippet up his verbs... First in the Humanity, and 
first in the Greek, sweepit the field." Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, 
" Domsie," c. 2. 

49. The present participle and gerund. The present parti- 
ciple used to end in an(d): 

" Upon Grene Lynton they lyghted dowyn, 
Styrande many a stage." 

Child's Ballads, Battle of Otterburn, p. 387. 
"An' ding me na by, i' yer bleezan torne." Psalm vi. 1, 
P. H. Waddell's Translation. 

The Participial termination "an(d)" and the Gerund ending 
in yng, yne, ene were confused in most of the Sc. dialects after 
the sixteenth century and are now written in, in, an. In the 
dialects of the Sth. Counties and Caithness, the distinction is 
still maintained. 

" Thay war dansand aa thruw uther (durch einander) an' syc 
dansm' aa never saa afuore ; hey beguid a-greitm, but feint o' 
eane ksennd quhat hey was gYQitand for; syc ongangm's as yr gatm' 
on yonder." Murray, Dialect of the Southern Counties, p. 211. 

1 The connecting vowel is dropped when the verb ends in any consonant 
except t, p, k, d, b, g. After an accented vowel d (instead of t) is more common 
in the Mid and Sth. dialects as also after a liquid or nasal. 

G. 8 



1 1 4 MANUAL OF MODEKN SCOTS 

" He's fond o' gutterin aboot." 
" He's aye gutteran aboot." 

Warrack, Scots Dialect Dictionary, Introduction, p. 21, and 
Ph. 54. 

50. Use of the progressive form. The progressive form of 
the verb, first person sing., formed with the verb " to be " and the 
present participle, is used colloquially in making deliberate state- 
ments, where standard usage employs the simple verb: 

" ' My feth, sir,' said Archy, ' I'm dootin' that it's sic exercise 
as them that's engaged in't '11 no like vera weel.'" Wilson, 
Tales B., " Blacksmith of Plumtree." 

" ' Ye'll have ye're ups and downs like me, I'm thinking,' he 
observed." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 6. 

A free use of this form of verb is a mark of Highland speech, 
where there is a flavour of deliberateness : 

" I was never knowing such a girl, so honest and beautiful." 
R. L. Stevenson, David Balfour, c. 21. 

" I was to be carrying them their meat in the middle night." 
Ibid. 

51. The use of " on," " ohn " with past participle or gerund. 
The past participle of verbs is used with on, ohn (Northern Sc. 
only) to signify lack, deprivation or omission: e.g. ohnbeen, onhed, 
ongrutten: 

"I'll jist need to gang to my prayers to haud me ohnbeen 1 
angry wi' ane o' the Lord's bairns." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, 
c. 44. 

" I'm nae responsible to gae afore Sir Simon onhed my papers 
upo' me." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 42. 

" I cudna 'a haud'n up my heid, Tarn, nor been ongrutt'n " 
(on + p. part, of greet, to weep). W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 16. 

This combination with on 2 is also common in Aberdeenshire 
usage with the gerund. 

" Ye'll nae gyang on tellin's." 

1 The prefix on, oon, is simply the Eng. un, and is not derived from the 
German ohne. George Macdonald's spelling is misleading. In Early and Middle Sc. 
it is quite common, e.g. Blind Harry's Wallace, vn, 1228 : " Onchangit hors 
throuch out the land thai rid." 

2 This infinitive (or gerund) in ing (an) maybe heard in N.E. Scotland after 



GRAMMAR 115 

So in Mid. Sc.: 

" Sa mony as the hot wald hauld on drawning thame sellffis." 
Pitscottie, Chronicles of Scotland, S.T.S. Ed. II, 122. 

52. Special negative forms. Note the negative -na (not), na 
and ne, used with verbs; winna, 'w^n^a (will not), sanna, 'sanna 
(shall not), canna, 'kan??a (cannot), maunna, 'manna (must 
not), dinna, 'd^nna (do not), daurna, 'dairna (dare not), sudna, 
'sAdna (should not), binna, 'bjnTia (be not), haena, 'hena (have 
not), comesna, 'kAmzna (comes not), downa, 'dAuna, etc. : 

" I ken naebody but my brother, Monkbarns, himsell wad gae 
through the like o' 't, if indeed it binna you, Mr Lovell." Scott, 
Antiquary, c. 11. 

" Yet still she blushed, and frowning cried, ' Na, na, it winna 
do; I canna, canna, winna, winna, mauna buckle to.'" Popular 
.Song, " Within a Mile of Edinburgh Town." 

" I couldna dee less nor offer to come wi' 'im." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 46. 

Downa do is used of a refusal: 

"But downa do comes o'er me now, 
And, oh, I find it sairly." 

Burns, The Deuk's Dang O'er my Daddie. 

In Aberdeenshire -na sometimes takes the form -nin with 
am, 'amnin, wus, 'wAznjn, div, 'divnjn, mith, 'miGnjn, used 
interrogatively (see "be," "do," "might"). 

53. Auxiliary verbs. Forms and uses of " do " (O.E. don). I, 
we, you, they, dae, de:, du, d0:, div, djv, dinna, 'djn??a, divna, 
r dvna, divnin, 'dtvntn: 

Thou, he, she, it, dis, djz ; disna, 'dfzna. 

11 And dae they feed ye tae ? " H. Maclaine, M. F. the P., p. 21. 

" I divna ken wha's till preach." Ramsay, Reminiscences, c. 6. 

on or ohn, but it is quite certainly an imitation of the infinitive after prepositions. 
The past participle is the original and still the more common form. In the N.E. 
on the preposition is pronounced on ; on or ohn in this particular usage is pro- 
nounced on, un, coming from an original un. The confusion may have begun 
when a number of verbs came to have the same form for the Past Part, and the 
Pres. Part. Thus in most Sc. dialects such couples as 'falling fallen, eating 
eaten, holding holden are represented in each case by one pronunciation, viz. 
'fasn, itn, haldn. Examples of wrc+.Past Part, may be found in O.E. 

82 



116 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



"But gin I dinna, my left leg dis." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 16. 

"Div ye mind what I said, 'There's something ahint that 
face.' " Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, " Domsie," c. 2. 

"If George Howe disna get to college, then he's the first 
scholar I've lost in Drumtochty." Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, 
"Domsie," c. 1. 

A form div, djv, duv, dAV, is found in interrogative sentences, 
usually for the purpose of emphasis : 

"Duv ye think I'm fleyt at her?" G. Macdonald, Robert 
Falconer, c. 5. 

"Will ye say 'at ye div tak' thoucht, George ?" G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 25. 

The form divnin, 'divnin, is found (Aberdeen): 

" ' Divnin ye see the ships sailin' on't,' said the lassie." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 2. 

54. Forms and uses of " do " (O.E. dugan). The verb dow, 
dAU, "can" must not be confused with "do" (O.E. don). Its 
past tense is dought, dAUxt, docht, doxt, dowd, dAud. 

" Ye'll make what speed ye dow." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, i, c. 30. 

" My lady didna dow (couldn't bear) to hear muckle about the 
friends on that side of the house." Scott, Gay Mannering, c. 39. 

" Women are wilfu', and downa bide a slight." Scott, H. of 
Midlothian, c. 15. 

" Beggars douna bide wealth." A. Cheviot, Proverbs, p. 55. 

" Went home to St Leonard's Crags, as well as a woman in 
her condition dought." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 21. 

" I dochtna bide to hear yer bonnie name." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, "Last Wooing" (Song), c. 22. 

"For he dow'd na see onybody want." Scott, Old Mortality, 
c. 37. 

Note downa do = " can't be done," used as a noun-phrase : 
" But downa do's come o'er me now, 
And, oh, I find it sairly, 0." 

Burns, The Deuk's Dang O'er My Daddie. 

55. Forms and uses of "will." "Will" takes the form wull y 
fl; "will not," winna, 'wjnna, wonna, wonna; "would," 



GRAMMAR 117 

wud, ivad, wad, wad, wud, WAd; " would not," wadna, 'wadna, 
'wadna, widna, 'wjdna, wudna, 'wAdna: 

" ' Wonna she, Johnnie ? ' ' Ay wull she,' answered Johnnie, 
following his leader with confidence." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes 
c. 9. 

" How wad ye like when it cums to be your ain chance ? as 
I winna ensure ye, if ye dinna mend your manners." Scott, 
H. of Midlothian, c. 4. 

"His goodwife asked me if I widna hae my stockings 
changed." Wilson, Tales B., " I Canna Be Fashed." 

" The dragoons will be crying for ale, and they wunna want 
it." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 3. 

" Wad it be a glorified timmer leg he rase wi', gin he had 
been buried wi' a timmer leg ? " G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, 
c. 3. 

" Sic a wife as Willie had ! 
I wadna gie a button for her." 

Burns, Willie's Wife (Song). 

" Will " is the ordinary auxiliary form interrogative for the 
future tense; " shall I," "shall you" are not used. (But "I shall," 
"you shall," become Pse, youse) : 

" ' Will I have gotten my jo now ? ' she thought with a secret 
rapture." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 6. 

56. Note frequent use of " will " in Sc. where omitted in 
St. usage, often to denote supposition : 

"'I see somebody will have (has) been talking to ye,' she 
said sullenly." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 9. 

Note the use of "will" with "can" to form a future tense 
in Mid and Sth. dialects : 

" ' That's my bairn ! ' said Kirstie rising, ' I'll can trust ye 
noo, I'll can gang to my bed wi' an easy hairt.' " R. L. Steven- 
son, Weir of H., c. 8. 

57. Forms and uses of "shall." "Shall" is found as sal, 
sail, sal, sal: 

" My man sail hae his ain get, that sail he." G. Macdonald, 
David Elginbrqd, c. 8. 



118 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Sal shortens to ' se, 's ' : 

"I'se warrant he's do that, doctor." Brown, Rob and His 
Friends. 

" That lad Cranstoun may get to the tap o' the bar, if he can; 
but tak my word for 't, it's no be by drinking." Ramsay, Remi- 
niscences, c. 3. 

"An' she's hae bite and sup wi' them." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 6. 

This explains Barrie's sepad, sa'pad = [I']se uphad (uphold) 
"I shall maintain": 

" I sepad it had been bocht cheap second-hand." J. M. Barrie, 
Thrums, c. 24. 

" Should " is found as suld, SAld, sud, SAd: 

"Wha suld come in but Pate Macready, the travelling 
merchant?" Scott, Rob Roy, c. 14. 

"Bairns suld haud their tongues." G. Macdonald, Robert 
Falconer, c. 1. 

"Ye sud learn to sing 't through." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 21. 

"Shall not" is found as sanna, 'san^a; "should not" as 
shouldna, 'fudna, sudna, 'sAdna: 

" It sanna be the battle o' Culloden." Hogg, Tales. (W.) 

" I sudna won'er." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 8. 

" I sanna be speerin the price o' them eenoo." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 7. 

58. Forms and uses of verb " to be." " Are " is found as 
are, ir, ar, ar, ir; " was " as wes, wez, wis, w^z, wus, WAZ, wass, 
was (Highland); "were" as war, war, pret. ind. pi. and pret. 
subj. sing, and pi.; "be not" as binna ind. and subj.; "am not" 
as amna, 'amna, amnin (Aber), 'amnin; "was not" as wusnin 
(Aberdeen), 'wAznjn; dhay aar and dhur = "there is" (Perth- 
shire, Strathearn district): 

" ' Eh ! ye crater ! ' said Robert, ' ir ye there efter a' ? '" G. 
Macdonald, Robert Falconer, c. 10. 

" Yir trust wes mickle help tae him." Ian Maclaren, Brier 
Bush, " Domsie," c. 4. 






GRAMMAR 119 

" Wus ye sleepin' terrible soun', Jinse ? " W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 3. 

" ' It wass like him to make all other men better than him- 
self/ with the soft, sad Highland accent." Ian Maclaren, Brier 
Bush, " Domsie," c. 4. 

"We ran like mad; but corn and byre war blazin'...." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 21. 

"But an' he war goodman o' Newtoon." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 35. 

" Afore it war weel gloam't." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, 
c. 40. 

"Aw thocht I was to get oor ain toon; amnin aw?" W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 21. 

" Mrs Saddletree looked after her, and shook her head. ' I 
wish she binna roving, poor thing.' " Scott, H. of Midlothian, 
c. 24. 

" Dhur naybuddee in." Sir James Wilson, Lowland Scotch, 
p. 122. 

" You are " becomes ye'er, jiar, yer, jar, yir, jir ; " where are," 
whaur, Aigir, whare, Ava:r: 

"Yer richt, Dominie." Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, "Domsie," 
c. 2. 

" ' Weel, yir wrang, Weelum,' broke in Marge t." Ian Maclaren, 
Brier Bush, "Domsie," c. 1. 

" Ha! whare ye gaun, ye crowlin ferlie ? " Burns, To a Louse. 

59. Forms and uses of " have." " Have " takes the forms 
hev, hev, hae, he, 'a, a; "has not," hesna, 'hezna, hisna, 'htzna; 
" have not," haena, 'hena, hinna, 'h^nna; " had," haed, hed; " had 
not," hadna', "having," haein, 'hem; "had" (pastpt.), haen, hen: 

" Didna I say, ' Ye hev a promisin' laddie, Whinnie.' " Ian 
Maclaren, Brier Bush, " Domsie," c. 2. 

" I hae no fear aboot her; she's a wise bairn." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 2. 

" Ye hae the best recht, Thomas, for hesna he been good to 
ye ?" G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 45. 

" We hae haen deaths in our family too." J. M. Barrie, A. L. 
Idylls, c. 8. 



120 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Ye wudna not till c a been taul ' " (would not have needed 
to have been told). W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 33. 

"He got up and said 'I haena time to stop.'" Wilson, 
Tales B., "The Deserted Wife." 

" Have " (hae, 'a) is constantly dropped after the auxiliaries 
"would," "should," etc. especially when followed by -na: see 
Ph. 217 (c): 

"I would rather, having so much saved at the bank, paid 
the needful repairs myself." Gait, A. of Parish, c. 27. 

" O, Tibbie, I hae seen the day Ye wad na been sae shy." 
Burns (So"ng). 

Hae as an imperative signifies " take this " (cf. Fr. tiens) : 
<( Hae, there's half-a-crown for boding so meikle luck to my 
Lord." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, II, c. 29. 

60. Forms and uses of " may " and " might." " Might " is 
micht, mprt, mith, mjO (Aberdeen): "might have" is michta, 
micht av, 'mprtav, mitha, 'mjOa (Aberdeen); "might not" is 
michtna, 'mprtna, mithnin, 'miOnjn (Aberdeen): 

"But twa or three micht gang by my door and cross to 
Jamie Mitchell's yonner." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 4. 

" Gin ye hae nae regaird for yersel', ye mith hae some for 
yer family, peer things." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 20. 

" Mitha been wi' ye ! " W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 20. 

" But mithnin he dee (do) wi' the less coontin ? " W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 10. 

The present may is usually the equivalent of" can," a survival 
of its early signification, O.E. and M.E. : 

" Ye may be luikin for me hame afore sindoon the morn's 
nicht." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 1. 

61. FQrms and uses of " can." " Can not " is canna, 'kamia ; 
" could " is found as cud, kAd, N.E. kwid, " could not " as couldna, 
'kudna, cudna, kAdna, cwidna, 'kwidna (N.E.). 

" Ye canna be fashed ! Can ye no ? " Wilson, Tales B., " I 
Canna be Fashed." 

"I couldna weel see." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 15. 

" Weel, cudna ye pit it oot at five per cent. ? " G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 6. 



GRAMMAR 121 

"^Can," "could" are used after the auxiliaries "will" and 
'"have" in place of "be able," "been able": but not in the 
Northern dialects. 

"They haena cuid geate ane." "If we haed cuid cum." 
Murray, D. S. C. Sc. } p. 216. 

" He'll no can haud doon his heid to sneeze, for fear o' seeing 
his shoon." Scott, Antiquary, c. 26. 

62. Forms and uses of "maun" main, man, m&n, man. 

"Must" is replaced by maun, mun; "must not" by maunna, 
mauna, manna: 

"A' body maun sit still and listen to him, as if he were the 
Paip of Rome." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 8. 

" They are all gentle, ye mun know, though they ha' narra 
shirt to back." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 4. 

" Hout, tout, neighbor, ye maunna take the warld at its word." 
Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 12. 

"An' ye manna speak muckle." Scottish Review, July 23, 
1908, "A Black Day." 

63. Forms and uses o/"dare." "Dare" is daur, dgir, daar, 
dair: negative, daurna. Past durst, dArst; negative, durstna ; 
daurt, daurd\ when followed by a noun, the past tense is 
daurd, daird, dg:rd. (Used also in compound tenses " Wull 
ye daar gang ? They wadna daar cum; Yf wey haed durst beyde 
onie langer." Murray, D. S. C. Sc., p. 217.) 

" Show me a word Saunders daur speak, or a turn he daur 
do about the house...." Scott, Antiquary, c. 26. 

" luve will venture in, Where it daur na weel be seen." 
Burns, The Posie. 

" He should been tight that daur't to raize thee, Ance in a 
day." Burns, The Auld Farmers New Year Salutation to His 
Auld Mare, Maggie. 

64. Forms and uses of " owe," " ought." " Owe," " ought " 
take the forms awe, 91, aa, ai, o, o:, aucht, oxt, axt. Of aucht 
Murray remarks (D. 8. C. Sc., pp. 217-8): 

" The past participle apparently occurs in the difficult idiom, 
' Quheae's aucht that ?,' often * Quheae's owcht that ?,' contracted 



122 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

' Quheae's aa that ?,' ' Quheae's o' that ?,' Whose is that ?, "Who 
owns that?... The second meaning given to agan by Bos worth ' 
would allow us to construe Quheae's aucht that ? as Who is made 
to possess that? Who has the right to that?, or To whom does 
that belong?" 

Thus indebtedness and possession have got mixed up, as in 
the English " owe " and " own ": 

" When I was passing along the sea-front of a fishing village 
in Fife, I heard a stalwart matron ask her gossip at the next door, 
c Whae's aucht them ? ' that is, who owns them, or has charge 
of them?" A, Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, c. 14. 
" For us and for our stage should ony spier, 
' Whase aucht thae chiels maks a' this bustle here ? ' ' 
that is, who is responsible for. Burns, Prologue, for Mr 
Sutherland's Benefit Night, Dumfries, 1790. 

" Gin ye awe the siller, ye maun pay't, man." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 90. 

"Wha's aucht this?" (Who is the owner of this?) G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 32. 

"That schochlin' cratur, Bruce, is mintin' at roupin' the 
mistress for a wheen siller she's aucht him (owing him)." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 89. 

"......As gin she aucht (owed) you anything for rent." G. 

Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 83. 

"He wuntit to ken immediately fat was auchtin you for fat 
ye laid oot upo' that place at the Ward." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 45. 

" Ilk ane wi' the bit dribbles of syndings in it, and a paper 
about the neck o't, to show which of the customers is aught it." 
Scott, St Ronans Well, c. 2. 

65. Forms and uses of " behoved." Bud, bAd, bood, bud, 
or bude, byd, but, bAt (behoved), buit, byt. In the N.E. beed, 
beet = bid, bit. Used both for present and past tense formation, 
like "ought" and "should," but mostly as a preterit; "thought 
good," "decided to," "to be under moral compulsion"; "have 
reason " : 

" It's a strang tow 'at wad hand or bin Dawvid, whan he 



GRAMMAR 123 

considers he bud to gang, an' 'twere intill a deil's byke." G. 
Macdonald, David Elginbrod, I, c. 14. 

" So afore they could let him gang, they bood examine him 
on the Hebrew an' Latin." S. R. Crockett, Trials for License 
by the Presbytery of Pitscottie. 

"How did she come home then?" "She bude to come hame, 
man." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 91. 

" And like a bairn, I but to gang wi' him." R. L. Stevenson, 
David Balfour, c. 15. 

" Richt or wrang aboot the women, I bude to ken mair aboot 
the men nor ye do." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 73. 

" For tricks ye buit be tryin'." R. Fergusson, The Election. 

" He beed a' be thocht saucy." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, 
c. 28. 

Note a preterit form / boost, I buist, I byst, as if from a 
present form / boos. In changing from the impersonal it boos 
me, "it behoves 1 me," to the personal form, the " s" of the third 
person singular seems to have been retained, and to have been 
preserved in this preterit form: 

" Or, faith ! I fear that with the geese, 
I shortly boost to pasture 

I' the craft some day." 

Burns, A Dream. 

" He beside himsel' buist be." Quinn, Heather Lintie. 
(Dumf.) (W.) 

66. Forms of "need." "Need" has a past tense not, past 
part. not : 

"He not naething but jist the chyne an's poles." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 9. 

" An' ye hed been wi' her, like Tarn an' me, ye wudna not 
till 'a been taul' that there's nae the marrow o' 'er atween this 
an Tamintoul." W. Alexander, Johnny Qibb, c. 33. 

1 The standard form "behoved," discarded as a personal verb south of the 
Tweed after the year 1500, continued to be used in literature by Sc. writers. 
The New English Dictionary gives an example from the historian Kobertson, 
and the following from Sir William Hamilton : 

" He behoved... clearly to determine the value of the principal terms." Dis- 
courses (1853). 



124 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

67. Forms and uses o/"let." "Let" is lat, lat, let, p. tense 
loot, lut, lyt, leet, lit ; p. part, looten, 'lutan, 'lyten, latt'n, 'latan, 
lutten, lAtdn: 

" But I wud not latt'n them say't." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 19. 

" ' Indeed, doctor,' said the honest woman, ' I loot the brandy 
burn as lang as I dought look at the gude creature wasting itsell 
that gate.'" Scott, St Ronan's Well, c. 7. 

" That nae only never laid a han' till't, but maybe never 
hardly leet their een see't." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 44. 

" ...When she gangs luikin aboot for a pirn or a prin that 
she's looten fa'." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 44. 

Phrases: lat licht (to let it be known, to disclose a fact), 
lat at (to attack), lat sit (to leave alone, or leave off); lat-a-be 
(adverbially="and not really"), gae-lattin ("letting-go" or "bank- 
ruptcy"): 

" An' fan maister MacCassock loot licht that he was thinkin' 
o' buyin' the furniture to the manse." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 46. 

" Lat sit, an' gang an' luik for that puir doited thing." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 2. 

" Jist sit doon there, and carry on frae whaur ye loot sit." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 70. 

"... Speaks as if she were a prent buke, let-a-be an old fisher's 
wife." Scott, Antiquary, c. 39. 

"Dawvid...lats at him fanever they meet." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 23. 

" An'ro (Andrew) Lanchofts was jist at the gae-lattin, and 
wud lickly need to gi'e up the chop a' thegither ere lang." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 29. 

68. Use of "gar" for causative purposes. Gar, 90.11*, ger, ger, 
to "cause," "make"; p. tense gart, gert', p. part, gart, gert: 
" Ah ! gentle dames ! it gars me greet 
To think how mony counsels sweet, 
How mony lengthened, sage advices, 
The husband frae the wife despises." 

Burns, Tarn O'Shanter. 



GRAMMAR 125 

" He has rendered no account of his intromissions, but I'll 
gar him as gude." Scott, Redgauntlet, c. 23. 

"The sacristan... speaks as if he would ger the house fly 
abroad." Scott, Monastery, c. 8. 

69. "Begood" for "began." "Begin" has the odd preterit 
form, begood, ba'gud, begude, ba'gyd, begouth, ba'guG, seemingly 
by analogy with cud, sud, bude: 

"But he begood to dwine in the end of the year." Ian 
Maclaren, Brier Bush, " Domsie," c. 3. 

"But, after a while,! begude an' gaed through twa or three bits 
o' reasonin's aboot it." G. Macdonald, David Elginbrod, I, c. 13. 

70. Some Impersonal Verbs: leeze me, liiz mi, like, laik, fell, 
ffcl, worth, WAr9, weels me on, weels me o', wilz mi o, etc. 

Leeze me (leif is me) often followed by on, " I am fond of," 
"blessings on!" 

" Leeze me that bonny mouth that never told a fool tale " 
(Kelly). A. Cheviot, Proverbs, p. 232. 

" Leeze me on thee, John Barleycorn, 
Thou king o' grain!" Burns, Scotch Drink. 

Like (the older impersonal use) = placet, to "please," "suit," 
" be agreeable to." 

"We'll mak shift, an it like your honor." Scott, B. of 
Lammermoor, c. 8. 

Fell to "happen to": 

" ' Ay, ay, the fader o' 'im was a lang-heidit schaimin carle, 
an' weel fells the sin (good luck is the son's lot) for that/ was 
the remark in one case." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 2. 

Worth "to be (to)," "befall": 
"Wae worth the wife 

That has a waukrife wean ! " Popular Rhyme. 
"'Wae worth ill company/ quo the daw of Camnethan." 
A. Cheviot, Proverbs, p. 383. 

WeeVs me on, weels me o' signifies "blessings on," "I am 
happy with " : 

" Weels me o' drink, quo' copper Will." R. Fergusson, The 
Election. 



APPENDIX A 

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS (MID-SCOTTISH) 

(Including verbs irregular in standard use and regular in Scottish) 



Present 


Past 


Past Part. 


bake 


beuk, buik, bakit 


baken, bakit 


bek, bja'k (N.E.) 


bjuk, byk, 'bekat 


'bekan, 'bekat 


be 


wes, wis, wus 


been 


bi: 


wez, wiz, WAZ, waz 


bin 


bear 


bure, bore 


borne 


be:r, bi:r 


b0ir, boir 


born 


beat 


bet, bate 


beaten 


bit, bet 


bet, bet, bit 


bitn, betn 


begin 


begud, begude, begood, 


begun 




begouth 




bfgm 


brYjud, bfguS 


brYjAn, bi'gud 


bid 


bad 


bidden, budden 


bid 


bad 


bidn, bAdn 


bide (" stay, endure ") 


bade 


bidden 


baid 


bed, bed 


bidn 


big ("build") 


bug, buggit 


buggen, biggit 


1>19 


bAg, 'bAgat, 'bigat 


'bAgan, 'bigat 


bin' (" bind ") 


ban' 


bun' 


b^n 


ban 


bAn 


blaw("blow") 


bleuw 


blawn 


'bla:, blja:v (N.E.) 


blyui, b!0: 


bla:n 


brack, brek (" break ") 


brak, brook 


broken 


brak, brek 


brak, bruk 


'brokan, 'brokan 


bring 


brocht 


brocht, brochten, 






brung (Galloway) 


brirj 


broxt, broxt 


broxt, 'broxtan, brArj 


burn 


brunt, brent 


brunt, brent 


bArn 


brAnt, brent 


brAnt, brent 


burst 


brast, burstit 


bursten, bursen 


bArst 


brast, 'bArstat 


'bArstan, 'bArsan 


can 


cud, cood 


cud, cood 


kan, kan 


kAd, kad, kud, kyd 


kAd, kud 


1 In Mid-Sc. 9: may be substituted for 


a: passim. 



GRAMMAR 



127 



Present 


Past 


Past Part. 


cast 


cuist, keest 


cuis'n 


kast 


kyst, kist (N.E.) 


kysn 


catch 


catcht 


catcht 


katj 


kat/t, kaxt (S.) 


kat/t 


choose, choise 


chase, chois't 


choosed, chosen, choist 


t/UIZ, t/0IZ, t/OIS 


t/eiz, t/oist 


t/uizd, t/oizn, t/oist 


clade, deed, cleid 


claid 


claid 


(" clothe ") 






kled, klid 


kled 


kled 


cleik (" seize ") 


claucht, cleikit 


claucht, cleikit 


klik 


klaxt, klaixt, 'klikat 


klaxt, klaixt, 'klikat 


sclim (" climb ") 


sclam 


sclum 


sklim, kUm 


sklam, kUmd, kUmt 


sklAmctf, sklAmt 


craw (" crow ") 


creuw, crawed 


crawn 


kra: 


krui, kraid, krait 


kra in 


creep 


crap, creepit 


cruppen, creepit 


krip 


krap, 'kripat 


'krApan, 'kripat 


come 


cam 


come, comen, corned 


kAm 


kam 


kAnitt, kAmd 


daur (" dare ") 


daur'd, durst 


daur'd, durst 


dair 


daird, dairt, dArst 


daird, dairt, dArst 


ding (" knock ") 


dang 


dung 


dig 


darj 


dAFJ 


dreid (" dread ") 


drad, drade, dreidit 


drad, dreidit 


drid 


drad, dred, 'dridat 


drad ; 'dridat 


drink 


drank 


drucken 


drink 


drank 


'drAkan 


drive 


draive. drave, dreeve 


driven, drien 


draiv, draiv 


dreiv, driiv 


drivn, drim 


du, dae, di v, du v (" do ") 


did 


dune, daen, dane 


d^i, dei, div, dAv 


did 


dyn, d0n, dm, den 


eat 


ett, eitet 


ett, etten 


et, it 


et, 'itat 


st, etn 


fa ("fall") 


fell 


fa'en 


fai 


fsl 


fain, faan 


fecht ("fight") 


feucht, focht, foocht, 


fochten, feughen, 




faught 


fochen, fechen 


fext 


fjuxt, foxt, foxt 3 faxt 


'foxfon, 'fox^an, 'jpjuxan, 






'fexan 


fess, fesh (" fetch ") 


fuish, fush, feish, fees 


fessen, fooshen, fushen 


fes, fej 


fy/, fA/, fij, fis (N.E.) 


'fesan, 'fu/an, 'fA/an 



128 



Present 

flee ("fly") fleuw 

fli: flju: 

flit ("change domicile") flittit 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCCffS 

Past 



flit 


'flitat 


flyte, flite (" scold ") 


flait, fleat, flyted 


flait 


flet, flit, 'flaitat 


freize, freeze 


fruize 


fri:z 


fr0:z 


fin' 


fan', fand 


fin 


fane? 


gae,gang,ging("go") 


gaed, gied 


ge:, garj, girj 


ge:d, gid 


get 


gat 


get 


gat, got 


gie ("give") 


gied, gae, gya (Abd.) 


gi: 


gi:d, ge:, gja: 


greet ("weep") 


grat 


grit 


grat 


grup, grype ("grip") 


grap 


grAp, graip 


grap, grApat 


had, haud ("hold") 


haudit, hield 


had, ha:d 


hadat, hild 


hae ("have") 


haed, hed 


he: 


he:d, hed, had 


hang ("execute") 


hangit 


har) 


'harjat 


hing ("hang on") 


hang 


h^) 


harj 


hit 


hat 


hit 


hat 


hurt 


hurtit 


hArt 


'hArtat 


keep 


keepit 


kip 


kipat 


ken ("know") 


kent, kend 


ken 


kent, kend 


lat ("let") 


loot, leet (N.E.) 


lat, lat 


lut, lyt, lit 



Past Part, 
flowen, fleuwn 
flAun, fl/uin 

flitten, flittet 
flitn, flitat 

flyted, flytten 
flaitat, flaitn 
fruozen 
froizn 
fun', fand 
fAn, fand 

gaen, gane (pres. part. 

gaun) 
gen, gem (gean, gaan) 

gatten 
gatn, gotn 

gien, gie'en 
giin, gian 

grutten, gruttin, grettin 
grAtn, gretn 

gruppen, gruppit 
grApan, grApat 

hauden, hadden 

haidn, hadn 

haed, bed, ha'en 

he:d, hed, had, he:n 

hangit 

hanat 

hung 

hAT) 

hutten 

hAtn 

hurtit 

'hArtat 

keepit 

kipat 

kent, kend 

ksnt, kend 

looten, latten 

lutn, lytn, latn, latn 






GRAMMAR 



129 



Present 
lauch 
lax, la:x 



Past 



leugh, leuch, lauchit 
Ijux, laxat, la:xat 



Past Part, 
leughen, leuchen, 



lauchen, lauchit 
'laxan, laxat 



loup ("leap") 


lap, loupit 


luppen, loupit 


kup 


lap, Uupat 


'Upan, Uupat 


maw ("mow") 


meuw (S.), mawed 


mawn, mawed 


ma: 


mm, ma:d, ma:t 


mam, ma:d, ma:t 


may 


micht, mith 




me: 


mixt, mi9 (N.) 




need 


not 


not 




not 


not 


pit (" put ") 


pat, pit 


pitten, putten 


pit, pAt 


pat, pit, pAt 


pitn, pAtn 


pruve, pruive, pree 


pruived, preed 


proven, pruived, preed 


pru:v, pr0:v, pri: 


pru:vd, pr0:vd, pri:d 


pru:vn, pr</:vd, pri:d 




pru:vt, pr0:vt, pri:t 


pr0:vt, pri:t 


quit, quut 
kwit, kwAt 


quat 
kwat 


quitten, quat, quut 
kwitn, kwat, kwAt 


reid (" read ") 


rade 


red 


rid 


red, red 


red 


rin, rinn 


ran 


run 


rm 


ran 


rAn 


rise 


rase 


risen 


raiz, raiz 


re:z 


rizn 


rive 


rave 


riven 


raiv, raiv 


re:v 


nvn 


rot 


rottit 


rotten 


rot 


'rotat 


rotn 


sail 


sud 




sal 


sAd, sad, sid 




saw ("sow") 


seuw (S.), sawed 


sawn 


sa:, Ja:v (N.E.) 


sm, sa:d, Ja:vd (N.E.) 


sa:n, Ja:vd Ja:vt (N.E.), 




sa:t, jfaivt (N.E.) 


Ja:vn (N.E.) 


see 


saw, seen 


seen 


si: 


sa:, sin 


sin 


seik, seek 


socht 


socht 


sik 


soxt, soxt 


soxt, soxt 


set 


sute (S.), set 


suten, suitten (S.), set 


set 


syt, set 


sytn, set 


G. 




9 



130 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



Present 
shape 

Jep 

shave 
Je:v 

shear, sheer 
Je:r, Ji:r 

shine 
Jain 

shae, shui 
M /<: 



Past 

shoop, shaipit 
Jup, Jepat 

shavit 
Jeivat 

shure, shoor, shore 
J(j>:r, Ju:r, Jo:r 



Past Part, 
shapit 
Jepat 

shaven, shavit 
Jeivn, Jeivat 

shorn 
Jorn, Jorn 



shane(S.),shined, shone shined, shone 
Jen, Jaind, Jaint, Jon Jaind, Jaint, Jon 

shod 



Jod 



shute, sheet (N.E.), shot shot 
Jyt, Jit, Jot 



sit 
sit 

sleep 
slip 

slide 
slaid 



Jot 

sat 

sat 

sleepit 
'slipat 

slade, slidet 
sled, 'slaidat 



slite("slit"or"unsew") slate 



slait 

smit 
smit 

snaw 
sna: 



schnaw (N.E.) 



spek, speik 
spi t k, spaik (N.E.) 

spend 
spend 

spit 
spit 

spleit, spleet ("split") 
split 

spreid, spreed 

spred, sprid, sprsed (S.) spred, sprsed (S.), 

'spridat 



slet 

smate, smittit 
smet, 'smitat 

snaw'd, snew 
snaid, snait, snju: 

schnawed 
Jnjaivd, Jiyaivt 

spak 
spak 

spendit 
'spsndat, spent 

spat 
spat 

splat, splitted 
splat, splitat 

sprad, spreidet 



shodden 
Jodn 

shotten, shuten, sheet 

(N.E.) 
Jotn, Jytn, Jit 

sutten 
SAtn, sitn 

sleepit 
'slipat 

slidden 
slidn 

slitten 
slitn 

smittit, smitten 
'smitat, smitn 

snaw'd, snewn 
snaid, snait, snjum 

schnawen 
Jnjaivn 

spoken 
'spokan, 'spokan 

spendit 
'spsndat, spent 

sputten 
spAtn, spitn 

splet, splitten, splitted 
splet, splitn, 'splitat 

sprad, spreidet 
spred, spraed (S.), 
'spridat 




GRAMMAR 



131 



Present 
Stan' 
stan, stain 

stang ("sting") 
star) 

steill ("steal") 
stil, stel 

stick 
stik 

straw 
stra: 

strike 
straik, strik 

strive 
straiv, streiv 

sweem (N.E.), soom 

("swim") 
swim, sum 

soop ("sweep") 
sup 

swall 
swal 

sweir ("swear") 
swiir, sweir 

swyte, sweit ("sweat") 
sweit, swit 

tak 
tok 

teitch ("teach") 
tit/, tet/ 

tell 
tel 

think 
0irjk 

thrash 
6raJ 

thraw ("throw" or 

"twist") 
6ra: 



Past 
stude 
styd 

stang'd 
stand, starjt 

staw, steill'd, stal 
sta:, stilt, stelt, stal 

stack, stak 
stak 

streuw 
stru: 

strak 
strak 

strave 
s t re iv 

sweemed (N.E.), 

soom'd 
swimt, sumd 

soopit 
'supat 

swall'd, swalt 
swald, swalt 

swure, swuir 

swuir, sw^ir, so:r, su:r 

swat 
swat 

tuik, taen (S.) 
tyk, ten (S.) 

teitcht, taucht 
tit/t, tet/t, taxt 

tauld,taur,tell't,ta:xt 
taild, tslt 

thocht 
0oxt, 0oxt 

throosh, thruish 
0ruf, 0ry/ 

threuw (S.), threw, 

thra wed ("twisted") 
0rm, 0ru:, 0ra:d, 0ra:t 



Past Part, 
stooden, stude 
studn, styd 

stang'd 
stand, stant 

stown, steill'd 
stAun, stilt, stelt 

stickit, stucken 
'stikat, 'stAkan 

strawn 
strain 

strucken 
'strAken 

striven 
'stnvan 

sweemed (N.E.), soom'd 

swimt, sumd 

soopit 
'supat 

swallen, swald 
'swalan, swald, swalt 

swurn (S.), sworn 
swArn, sworn 

swat, swutten 
swat, swAtn 

taen, tane, tooken 
tem, ten, 'tukan 

teitcht 
tit/t, tet/t 

tauld, taul', telt 
taiH tslt 

thocht 
0oxt, 0oxt 

thrashen, throoshen 
0ra/n, 0ru/n, 0ry/n 

thrawn 



0ram 



92 



132 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



Present 


Past 


Past Part. 


threid ("thread") 


thrad, thrade, threidit 


thrad, thred, threidit 


0rid 


0rasd (S.), 0red, '0ridat 


0rsed (S.), 0red, '0ridat 


thrive 


threeve, thrave 


thrien (S.), thriven 


0raiv, 0reiv 


0ri:v, 0ra:v 


0rim, '0nvan 


tine 


tint 


tint 


tain 


tint 


tint 


tred 


treddit 


tredden 


tred 


'tredat 


trsdn 


treit ("treat") 


trate, treitit 


tret, treitit 


tret, trit 


tret, 'tretat, 'tritat 


tret, 'tretat, 'tritat 


twine 


twined 


twun, twined 


twain 


twaind, twaint 


twAn, twaind, twaint 


vreet (" write," Buchan) 


vrat 


vrutten 


vrit 


vrat 


vrAtn 


wad ("wed") 


wed, wad 


wed, wad 


wad 


wed, wad 


wed, wad 


wash 


woosh, wuish 


wooshen 


wa/ 


wuj, wyj 


wu/n, wy/n 


wat, wot 


wust 


wust 


wat, wot 


WASt, WISt. 


WASt 


wear, weir 


wure, wuir 


wurn, worn 


we:r-, wi:r 


wu:r, w#r 


wArn, worn, worn 


weit ("wet") 


wat 


wat, wutten, weitet, 






weiten 


wit 


wat, 'witat 


wat, wAtn, 'witat, witn 


win ("get") 


wan 


wun 


win 


wan 


WAn 


win, wund ("wind") 


wundit, wan, wun 


wundit, wun, wund 


win, wAncZ 


wAndat, wmdat, wan 


'wAndat, 'wmdat, wAnc 



WAn 
wiss, wuss wist, wuss't 

W{S, WAS WISt, WASt 

write wrate 

wrait wret, 

writhe wrathe 



wurk 
wArk 



wrocht, wroucht 
wroxt, 



wuss't 

WASt 

written, wrutten 
writn, wrAtn 

writhen 

wrocht, wroucht 
wroxt, wroxt 



GRAMMAR 133 



APPENDIX B 

FREQUENCY OF -EN FORMS OF PAST 
PARTICIPLE IN SO. 

Note the frequent forms in -en: bidden (remained), broughten, 
brochten (brought), grutten (wept), hauden, looten, etc. : 

" The town would have been the quieter, if the auld meddling 
busybody had bidden still in the burn for gude and a'." Scott, 
St Return's Well, c. 28. 

" Four sour faces looked on the reinforcement. ' The deil's 
broughten you ! " R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 5. 

"I cudna 'a haud'n up my heid, Tarn, nor been ongrutt'n 
(tearless)." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 16. 

"Her honour had better hae hauden her tongue." Scott, 
L. of Montr ose, c. 1. 

"The auncient freedom of the kirk, and what should be 
stooden up for." Cross, The Disruption, c. 2. 



APPENDIX C 

ORDER OF VERBS WITH -NA SUFFIX 

The use of -na as a suffix is associated with a different order 
of words in interrogative sentences : verb, negative, pronoun, 
instead of verb, pronoun, negative. This order was common in 
conversational English in the first half of the 19th century: 

" Sawna ye nae appearance o' the fishers getting the muckle 
boats built doon to the water ? " W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 6. 

Compare Jane Austen : 

" Did not they tell me that Mr Tilney and his sister were 
gone out in a phaeton together...! had ten thousand times 
rather have been with you. Now, had not I, Mrs Allen ? " 
Northanger Abbey, c. 12. 



CHAPTER VI 

ADVERBS 

71. Adverbs of time. 

Whan, Man, Man ; fan, N.E. fan, fan = " when " ; a/ten, 
'afan = " often " ; tae, te, ta = " until " or " till " ; afore, a'for 
= " before "; efter, 'eftar = " after "; aince, anes, ance, ens ; yince, 
jms, Jins ; yinst, jmst, Jinst = " once " ; aye, ai = " always " ; 
noo, mi:, the noo, i the noo = " now " ; sune, syn, fyn = " soon " ; 
syne, sain = " ago," " late," " then " ; whiles, Aiailz == " some- 
times " ; nar, na:r = " never " ; yestreen, je'strin = " yesterday " ; 
the morn " to-morrow " ; the nicht, Sa'njxt = " to-night " ; neist, 
'nist = " next " ; belyve, belive, ba'laiv = " immediately." 

" Fu' fain was I whan they said to mysel, till the house o* 
the Lord let us gang." Psalm cxx, 11, P. H. Waddell's trans- 
lation. 

"A body may lauch ower aften." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 39. 

"I reckon they've a' seen him afore." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 1. 

" But I'm gaun to clear up things aince for a'." Ian Mac- 
laren, Days of A.L.S., " Drumsheugh's Secret." 

"'They hae dune the job for anes/ said Cuddie, 'an they 
ne'er do it again.'" Scott, Old Mortality, c. 17. 

"He's a blue whunstane that's hard to dress, but ance 
dressed it bides the weather bonnie." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 14. 

" But yince in, she did verra weel for my comfort." S. R. 
Crockett, The Probationer. 

" But it's a queer word, Zoo ; an' the mair ye think o't the 
queerer it gets. I mind I yinst. . .." J. J. Bell, WeeMacgreegor, c. 2. 

"Na, na, that winna aye work." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 4. 

"What think ye noo, Andrew?" G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 4. 



GRAMMAR 135 

" Mrs M'Conkie the grocer's got kittens the noo." J. J. Bell, 
Wee Macgreegor, c. 12. 

" I canna attend till't jist i' the noo." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 20. 

" As sune as ever ye spy her lowse i' the yard be aff wi' ye 
to Willie MacWha." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 16. 

" ...and for the bit interest, I'll take her wi' my ain bairns, 
...and syne, efter a bit we'll see what comes neist." G. Mac- 
donald, Alec Forbes, c. 6. 

" It's as weel to come sune's syne." Gilmour, Pen Folk, c. 8. 

" The gudeman will be blythe to see you ye nar saw him 
sae cadgy in your life." Scott, Bride of L., c. 12. 

"He jumps at things whiles, though sharp eneuch." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 14. 

" They cam' in files to see you, an' bade throu the aifter- 
neen." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 1. 

" ' 0, ye are ganging to the French ordinary belive,' replied 
the knight." Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 15. 

Fernyear, 'fernjir, is " last year " : 

" Ye pat awa' yer second horsemen fernyear." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 10. 

For ance and awa is "just for once " : 

"I think I'll turn missionar mysel', for ance and awa." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 25. 

Nows and nans is " now and then," " occasionally " : 

" The Red Lion, farther up the street, to which it was really 

very convenient to adjourn nows and nans." G. Douglas, H. with 

Green Shutters, c. 5. 

At the lang lenth is " at last " : 

" An' at the lang len'th, fan a' thing else was will't awa'." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 47. 

Air is " early " : 

" But, Jeanie, lass, what brings you out sae air in the morn- 
ing. . . ? " Scott, Old Mortality, c. 27. 

72. Adverbs of place. 

Whare, whar, AMi:r ; whaur, Aigir; far and faur, faure, for, 



136 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

N.E. fa:r = " where "; abeigh, a'bix = " at a shy distance "; abune 
or aboon, a'byn = " above'"'; ablow, a'blo: = " below "; ben, benn, 
ben = " inside " ; thereout, fter'ut ; outbye, ut'bai = " outside " ; 
aboot, d'but = " around "; hine or hyne awa, hain a r wa = "far 
off"; wa = "away"; here-a-wa, 'hira'wa, here-away = " in the 
neighbourhood " ; but, butt, bAt = " in the outer room " : 

" 'And I tell you they might have got a "waur." ' To which, 
as if coming over the complainant's language again, the answer 
was a grave ' whaur ' ? " Ramsay, Reminiscences, c. 5. 

"Whar do they bide? And how are they kent ? " Gait, 
Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 30. 

" O see for he gangs, an see for he stands." Child's Ballads, 
The Heir O'Linne, st. 2, p. 578. 

" Tak' awa' Aberdeen and twal mile round about, and faure 
are ye?" A. Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, c. 13. 
" Town's-bodies ran, an' stood abeigh, 
An' ca't thee mad." 

Burns, Salutation to his Auld Mare. 

"'Jean, com ben to worship,' he cried roughly." G. Mac- 
donald, Alec Forbes, c. 29. 

" I luikit a' up and doon the street till I saw somebody hine 
awa' wi' a porkmanty." G. Macdonald, Robert Falconer, c. 32. 

"Aifter theyve gane hyne awa'." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 15. 

" ' Gae wa wi' ye.' ' What for no ? ' * Gae wa wi' ye,' said 
Sam'l again." J. M. Barrie, A . L. Idylls, c. 8. 

" ' Odd, ye maun be a stranger here-a-way, I take/ replied 
the other." Wilson, Tales B., " The Minister's Daughter." 
" Here-a-wa, there-a-wa, 
Wandering Willie." Popular Song. 

Whaur, whare is sometimes the equivalent of " where are " : 

" Very weel, Janet, but whaur ye gaun to sleep ? " Ramsay, 
Reminiscences, c. 2. 

" Ha! whare ye gaun, ye crowlin ferlie?" Burns, To A Louse. 

Ewest ('juast) is " near," "close by " : 

" ' To be sure, they lie maist ewest,' said the Baillie." Scott, 
Waverley, II, c. 6. 



GRAMMAR 137 

"Farther" takes the forms farrer and/errar: 

" ...and nae muckle farrer on nor whan I begud." G. Mac- 
donald, Alec Forbes, c. 88. 

" I hae naething to say ferrar nor what concerns the sheep." 
Hogg, Tales, p. 239. (W.) 

Forrit is " forward " : 

"Yon light that's gaun whiddin' back and forrit." Scott, 
Black Dwarf y c. 3. 

Thonder is " yonder " : 

"I'll tell the man ower thonder to keep his e'e on it." 
J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 6. 

73. Adverbs of manner. 

Hoo, hu:,/oo, fU: (N.E.) = " how " ; weel, wil = " well " ; richt, 
rtxt = " right " ; somegate, 'SAmget = " somehow " ; sae = " so " ; 
hither and yont = " in confusion " ; ither = " else " ; back or fore 
= " one way or another." 

"Hoo are ye the nicht, dawtie?" G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 6. 

" Hoot ! man, the bairnie's weel eneuch." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 2. 

" They hummered an' ha'ed through some gate." S. E. 
Crockett, Trials for License by the Presbytery of Pitscottie. 

" ' It was e'en judged sae,' said Dinmont." Scott, Guy Man- 
nering, c. 45. 

" But it mak's na muckle, back or fore." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 44. 

" What ither did I come for ? " G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, 
c. 11. 

The termination -lin(s) is found, making adverbs, signifying 
" in a certain way " : halflins = " partly " ; blinlins = " in a 
blind condition " ; middlin = " so-so," " fairly well." See under 
Suffixes. 

" ' Na, na, I could gang hame blin'lins,' remonstrated Annie." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 29. 

Aiblins ('eblmz), ablins is " perhaps " : 
" Ye aiblins might, I dinna ken, 

Still hae a stake." Burns, Address to the Deil. 



138 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



"So" replying to an interrogation: e.g. "I will do so (what 
you wish)," is that, with frequent inversion ; that coming first in 
the sentence : 

"'Promise me... that ye'll read out o' that book every day 
at worship....' 'That I will, sir/ responded Annie earnestly." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 3. 

74. Adverbs of degree. 

Verra, 'vera ; rael, reil ; fell, fel ; unco, 'ATjko, 'Aijka ; gey, 
gay, gai, geyan = " very " ; ower, owre, AUF = " too " ; maist, 
mest, amaist " almost " ; clean, klin = " quite " ; nae, ne: = 
" not," with a comparative ; sae, se: ; that, UcLt = " so " ; fu y 
fu: = " very." 

" ' Dinna wauk him,' she said, ' ...he's fell tired and sleepy.' " 
G. Macdonald, A lee Forbes, c. 64. 

"But he's a gey queer ane." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, 
c. 37. 

" The plaids were gay canny, and did not do so much mis- 
chief." Scott, Waverley, n, c. 25. 

" They say he's lickit the dominie, and 'maist been the deid 
o' him." G. Macdonald, A lee Forbes, c. 14. 

" I hae eaten ower muckle for that, ony gait." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 12. 

"And jist min' what ye're aboot wi' the lassie she's rael 
bonnie." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 14. 

" Him an' oor Willie's unco throng." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 14. 

" No that weel, and no that ill." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, 
c. 6. 

" There's something no that canny (not so safe) about auld 
Janet Gellatly." Scott, Waverley, n, c. 31. 

" ' Your father,' said he, ' would be gey and little pleased if 
we was to break a leg to ye, Miss Drummond.' " R. L. Stevenson, 
David Balfour, c. 22. 

" He's no a' thegither sae void o' sense neither." Scott, Rob 
Roy, c. 21. 

" If ye're no keepit quiet ye'll gang a' wrang thegither." 
Scottish Review, July 23, 1908, "A Black Day." 



GRAMMAR 139 

" Keenest of all her suitors clean daft about her, said the 
country side were three lads of the parish." S. R. Crockett, 
A Midsummer Idyll. 

" They laid on us fu' sair." Child's Ballads, Battle of Har- 
law, st. 11, p. 401. 

That is also used for " too " : 

" Maybe a wee that dressy and fond o' outgait." Gait, Sir A . 
Wylie, I, c. 28. 

Note also : FecUy, 'feklj = " mostly " ; geyly, 'gaill = " a good 
deal " ; dune, dyn, dooms, dumz = " thoroughly " ; fair, fe:r 
= "quite"; freely, 'frill "completely"; uncoly, 'ATjkolj = "very 
much " ; naarhan, 'narhan ; nighhari, 'naihan = " almost " ; 
han', han = " quite " ; allenarly, a'lenarh (obs.) = " entirely " : 

" The tither was feckly a quakin' bog." W. Alexander, Johnny 
GM, c. 44. 

" He can tell you exactly, for instance, how it is that young 
Pin-oe's taking geyly to the dram." G. Douglas, H. with Green 
Shutters, c. 5. 

" Na, na, neeburs, we hae oor faults, but we're no sae dune 
mean as that in Drumtochty." Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, 
"Domsie,"c. 1. 

" It was not sae dooms likely he would go to battle wi' sic 
sma' means." Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 32. 

" ' Domsie's fair carried,' whispered Whinnie." Ian Maclaren, 
Brier Bush, " Domsie," c. 2. 

" As for inventions, the place is fair scatted up wi' them." 
Ian Maclaren, Days of A.L.S., "Triumph in Diplomacy." 

"Half salvages, who are accustomed to pay to their own 
lairds and chiefs, allenarly, that respect and obedience whilk 
ought to be paid to commissionate officers." Scott, L. of Mon- 
trose, c. 3. 

" You're gyaun aboot the toon the neist thing to han' idle." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 32. 

" It near-han' dazes me whiles." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, 
c. 6. 

"I'm no that unco weel." S. R. Crockett, The Candid 
Friend. 



140 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"It (the river) was uncoly swalled, and raced wi' him." 
R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 5. 

"Na, nae freely that, Mr Cupples." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 67. 

" Whan the time's guid for ither fowk, it's but sae sae for 
you and me." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 32. 

Naar is " nearly " : 

"A chap or twa, naar grippit braid (nearly squeezed flat) i' 
the crood themsel's." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 18. 

A matter of, a'metar o, is " as much as " : 
" She ran awa to the charity workhouse, a matter of twenty 
punds Scots in my debt." Scott, Redgauntlet, c. 20. 

The length of, $a Ien9 o, is " as far as " ; see under Pre- 
positions : 

"When they get the length of the burn, they heard a 
shrill whistle." Scottish Review, July 23, 1908, "A Black 
Day." 

Anes errand, enz'iran, jjnz 'irantf, is "specially," "on pur- 
pose," " on the sole errand " : 

" The doctor hes dune his pairt, and it wes kind o' him tae 
come up himsel ane's errand tae tell us." * Ian Maclaren, Days 
ofA.L.S., "For Conscience' Sake," c. 4. 

An a, an a:, is " also," " as well " : 

" The coronach's cried on Bennachie 
And down the Don an' a'." 

Scott, Antiquary, c. 40. 

Fine, fain, is " well " or " exactly " : 

" I ken fine how to manage her." Cross, Disruption, c. 3. 

At ane mair, at ane mae, at en me:(r), is " at the last push," 
" in a state of nervous tension " : 

" I'm blythe to see yer bonny face ance mair. We're a' 
jist at ane mair wi' expeckin' o' ye." G. Macdonald, David 
Elginbrod, I, c. 11. 

Haill on, hel an, is " steadily," " right along " : 
" An' 't (the hens) wud a' been layin' haill on the feck o' the 
winter." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 42. 






GRAMMAR 141 

75. Adverbs of inference and argument. 

Still an on, st^l an on ; nae-theless, 'nefta'les (" never- 
theless ") ; howsomever, 'husAm'ivar, howsumever (" however ") ; 
weel-a-wat, 'wite'wat ("certainly"); atweel, at'wil ("in any 
case "), mair by token (nay more, moreover), meir bj 'tokan : 

" ' Still an' on/ replied Mains, ' it's nae ceevil eesage to speak 
that wye.' " W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 9. 

" But that nae-theless for peace-sake an' for example tae the 
bairns, I'd gang whar he gaed." D. Gilmour, Paisley Weavers, 
c. 5. 

"Howsumever, to proceed: Ye maun understand I found 
my remarks on figures." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 26. 

"I hope, howsomever, that your Lordship will let me do 
something to oblige yoursel." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 28. 

" Well-a-wat ye never spak a truer word, Dawvid." W. Alex- 
ander, Johnny Gibb, c. 42. 

" 'Atweel 1 I'll no grudge to do that,' replied Andrew seriously." 
Gait, Sir A. Wylie, i, c. 17. 

" Mair by token, an she had kend how I came by the disorder, 
she wadna hae been in sic a hurry to mend it." Scott, Old 
Mortality, c. 8. 

76. Some interrogative adverbs. 

What for, AMit for, and whit wey, A^t wai, are used for 
"why": 

" I was glad to get Jopp hangit and what for would I pretend 
I wasna ? " R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 3. 

" Whit wey is 't no the season?" J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, 
c. 5. 

What for no ? is " why not ? ": 

"And what for no ?" G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 6. 

No is a terminal word to a sentence, giving an interrogative 
force : " Am I not right in supposing this ? " 

1 Atweel, "at least," "in any case," is to be sharply distinguished from 
aiveel, "well then," implying agreement: 

"'Atweel, Cuddie, ye are gaun nae sic gate,' said Jenny, coolly and reso- 
lutely." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 38. 

"'Aweel,' said Cuddie, sighing heavily, ' I'se awa to pleugh the outfield 
then.' " Scott, Old Mortality, c. 38. 



142 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"That's to lat himsel' get a gnap no!" W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 2. 

No gives an interjectional close to a sentence, shading it off: 
" ' He's jist owre bitter no,' said the good wife." W. Alex- 
ander, Johnny Gibb, c. 32. 

77. Adverbs of probability. 

Belike, ba'laik, is " perhaps," " probably " : 

"In order that ye may not only deprive honest men and 
their families o' bread, but, belike, rather than starve, tempt 
them to steal ! " Wilson, Tales B., " Willie Wastle's Wife." 

Maybe, 'mebi ; mebbe, 'mebi, " perhaps " : 

" Maybe ye'll no object to let me go with you." Gait, Sir 
A. Wylie, i, c. 30. 

"'Ye'll mebbe tell me,' he said richt low, 'if ye hae the 
furniture 'at used to be my mother's ? " J. M. Barrie, Thrums, 
c. 22. 

Like is used in the same way as belike : 

" The three mile diminished into like a mile and a bittock." 
Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 1. 

"She asked my wife what was like the matter wi' her." 
Wilson, Tales B., "Willie Wastle's Wife." 

Like is also thrown in adverbially to soften an expression, 
having usually a deprecatory flavour : 

" Weel, gin ye insist, I'll juist hae to try a toothful' to oblige 
ye, like." S. R. Crockett, Ensamples to the Flock. 

" An wud ye gi'e 'im an excamb like ? " W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 42. 

" Braver than her guidman, wha didna believe like (seem to 
believe) that his laddie could be deid." D. Gilmour, Paisley 
Weavers, c. 5. 

Likein, 'laikan, is " for instance " : 

"'An' filk o' them wud be warst likein?' inquired Mains." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 23. 

Or than no, or $an no:, is an Aberdeenshire phrase implying 
incredulity or lack of respect for a statement. 

" Poo'er or than no (his power counts for little) a grun- 



GRAMMAR 143 

offisher glaid to gae aboot an' tell fowk fan to pay their hens to 
the laird." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 20. 

Note the similar use of or ens no, or ens no: (ens = " other- 
wise "). 

"A bonny improvement or ens no." Miss Ferrier, Marriage 
c. 33. 

78. Adverbs of affirmation and negation. 
Ay, ai, is "yes": 

" ' Ay,' languidly assented Macgreegor." J. J. Bell, Wee 
Macgreegor, c. 4. 

" 'Ay are ye,' returned Annie." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, 
c. 14. 

Na, no.:, is "no": 

" Na, na. It's fair words make foul wark." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 6. 

The ordinary form of the negative " not " is no : 

" ' There's no a lassie maks better bannocks this side o' Fetter 
Lums,' continued Pete." J. M. Barrie, A. L. Idylls, c. 8. 

" Son of mines or no son of mines, ye hae flung fylement in 
public." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 3. 

But nae, ne:, is commonly used, especially in the N.E. : 

" But I'm nae sure that ee didna for a' that." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 68. 

No is sometimes used without the ordinary expletive " do " : 

" ' Hoot, Tibby/ says I, for I was quite astonished at her, ' ye 
no understand things.'" Wilson, Tales B., "The Hen-pecked 
Man." 

A double negative is common : 

" Ye'll better jist say that ye're agreeable at once, an nae 
detain me nae langer." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

Attached to verbs, " not " is found as na : e.g. daurna, canna, 
sanna, widna, dinna. 

79. Colloquial equivalents for the ordinary negative. 

The word deil, dil, is used in Sc. colloquial as a negative : 
" But deil a dram, or kale, or onything else no sae muckle 
as a cup o' cauld water." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 13. 



144 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

But it is also used as a mere intensive, along with a wish : 

" Deil gin they would gallop ! " Scott, Old Mortality, c. 13. 

Fient, fmt, fint, and sorra, 'sora, are also used in this way : 

" But ye'll hae forgotten that, wumman ? " " Fient a bit o' 
me." Ian Maclaren, Days of A.L. $., " Endless Choice." 

" This is fat we had ees't to ca' the Main St. Duff Street ; 
fat sorra ither ? " (What the deuce else ?) W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 2. 

At no rate is a strong negative : 

" Weel, but they can come at no rate, I tell ye." Scott, Gkiy 
Mannering, c. 11. 

80. Use of negative in meiosis. 

Under negative adverbs may be noted the frequency of 
meiosis in Scottish literature, especially in the form of reported 
conversations. The ordinary Scot avoids exaggeration, or the 
committing himself to a statement which he is unable to make 
good. Words of real admiration or praise, therefore, are often 
couched in a colourless negative form : 

" Bella, the bride-to-be, arrayed in the dress that had cost her 
so many thoughts, heard her mother's words of admiration arid 
her father's no less affectionate ' Ye're no' bad.' " H. Maclaine, 
M. F. the P., p. 16. 

"That was a grand poem about the collier's no-weel wean." 
H. Maclaine, M. F. the P., p. 94. 

81. Adjectives as adverbs. 
Adjectives are freely used as adverbs : 

" It would seem terrible conspicuous." R. L. Stevenson, Weir 
o/JET.,e.6. 

"Your rale (real) natural, Harry." H. Maclaine, M. F. the P., 
p. 23. 

82. Adverbs with auxiliary in place of verb. 

The adverb awa (away) is used with 'II (will), and in the 
past tense alone, as a substitute for gae, gaed : 

" We'll e'en awa to Chastington-hall." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, 
II, c. 28. 

" After I had brocht them a' to ken what I was, I awa yont 
to my mither's." Wilson, Tales B., " The Hen-pecked Man." 






GRAMMAR 145 

83. Adverbs of emphasis. Use of "here there," " ava'," a'va:, 

i, " whatefer," A^at'efar. 

" Here there " is used in a belittling way, to prepare for a 
strong statement to the contrary : 

" Pretorian here, Pretorian there, I mind the bigging o't." 
Scott, Antiquary, c. 4. 

" However, effecs here, or effecs there, it's no right o' you, sir, 
to keep me clishmaclavering." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 14. 

Ava is a "worn-down" or corrupt form of "of all," and 
gives closing emphasis to a phrase : 

" To be sure, for my part, I hae nae right to be here ava'." 
Scott, Old Mortality, c. 14. 

" An' lows'd his ill-tongu'd, wicked Scawl, 
Was warst ava'." 

Burns, Address to the Deil. 

Whatefer (" whatever ") added by Highlanders for emphasis, 
usually in negation : 

" Weel, Sandy, ye may say what ye like, but I think he canna 
be a nice man, whatefer." A. Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, 
c. 1. 

But also in affirmations : 

" Ow ay, it's a fery goot congregation, whatefer." Ib. c. 3. 



G. 



10 



CHAPTER VII 

PREPOSITIONS 

84. Ablow, a'blo, see "below." As with many other prepo- 
sitions the Scottish form favours the prefix a-. 

85. Sc. forms and uses of "about." 
" About " = about, aboot, a'but : 

(1) = " near," " beside " : " My twa-year-auld bairn was 
standin' aboot the door." J. M. Barrie, Thrums, c. 22. 

About i = "near the mark,' "differing little." 
Just much about it = " very much the same thing," " very 
nearly equal or alike ": 

" Auld vandal, ye but show your little mense, 
Just much about it wi' your scanty sense." 

Burns, The Brigs of Ayr. 

(2) = " regarding " : " We hae nae cause to be anxious 
aboot a' thing bein' dune respectable aince we're gone." J. M. 
Barrie, Thrums, c. 21. 

(3) = " around," so as to envelop or encompass : "Tak yer 
plaid aboot ye, or yell be cauld." G. Macdonald, A lee Forbes, c. 70. 

The Standard use of "around " in this sense is post-Shake- 
. spearian and quite modern. See Othello, IT, iii, 99 : " Then take 
thine auld cloak about thee." 

Adverbially. Used familiarly after such a phrase as " come 
in," to signify "into the house," "close to me." "Come in aboot, 
an' lat me say a fyou words to ye afore ye start." Life at a 
Northern University, c. 2. 

In aboot (a) "under control," "in hand": "Seemed rather 
pleased that he had been able to keep Dawvid tolerably well 
' in aboot ' in the long run." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 26. 
(b) "within hail," "in the place": "Will there be ony 
chance o' 's bein' in aboot shortly?" W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 36. 



GRAMMAR 147 

(c) " into the house " : " Nyod, Peter, ye mith jist gae in 
aboot, an' tell yer mither...." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 37. 

(d) " home," " to the quick " : " But gin I didna grip 'er in 
aboot, I did naething to the purpose, that's a'." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

86. Sc. forms and uses of " above." 

"Above " = aboon, abune, a'byn ; abin, a'bm ; abeen, a'bin 
(Aberd.) (preposition, adjective, adverb) : superlative form, 
bunemost : 

" Will ye gang wi' me and fare 
To the bush aboon Traquair ? " 

J. C. Shairp, Poems. 

" ' Come, come, Provost,' said the lady rising, ' if the maut 
gets abune the meal with you, it is time for me to take myself 
away.'" Scott, Redgauntlet, c. 11. 

" John, ye're no to gar him lauch abin his breith." J. J. Bell, 
Wee Macgreegor, c. 3. 

" Them 't 's obleeg't till's leenity for haein a reef o' onykin 
abeen their heids." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 17. 
Adverbially : 

" Yer words strenthen my hert as gin . they cam frae the 
airt aboon." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 88. 

Get aboon (said of the heart) to " recover cheerfulness." 
"Come, join the melancholious croon 

0' Robin's reed ! 
His heart will never get aboon 

His Mailie's dead ! " Burns, Poor Mailie's Elegy. 
Keep one's heart abune to " keep cheerful " : 
" Keep your heart abune, for the house sail haud its credit 
as lang as auld Caleb is to the fore." Scott, B. of Lammer- 
moor, c. 8. 

87. Aff see "off." 

88. Sc. forms and uses of " after." 

"After " = aifter, 'eftar; efter, 'eltar; efiher, 'efftar (prep, 
and conj.): 

" ' I cud jist say the word efther auld Simeon,' said Mac- 
greegor." G. Macdonald, Robert Falconer, c. 5. 

102 



148 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Ettle efter to " aim at," " strive for " : 
" I was jist ettlin' efter that same thing mysel." G. Mac- 
donald, David Elginbrod, I, c. 5. 

89. Sc. forms and uses of " against." 

" Against " = again, agane, a'gen ; agen, a'gen : 

(a) " in time for " : 

" And then a puir shilling again Saturday at e'en." Scott, 
Rob Roy, c. 17. 

" To see when the broidered saddle-cloth for his sorrel horse 
will be ready, for he wants it agane the Kelso races." Scott, 
H. of Midlothian, c. 4. 

(b) " in opposition to " : 

" ' He was a prick-eared cur/ said Major Galbraith, ' and 
fought agane the King at Bothwell Brig.' " Scott, Rob Roy, 
c. 29. 

(c) " in contact with " : 

"...I got my heid clured wi' fa'in agen the curbstane." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 67. 

90. Sc. equivalents of" along." 
"Along " = alang, a'larj : 

"But as alang the hill she gaed." G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 22. 

Adverbially = alang, a'lai] ; a-lenth, a'lenB : 

" Gin ye'll step alang bye wi' me to Lucky Leevinston's." 
Wilson, Tales B., " The Fatal Secret." 

"Gin ye gae muckle forder a-lenth ye'll maybe gar me 
lowse o' ye the richt gate." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

91. Sc. equivalents of (( among." 

"Among " = amo, a'mo ; amon, a'mon ; amang, a'marj : 

" Mak' it up amo' yersels." G. Macdonald, A lee Forbes, c. 8. 

"There ocht to be ane or twa owre an' abeen, to wale 
amon'." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 31. 

" Ony way, she's a kind o' queen amang the gipsies." Scott, 
Guy Mannering, c. 45. 

92. Aneath, a'niS; aneth, a'n&6 see "beneath." 



GRAMMAR 149 

93. Forms and uses of " anent," a'nent. 

(1) A nent " concerning," " about " : 

"Glossin sent for Deacon Bearoliff to speak 'anent the 
villain that had shot Mr Charles Hazelwood.'" Scott, Guy 
Mannering, c. 32. 

(2) = " opposite": 

" It's right anent the mickle kirk yonder." Scott, Fortunes 
of Nigel, c. 2. 

Thereanent (adverbial form, at close of clauses) = " concerning 
the matter " : 

" I did not think it proper to tell her altogether the truth 
thereanent." Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 14. 

94. Aside, asides see "beside." 

95. Sc. equivalent of " as far as." 

"As far as " = the length of: 

"Mr Dishart never got the length of the pulpit." J. M. Barrie, 
The Little Minister, c. 33. 

A story is told of Henry Dundas, Viscount Melville, when in 
London, that he asked Mr Pitt to lend him a horse " the length 
of the Strand " ; and that the reply came back that his friend 
had no horse of the required size in his stable, but sent him the 
longest he had. 

96. Sc. equivalents of " around." 

Around is a preposition that occurs rarely or never in 
Scottish dialects ; nor is it found in the plays of Shakespeare 
nor in the Authorized Version of the Holy Scriptures, where its 
place is taken by " about," " round about." Its Scottish equi- 
valents are aboot, roon aboot : 

"Get up, guidman, save Crummie's life 
An' tak' yet auld cloak aboot ye." 

Old Scots Song. 

" Tak' yer plaid aboot ye, or ye'll be cauld." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 70. 



150 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

The modern usage is present in nineteenth century poetry 
and prose : e.g. 

" But he lay like a warrior taking his rest, 
With his martial cloak around him." 

Wolfe, Burial of Sir John Moore (1820). 
"Around" is the favourite word in American usage for 
general purposes. 

97. Sc. uses of " at." 

" Ye hae just a spite at the bairn." Gait, The Entail, c. 6. 

" At " frequently takes the place of " with," as in the phrase, 
" I'm angry at you " : 

Or of the standard " of," after ask or speir : 

" I speired at 'im what he meant by terrify in' a bairn." 
J. M. Barrie, Thrums, c. 22. 

Mint at to " attempt to," " intend to " : 

" ' For,' said she, and in spirit, if not in the letter, it was 
quite true, 'I never mint at contradictin' him. My man 
sail hae his ain get, that sail he.' " G. Macdonald, David Elgin- 
brod, I, c. 8. 

98. Use of " athort" a'Oort. 

(1) = "over": 

" Athort the lift they start and shift." Burns, The Vision. 

(2) = " across " (to the other side of) : 

" Come athort the reek, and lat's luik at ye." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 37. 

Adverbially, " across " : 

" Peter was authorized to give Mrs Birse assurance that he 
would be 'athort the morn's gloamin,' without fail." W.Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 32. 

99. Forms and uses of " atower." 

Atower, a'tAur; attour, a'tur; outoiver, oot-ower, ut'Aur 
= " over," " above," " at a distance " (preposition and adverb) : 

" It's weel worth yer while to ging atower to the T'nowhead 
an' see." J. M. Barrie, Auld Licht Idylls, c. 8. 

" The plaid was atower ma shouthers." J. Wilson, Nodes, 
iv, 60. 



GRAMMAR 151 

" He's sleeping in his bed out-ower yonder ahint the hallan." 
Scott, Antiquary, c. 26. 

" They jist haud a puir body at airm's lenth ootower frae 
God himsel'." G. Macdonald, David Elginbrod, i, c. 8. 

Used along with bye, bye and " in addition to," " over and 
above " : 

" Bye attour my gutcher has 

A hich house and a laigh ane." 

Burns, Lass of Ecclefechan. 

" She is maybe four or five years younger than the like o' 
me bye and attour her gentle havings." Scott, Redgauntlet,c. 12. 

100. Ayont see " beyond." 

101. Sc. forms and uses of " before." 

" Before " = afore (of place) = " in presence of" : 

" Ye sud be more carefu' whit ye say afore the wean." J. J. 
Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 3. 

(Of time) = " sooner than " : 

"' Ye'll be a man afore yer mither!' said John." J. J. Bell, 
Wee Macgreegor, c. 1. 

(Previous to): 

" My father the deacon was nane sic afore me." Scott, Rob 
Roy, c. 26. 

102. Use of " beheef" 
Beheef, ba'hif = behoof. 

" On behoof of" for beheef o : 

"Lawbourin the rigs in an honest wye for beheef o' the 
countra at lairge." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 44. 

103. Sc. equivalents of " behind." 

"Behind" is found as ahint, d'h^nt; ahin, a'hjn; behint, 



"There may be ane of his gillies ahint every whinbush." 
Scott, Rob Roy, c. 27. 

"A bit bole ahin the shakker." W. Alexander, Johnny 

Gibb, c. 25. 

"I see her cocked up behint a dragon on her way to the 
tolbooth." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 7. 



152 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

104. Sc. equivalent of " below." 
" Below " = ablow : 

" I hid from them ablow the claes." G. Douglas, H. with 
Green Shutters, c. 27. 

" Keep yersel' ablow the claes, my mannie." J. J. Bell, Wee 
Macgreegor, c. 3. 

105. Forms and uses of " ben!' 

Ben, benn, ben = " inside," " to the inner apartments." " into " 
(preposition, adverb and noun) : 

" I'm glaid to see ye. Come benn the hoose." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 89. 

"I think... he gaed ben the parlor." G. Douglas, H. with 
Green Shutters, c. 27. 

Ben is used as a noun = " parlour " : 

"Many a time have I slept in the little box-bed in her 
' ben.' " A. Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, c. 11. 

"Leeby went ben, and stood in the room in the dark." 
J. M. Barrie, Thrums, c. 20. 

On the N.E. coast " to sail ben " is. to sail to the land. 

106. Sc. forms and uses of " beneath." 

" Beneath " = aneath, a'ni9 ; aneth, a'neO. Mostly to be 
translated " under " : 

"Jeames Anderson here, honest man aneath our feet." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 3. 

" ' Weel, Meggy,' says she, speakin' aneth her breath." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 19. 

" A picter in our auld Bible o' an angel sittin' aneth a tree." 
G. Macdonald, David Elginbrod, I, c. 7. 

107. "Benorth" as preposition. 
Benorth " to the north of," bi'norG : 

"Tod had his dwallin' in the lang loan benorth the kirk- 
yaird." R L. Stevenson, David Balfour, c. 15. 

108. Sc. forms and uses of" beside." 
" Beside " = aside, a'said ; asides : 

" The watchers winna let me in aside them." J. M. Barrie, 
Little Minister, c. 4. 



GRAMMAR 153 

" Will ye sit doon asides 's, Thamas ? " G. Macdonald, Alec 
Forbes, c. 51. 

Aside = " in comparison with " : 

"Aside Eve he (Adam) was respectable." J. M. Barrie, Little 
Minister, c. 10. 

Adverbially = " close at hand," " on the spot " : 

"Aw declare aw wud gi'e my best brodmil o' Mairch chuckens 
naarhan' to be aside an' hear foo she'll brak oot." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 43. 

109. Sc. forms and uses of " between." 

" Between " takes the forms atween, a'twin ; atweesh, a'twif ; 
acqueesh, a'kwif : 

" A never heard as muckle doonricht nonsense atween the 
junction an' the station in forty year." Ian Maclaren, Days of 
A.L.S., "Jamie," c. 2. 

"A lang airm was rax't owre atweesh the shou'ders o' twa 
three o' them." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 18. 

" ' Lord ! ' ". said Irrendavie, ' it's weel for Brodie that the 
ring's acqueesh them ! " G. Douglas, H. with Green Shutters, 
c. 24. 

110. Sc. forms and uses o/" beyond." 

" Beyond " takes the forms ayont, a'jont ; 'yont, jont ; " on the 
other side of" : 

" Places of learnin' ayont the sea." Ian Maclaren, Days of 
A.L.S. 

" There wasna a mot in the lift till we got ayont Canterbury." 
Gait, The Steam Boat, c. 12. 

"That 'yont the hallan snugly chows her cood." Burns, 
Cotter's Saturday Night. 

Yont has more the meaning of " through and across " (of 
close proximity) : 

"Aft yont the dyke (through the hedge) she's heard your 
bummin'." Burns, Address to the Deil. 

Adverbially " across, in a surreptitious way " : 

" ' Does she want to change Bibles wi' me ? ' I wondered, 
' or is she sliding yont a peppermint ? " J. M. Barrie, Little 
Minister, c. 30. 



154 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

111. Use of "boot." 

To the loot (byt) of" in addition to " : 
" To the boot of that, I might hae gane to even-song." Scott, 
Rob Roy, c. 17. 

112. Sc. uses o/"but." 
But = (1) " without/' bAt : 

" What tho', like commoners of air, 
We wander out, we know not where, 
But either house or hal' ? " 

Burns, Epistle to Dame. 

Butt, but, bAt = (2) " into the outer apartment, kitchen or 
general sitting-room " : 

" Ye're welcome, sir. Come butt the hoose." G. Macdonald, 
David Elginbrod, I, c. 4. 

" And at midnight she gaed butt the house." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 64. 

(3) " in the kitchen." 

"I was ben in the room playing Hendry at the dambrod. 
I had one of the room chairs, but Leeby brought a chair from 
the kitchen for her father. Our door stood open, and as 
Hendry often pondered for two minutes with his hand on a 
' man,' I could have joined in the gossip that was going on 
but the house (e.g. between Leeby and Jess in the kitchen)." 
J. M. Barrie, Thrums, c. 2. 

113. Sc. forms and uses of "by" 

" By " takes the forms bye, bai ; b', ba, bi. bar only may be 
used in (2), (4), (5), (6), (7), below. 

(1) Of instrumentality : 

" To be trampit upon aiven b' them that ca's themsel's 
nobility." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

(2) = " beyond," " more than " : 

" As ye do seem a chap by common." Scott, Guy Mannering, 
c. 44. 

(3) = " compared with " : 

" ' Ou, we have nae connection at a' wi' the Bertrams/ said 
Dandie, 'they were grand folk by the like o' us. 5 " Scott, 
Guy Mannering, c. 36. 



GRAMMAR 155 

(4) = " besides," " except " : 

" Grizy has nothing frae me by twa pair o' new shoon ilka 

year." Scott, Guy Mannerwg, c. 32. 

With the addition of and out-taken; see out-taken: 

"I ken naething suld gar a man fight... by and out-taken 

the, dread o' being hanged or killed if he turns back." Scott, 

Old Mortality, c. 35. 

(5) = " in addition to " : 

" Papists and pie-bakers, and doctors and druggists, bye the 
shop-folk, that sell trash and trumpery at three prices." Scott, 
St Ronans Well, c. 2. 

(6) Of neglect or omission = " leaving aside " : 

"But fat's this that you Free Kirkers 's been deein' mairrying 
yer minaister bye the maiden o' Clinks tyle ? " W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 49. 

(7) = " Out of one's mind," crazy (with the reflexive pro- 
noun); St. " beside one's self" : 

" But monie a day was by himsel', 
He was sae sairly frighted 

That vera night." Burns, Halloween. 

" The folk would hae thought I had gane by mysel'." Gait, 
Sir A. Wylie, i, c. 12. 

Adverbially = " over," " finished " : 

" She just gi'd a sab, and was by wi' it." R. L. Stevenson, 
WeirofH.,c. 1. 

114. Sc. forms and uses of " down." 
" Down " doon ; doun, dun : 

" Had a good name wi' whig and tory, baith up the street 
and doun the street." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 3. 

115. Sc. equivalents of" except." 

" Except " = cep, sep ; 'ceptna, 'sepftia : 

" There's been nae ane meddlin' wi' the kirk cep some o' 
that Edinboro' fowk." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 23. 

" There's not a soul, either, that kens there's a big contract 
for carting to be had 'ceptna Goudie and my sell." G. Douglas, 
H. with Green Shutters, c, 13. 



156 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

116. Sc. forms and uses of " for ." 

" For " is fer, far ; fur, fAr : 

" I haena seen ye fer a lang time, Mr Lawmie." G. Mac- 
donald, Alec Forbes, c. 70. 

" As feart fur me as fur the wean." J. J. Bell, Wee Mac- 
greegor, c. 3. 

For a' that = " notwithstanding all that," " yet," " never- 
theless," is found in the contracted forms fraat, fra.it ; frithat, 
fn'Sat. 

" And yet intill't there's something couthie fraat " [f 'ra't, Ed. 
1816 ; fra't, Ed. 1866, p. 181]. Boss, Helenore (1768), 48. Jam. 

Burns uses it in his celebrated refrain : 
" For a' that, an' a' that, 
It's comin yet for a' that." 

To is often used for the standard " for " = " on behalf of" : 

" An' ' her an' her,' 's Peter said, was wylin (choosing) fur- 
niture to (for) Maister McCassock." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 46. 

An intrusive fur or for is common before infinitives, as in 
archaic English : 

" What went ye out for to see ? " Matt, xi, 13, Authorized 
Version. 

"Ay, an' he begood fur to greet." J. J. Bell, Wee Mac- 
greegor, c. 12. 

What for ? is "why," "wherefore " ; what for no is " why not ? " : 

" ' For my pairt,' replied David, 'if I see no wonder in the man, 

I can see but little in the cobbler. What for shouldna a cobbler 

write wonnerfully ? ' ' G. Macdonald, David Elginbrod, I, c. 14. 

" It maun be eaten sune or syne, and what for no by the 

puir callant ? " Scott, The Pirate, c. 4. 

117. Uses of "forby(e)" 

Forby, far'bai, forbye, (1) = " in addition to," " besides " : 
" Forbye which it would appear that ye've been airing your 
opeenions in a Debating Society." R. L. Stevenson, WeirofH.,c. 3. 
(2) = " let alone," " without the addition of" : 
" Ye might hae thought folk wad hae been vexed enough 



GRAMMAR 157 

about ye, forbye undertaking journeys and hiring folk to seek 
for your dead body." Scott, St Ronans Well, c. 28. 

Adverbially, (1) = " besides," " as well " : 

" Then she maun hae a bonnet for Sabbath an' a hat tae gae 
out a message in forby." Ian Maclaren, Days of A. L. S., 
"A Servant Lass," c. 1. 

(2) = " nearby," " close at hand " : 

" Annie made her bed a little forby." Child's Ballads, Fair 
Annie, p. 119. 

118. Sc. equivalents of " from." 

" From " is/ra, fr& ; frae, fre ; fae, fe ; Norse and Dan./ra. 

"...Wad rive wi' lauchin' at a word fra Cosmo Cupples." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 70. 

" Ye wad hae thought she had taen an ill will at Miss Lucy 
Bertram frae that moment." Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 39. 

"We ken brawly that Gushets an' 's wife tee's awa' fae 
name." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 3. 

119. Forms and uses of "foment." 

Foment, for'nent ; forenent, foranent, 'foranent ; forenenst, 
for'nenst = " in front of," " facing " : 

"When Bonaparte gathered his host foment the English 
coast." Gait, A. of the Parish, c. 44. 

" But they maun lie in Stronach haugh, 
To biek forenent the sin (sun)." 

Child's Ballads, Bessy Bell and Mary Gray, p. 485. 
"Like the great King Ahasuerus when he sate upon his 
royal throne foranent the gate of his house." Scott, H. of 
Midlothian, c. 26. 

"They stoppit just forenenst him." G. Douglas, H. with 
Green Shutters, c. 5. 

"In a wee while you will be seein' Lonfern forenenst you" 
(in Skye). A. Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, c. 14. 

120. Use of " gin" gin. 
Gin = " by " (of time) : 

"The thing that's deen the day winna be adee the morn, 
an' I may be deid an' buriet gin Whitsunday." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 46. 



158 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" I heard the clatter o' them, an' throws on my waistcoat an' 
staps my feet in 'o my sheen an' gin that time he was at the 
door." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 17. 

121. Uses of" hard upon." 

Hard upon or upo " close to," " very near " : 

(1) Of time. 

" It was hard upo' Hogmanay." G. Macdonald, A lee Forbes, 
c. 70. 

(2) Of place. 

" For Nannie, far before the rest, 
Hard upon noble Maggie prest." 

Burns, Tarn o Shanter. 

122. Sc. equivalents of " in." 

" In " is often into, intil, intill, intjl : 

" O lang, lang may their ladies sit, 
Wi' thair fans into their hand." 

Child's Ballads, Sir Patrick Spens, p.. 104. 
" ' What's in the broth ? ' Well, there's carrots intil V " 
" He sat intil this room." Thorn, Jock o Knowe, 23. (W.) 

123. Sc. forms of "into" 

"Into" is found as intae, 'inte, 'into; intul, jntAl. 

" Did ye no hear hoo the Frees wiled him intae their kirk ? " 
Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, " Domsie," c. 1. 

"The lass showed him intul the study." S. R. Crockett, 
Courtship of Allan Fairley. 

124. Sc. use of let abee!' 

Let abee, lata'bi: and leta'bi:, " not-to-speak-of," "without 
mentioning," " let alone " : 

" We downa bide the coercion of gude braid-claith about our 
hinderlins, let abee breeks o' freestane and garters o' iron." Scott, 
Rob Roy, c. 23. 

125. Maugre, 'magiar = " notwithstanding " : 

" An' maugre the leather lungs o' them the fowk roar't doon." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 24. 






GRAMMAR 159 

/' maugre o "in spite of" : 

" We hae stood to oor principles as yet, an' we'll dee't still, 
i' maugre o' an Erastian Presbytery." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 7. 

126. Sc. equivalents o/"near." 

"Near" is naar (Abd.), nair; nearhari, nirhan; naarhari, 
narhan. 

" I wasna wuntin naar their parlour." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 45. 

" I was jist turnin' nearhan' the greetin', for I lo'ed the laddie 
weel." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 74. 

"An' syne fat d'ye mak' o' sic ootrages as Marnock an' 
Culsalmon', to keep nearhan' hame ? " W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 22. 

(Adverbially) = " almost " : 

" I've toilit aboot wi' you upo' this place naar foorty year." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 44. 

127. Sc. uses of "of" 

0' usually stands for "of"; but in Scottish dialect often 
represents " on " (q.v.) : 

Blythe of, 'blaiG o:, " pleased with " : 

" Wee), then," replied the man, " he said, ' Tell Sir William 
Ashton that the next time he and I forgather, he will not be 
half sae blythe of our meeting as of our parting.' " Scott, B. of 
Lammermoor, c. 5. 

Croose o', krus o:, " excited over " : 

" ' He's owre croose o' the subject nae to be here in time/ said 
Jonathan." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 25. 

" Of" or "o" is omitted after nouns of quantity like wheen, 
piece, bit, drap, etc. : 

" There's a wheen fine fat cattle and some gude young horses." 
Ian Maclaren, Days of A.L. S., " For Conscience' Sake," c. 3. 

" Tak' it awa' and bring me a piece bread." R. L. Stevenson, 
WeirofH.,c. 1. 

"O"' is used like the French de with obj. case in place of 
the possessive case : 



160 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" I think the Hieland blude o' me warms at thae daft tales." 
Scott, Rob Roy, c. 26. 

For ava, a corruption of " of all," see Gr. 83. 

128. Sc. equivalents of " off." 
" Off" a/, at 

"Mr Balderstone's no far aff the town yet." Scott, B. of 
Lammermoor, c. 13. 

Adverbially, 

" Sae aff I set, and Wasp wi' me." Scott, Guy Mannering, c.45. 

" I must do the best I can to bring baith o' ye aff." Wilson, 
Tales B., " Willie Wastle's Wife." 

Aff and on " off and on," i.e. " so-so," " moderately well " : 

" ( Hoo's a' wi' ye ? ' asked Sam'l. ' We're juist aff and on,' 
replied Effie cautiously." J. M. Barrie, A. L. Idylls, c. 8. 

Aff o' " from," " away from " : 

" Oor ale is not drinkable, it's jist new aff o' the barm." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibbs, c. 38. 

" ...Keep aff o' braes an' kittle roads, siclike's owre by the 
Kirk toon." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 38. 

To slip aff a common euphemism for " to die " : 

" Ye'ill miss Jock, Posty, he slippit aff afore his time." Ian 
Maclaren, Days of A. L. S., " Past Redemption." 

129. Sc. equivalents of "on." 
" On " is often o : 

" Ye'll maybe gar me lowse o' ye the richt gate." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

On himself " on his own account." 

" The fishmonger had lately started on himself." J. M. Barrie, 
A. L. Idylls, c. 2. 

To think on" to think of" : 

" Why should I be frightened in thinking on what everybody 
will approve ? " Gait, The Entail, c. 16. 

On is used with the verb marry (for both sexes) : 

"Ye ken Sam'l an' the lawyer married on cousins." J. M. 
Barrie, Thrums, c. 2. 

" Him 'at's mither mairit on Sam'l Duthie's wife's brither." 
Ibid., c. 2. 



GRAMMAR 161 

Cry on = to " call for " : 

" l If you'll excuse me, Mr Innes, I think the lass is crying on 
me/ said Kirstie and left the room." R. L. Stevenson, Weir of 
H., c. 7. 

Fa on, fa:, fg: on = to " discover," " meet by chance " : 

"Ay, Allan, lad, an' where did ye fa' on wi' her?" S. R. 
Crockett, Courtship of Allan Fairley. 

Yoke on = to " find fault with," " upbraid " : 

" Do ye mind hoo he yokit on me in the kirkyaird ae day for 
lauchin' at Airchie Moncur an' his teatotalism ? " Ian Maclaren, 
Days ofA.L.8., "A Cynic's End." 
. Ontill, onto : see till, to. 

130. Use of" or " = "before." 

This usage is obsolete in St. even as a conjunction = " sooner 
than." 

Or = " before " : 

" I' thy ain presence-chaumer, whaur we houp to be called 
or lang." G. Macdonald, David Elginbrod, I, c. 11. 

131. Forms and uses of " out." 

Out, oot, ut, (1) "beyond," "outside of": 
" What he has felt 'tis out our power to say." McGillvray, 
Poems, 1839. 

(2) " free from " : 

" Wark bodies are ne'er out the guddle 
Fae their cradles till laid in the mools." 

Webster, Rhymes. (W.) 

(3) = " from," " making use of" : 
" To say prayers out a book." 

(4) = " from within " : 

" Come oot the door." J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor. 
Cf. " Going out the door, he stopped and listened." Mary G. 
Wilkins, A Far-away Melody. 

(5) " -Along "(Abd.): 

" He went oot the road." 

G. 11 



162 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Where the St. has "out of," Hately Waddell uses frae, yont 
frae : 

" Frae the deeps sae awesome dread, O Lord, I hae scraigh'd 
till thee." Psalm cxxx, 1. 

" O wha sal rax yont frae Zioun heal-making till Israel a' ? " 
Psalm xiv, 7. 

Phrases : cast oot (to quarrel), hand oot (take aim), redd out 
(explain) : 

" We sanna cast oot aboot aul' scores." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

" When Sir Edgar hauds out, down goes the deer, faith." 
Scott, B. of Lammermoor, c. 3. 

" ' I dinna ken/ said the undaunted Bailie, ' if the kindred 
has ever been weel redd out to you yet, cousin.' " Scott, Rob 
Roy, c. 31. 

Out-taken, "except," "barring"; found also in combination 
with by (q.v.), see Gr. 113 (4): 

" He was in former times ane of the maist cruel oppressors 
ever rade through a country (out-taken Sergeant Inglis)." Scott, 
Old Mortality, c. 42. 

Outbye o/=" without," see "without." 

Outen, 'utan, out on = " out of." 

Out oner, u'tonar = " from under." 

Outoure, u'tAur = " across," " beyond." 

Out-through, out-throw, ut '9ru:, N.E. OFAU = " completely 
through." 

132. Sc. forms and uses of " over." 
Ower, owre, Aur =- " over," " across " : 

" There's been warrants out to tak him as soon as he comes 
ower the water frae Allowby." Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 45. 
" Duncan sighed baith out and in, 
Grat his een baith bleer and blin', 
Spak o' lowpin owre a linn." 

Burns, Duncan Gray (Song). 
To come owre to " repeat " : 

" But aw cudna come owre them, Mrs Birse, on nae account." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 19. 






GRAMMAR 163 

To tak in-owre to " deceive " : 

" We've baith been weel aneuch ta'en in-owre wi' that carline." 
W. Alexander, Johnny GM, c. 43. 

To threep owre = to " insist to a person who hears un- 
willingly " : 

" An' threepit owre me't it was sic an advantage to dee 't 
that gate." W. Alexander, Johnny GM, c. 9. 

To win owre to " fall asleep " : 

" ' He's won owre,' she murmured thankfully." G. Douglas, 
H. with Green Shutters, c. 26. 

133. Sc. forms and uses of" round." 
" Round " is roon, run : 

" Jist pit it wi' ae single k-not roon her neck." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 17. 

" The fowk't she inveetit doon a' roon 'the parlor' fat ither 
like as mony born dummies." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 41. 

134. Sc. forms and uses of " since." 
Sin " since," s^n. 

" Peter begood to tell's that they had been in sin' the streen 
(since yesterday evening)." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 46. 

" He's awa' mony a day sin syne " (for a long time back). 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 47. 

Sinsyne, sjn'sain, often appears as one word : " My eesight 
and my hand-grip hae a' failed mony days sinsyne." Scott, 
Antiquary, c. 7. 

135. Sc. equivalents of " through." 

Through, throuch, thruch, 9rux; throu, throuw, 9ru:, 9rAU 
(N.E.) = " across," " on the other side of." 

"I div not see hoo we and he won throuw the winter." G. 
Macdonald, The Warlock, c. 56. 

Doun throu, dun 9ru:, of locality or country = " towards the 
sea " : " That very morning Dawvid had to leave post haste for 
f doon throu ' on business of Sir Simon's." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 36. 

112 



164 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

To go throu 't = to " have a fuss " : 

"Hoot, fye! is Dawvid gyaun throu' 't wi' the new vricht 
already ? " W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 48. 

Through-gaun,'Qru'qa.in(l) "thorough-going," "pushing," 
" capable " : " Janet was what is called a ' through-gaun lass/ 
and her work for the day was often over by eight o'clock in the 
morning." S. R. Crockett, The Heather Lintie. 

(2) (as a noun) "scolding," "nagging": 

" The folk that were again him gae him sic an awfu' through- 
gaun aboot his rinnin' awa'." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 14. 

Throu -han = " under discussion and settled " : 

" Gushetneuk an' mysel' hed the maitter throu' han'." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 18. 

Through ither, '8ru ifor ; throu 'dder, '9ru:dar (1) = "restless," 
" disorderly," " unmethodical " : " Ou, just real daft, neither to 
haud nor to bind, a' hirdy-girdy, clean through ither, the deil's 
ower Jock Webster." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 14. 

(2) = " in common," " in a mass " : 

" Ou yea, I thocht ye wud 'a maetit a' throu' ither." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 7. 

Through-the-muir a " quarrel " : 

" Aifter a through-the-muir that dreeve aul' Peter naarhan' 
dementit." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 49. 

Kail throu' the reek " a drubbing," " castigation " : 

" Tarn spoke widely of giving the two disturbers of his en- 
joyment their 'kail throu' the reek ' some day." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 3. 

"He may come to gie you your kail through the reek. J> 
Scott, Rob Roy, c. 30. 

136. Sc. uses of " till," t?l, Ul. 

Till, ontill, are used freely for St. " to " : 

" ' Hear till her,' said Madge." Scott, H. of Midlothian, 
c. 17. 

" ' You see, the house was taen, at ony rate,' continued 
Sanders. 'And I'll juist ging intil't instead o' Sam'l.'" J. M. 
Barrie, A. L. Idylls, c. 8. 



GRAMMAR 165 

Used for to of the infinitive : 

" I wud 'a gi'en a bottle o' black strap till 'a been there." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 24. 

Used in place of (1) " of" : 

'"There's just twenty-five guineas o't,' said Dumbiedikes..., 
C I make ye free till't without another word.'" Scott, H. of 
Midlothian, c. 25. 

Used in place of (2) " upon " : 

"...Yersel' ? that Gushets had aye sic a reliance till." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 47. 

Lippen till to " trust " : 

"To hae fowk so weel wordy o' bein lippen't till." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 47. 

137. Sc. forms and uses of " to." 

Tae, te, ta: ; tee, ti: (Abd.) = " to," used adverbially. 

" Sae step roun' tae yer minister-man, an arrange for the next 
First-day." D. Gilmour, The Pen Folk, p. 38. 

" We wud be willin' to tak' tee (i.e. add) Gushetneuk till oor 
place." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 37. 

Replaced generally by till ', see above. 

138. Sc. forms and uses o/" under." 

"Under" is represented by inner, 'tnar; oonder, 'undar; 
ooner, 'unar, 'Anar : 

" His lauchter's no like the cracklin's o' thorns unner a pot." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 39. 

" They'll leave the kirk wa's to the owls an' the bats seener, 
an' gae forth oonder the firmament o' heaven to worship." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 7. 

" We hed the new hooses biggit, an' the grun a' oon'er the 
pleuch." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 44. 

Sit under to "attend the preaching of" : 
" Of course, it would be different if we sat under him." J. M. 
Barrie, Little Minister, c. 14. 



166 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

139. Sc. idioms with " up." 

Up = of movement to a higher level : 

"Fan we was wearin' up the wye o' the stabler's." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 46. 

Cast up" to turn up," " appear " : 

"But he canna be far off he will soon cast up." Wilson, 
Tales B. y " Roger Goldie's Narrative." 

Cleik up, klik Ap to " become friendly " : 

"'Eh, but ye're a green callant !' he cried... 'cleikin' up wi' 
baubee-joes ! ' " R. L. Stevenson, David Balfour, c. 1. 

Redd up, red Ap to " settle," " adjust " : 

"He is generally an 'auld residenter'; great, therefore, at 
the redding up of pedigrees." G. Douglas, H. with Green 
Shutters, c. 5. 

140. Sc. forms and uses of " upon." 
" Upon " is upo' or upon : 

11 Sic a deceesion as will admit o' yer castin' yer care upo* 
him." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 9. 

Upo' go = " on foot," " engaging one's attention " : 

" An' fat sud be upo' go noo, but a braw new viacle ! " W, 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 43. 

Dispone upon = to " convey in legal form " : 

" And you, ye thowless jade, to sit still, and see my substance 
disponed upon to an idle, drunken, reprobate, worm-eaten serving- 
man." Scott, B. of Lammermoor, c. 13. 

Married upon = " married to " (see on) : 

"I micht have been marriet upon a skirling Jezebel like 
you !" R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 1. 

To min (main) one upon to " remind one of" : 

"A closin'-in heid-piece concern that min's me, for a' the 
earth, upon a mutch that my wife hed ance." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 46. 

141. Sc. forms and uses of " wanting." 

Wanting, wuntin, 'wAntjn ; wintin, 'w^nttn "without/* 



GRAMMAR 167 

" ' Wanting the hat/ continued my author, Kirstie. ./ wanting 
guns... the lower o' them took the road.'" R. L. Stevenson, 
Weir of H., c. 5. 

" Far owre sma' for our een wintin' the glass." G. Macdonald, 
Robert Falconer, c. 9. 

" It cudna be deen wuntin, cud it ? " W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 10. 

142. Sc. forms and uses of " with." 
" With " is wi', wi, wj : 

" And sign'd it wi' his hand." Child's Ballads, Sir Patrick 
Spens, p. 103. 

"It's a shame her father's daughter should keep company 
wi' a' that scauff and raff of physic-students, and writers' 
'prentices, and bagmen, and siclike trash as are down at the 
Well yonder." Scott, St Ronan's Well, c. 2. 

143. Sc. forms and uses of" without." 

" Without " = withoot, wi'9ut ; wi-oot, wi'ut ; athoot, a'9ut ; 
withouten, wi'8utan ; ouibye, 'ut'bai, and outbye of: 

" Some fowk cudna ca' the niz o' their face their nain withoot 
speerin leave." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

"Wi-oot ony thing to weet them, they're dooms dry." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 26; 

"'Na!' was the answer; 'they'll be unco puir pudding 
athoot something mair than bluid in them.'" D. Qilmour, 
Paisley Weavers, c. 5. 

" Wherefore would ye risk life or limb withouten cause ? " 
Wilson, Tales B., "Roger Goldie's Narrative." 

" The yerlle of Fyffe, wythowghten striffe, 
He bowynd hym over Sulway." 

Child's Ballads, Battle of Otterburn, p. 387. 

"'I was wanting to say to ye, Laird,' said Jeanie,../ that I 
was gaun a lang journey, outbye of my father's knowledge.' 

" ' Outbye his knowledge, Jeanie ! Is that right? ' ' Scott, 
Heart of Midlothian, c. 26. 






144. Use of " 

Yont, jont = " across and through " (of proximity) ; " on the 



168 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



other side " (as of a hedge or street). See " beyond," from which 
it differs specifically. 

"Aft yont the dyke she's heard you bummin." Burns, 
Address to the Deil. 

" Meet thy titty yont the knowe." Hogg, Poems. 

To go yont, to " cross over," " walk to a place near by." 

" Sae, after I had brocht them to ken what I was, I awa yont 
to my mither's." Wilson, Tales B., " Hen-pecked Man." 

" I'll gang yont, after fothering time the nicht, and speak to 
yer farther and mither." Wilson, Tales B., " Willie Wastle's 
Wife." 

To hirsle yont, h^rsl jont to "shuffle along to the other 
end " : 

" Peter and the stranger did not rise to put the ladies into 
the pew, but, according to use and wont, simply ' hirsled yont.' " 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 11. 



CHAPTER VIII 
CONJUNCTIONS 

145. Connective conjunctions. 

Connective ; (a) (with co-ordinate clauses or terms) : 

An (and), baith, beG; aither, 'eftar; eyther, 'aiftar; owther, 
= " either " ; naither, 'neftar ; neytker, 'nai$ar ; nouther, 
; nowther, 'nAuftar = " neither " : 

" Thomas Jardine come awa an' speak tae me." D. Gilmour, 
Paisley Weavers, c. 3. 

" That part o' his garments which it does riot become a leddy 
to particulareeze, was baith side and wide." Scott, Antiquary, 
c. 9. 

" For aither he wull lichtlie the ane, and lo'e the ither, or 
incontinent he wull baud by the ane, and care-na for the ither." 
W. W. Smith, N. T. in Braid Scots, Matt, vi, 24. 

"He has nayther corned himsel', nor had the ceevility tae 
sen' us the scart o' a pen." Ramsay, Reminiscences, c. 6. 

" ' I'll gie thee my hand and word on't, aunt/ said I, ' that I 
knaw nowther the faither nor mother o' V " Wilson, Tales B., 
" Whitsome Tragedy." 

" Nouther you nor no Scottish lord Durst have set a foot on 
the bowling green of Airly." Child's Ballads, Bonnie House o 
Airlie, p. 483. 

(b) (With subordinate clauses) : 

'At, 't, nor, 'at-hoo, at/hu = " how " : 

" Gin it be more blessed to gie than to receive, as Sant Paul 
says 'at the Maister himsel' said." G. Macdonald, David Elgin- 
brod, I, c. 6. 

" Wha cud hae thocht, Thomas, 't ye cud hae pickit sic 
gumption oot o' staves!" G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 60. 

" Nae won'er nor (= ' that ') ye was obleeg't to tak' yer inno- 
cent bairns awa' fae's skweel." W. Alexander, Johnny Oibb, c. 19. 



170 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" The laird himsel' said, 'at hoo the bairns had never gotten 
on naething like it wi' ony ither body." G. Macdonald, David 
Elginbrod, I, c. 6. 

146. Causal. 

'Cause (because), kaz, sae (so), se, sin* (since), sjn, noo than, 
nu San (now then) : 

" Ye maunna think, hooever, 'cause sic longin' thouchts come 
ower me, that I gang aboot the hoose girnin' and compleenin'." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 44. 

" I whiles speak as I think, an' whiles as I feel ; sae dinna 
misjudge me." D. Gilmour, Paisley Weavers, c. 3. 

"I'll speak to the laird himsel' sin' ye'll no hear me." G. 
Macdonald, David Elginbrod, I, c. 6. 

147. Adversative or concessive particles. 

(a) With co-ordinate statements. 

Edder, 'edar, " either "; nedderin, 'nedarm ; netherins, 'neSa- 
rinz ; naitherans, " neither " ; hot, bot, bjt, " but " ; natheless, 
naithless, 'neOles, " nevertheless " : 

"Naw, I hardly think't I'll fash wi' that edder." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 15. 

"An' he not nae leems till't, nedderin." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 15. 

" I dinna like it naitherins." Picken, Poems. (W.) 

" Bot ay, 'am mylane wi' thee." P. Hately Waddell, Psalm 
Ixxiii, 25 (Tr.). 

"Natheless, it is ill travelling on a full stomach." Scott, 
Pirate, c. 11. 

" Naithless some waggish trickster loon 
Aye put the Bailie off the tune." 

Spence, Poems. (W.) 

(b) With subordinate clauses. 

For all, for a, ifar'a: ; for a' as, 'far'a: az ; for as... as, an 
emphatic " although " : 

" I'm no without some wits, for a' I'm a woman." Hunter, 
J. Inwick. (W.) 

" She doubted na that the pasture might be very gude, for 



GRAMMAR 171 

the grass looked green, for as drouthy as the weather had been 
(although the weather had been very drouthy)." Scott, Heart 
of Midlothian, c. 41. 

"Katherine has a gae sharp tongue when she's lowst, for 
'a as quait's she luiks." D. Gilraour, Paisley Weavers, c. 8. 

148. Hypothetical conjunctions. 

Hypothetical : Gin, gin ; gif, gif; an = " if" ; onless, without, 
'cep = (l unless " : 

" An her luikin a' the time 't a bodie speaks till 'er as gin 
butter wudna melt in her cheek." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, 
c. 8. 

"Gif I micht advise you as ye advised him." D. Gilmour, 
Paisley Weavers, c. 4. 

"Mony o' them wadna mind a bawbee the weising a ball 
through the Prince himsell, 'an the chief gave them the wink." 
Scott, Waverley, n, c. 22. 

" Onless they can haun in a gowpen o' siller." D. Gilmour, 
Paisley Weavers, c. 3. 

" I hae kent mony an honest man wadna hae ventured this 
length without he had made his last will and testament." Scott, 
Rob Roy, c. 27. 

" But ridickleous for the size o' 't, 'cep' ye gie 't room." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forces, c. 80. 

149. Temporal conjunctions. 

Temporal : Or, afore = " before " ; aifter, 'eftar ; efter, 'eftar 
= " after " ; ance, as sune's = " as soon as " ; gin " by the time 
that " : 

" There will no be a dry thread amang us or we get the cargo 
out." Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 40. 

" Will ye mak' a prayer for yir auld dominie afore we pairt ? " 
Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, " Domsie," c. 3. 

"Wantin 5 gundy efter ye've ett twa apples." J. J. Bell, 
Wee Macgreegor, c. 5. 

" An' tell 'im that he'll be expeckit, gin the spring war in, 
to drive a fawmily convaiyance to the kirk every Sabbath." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 48. 



172 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Again, a'gen, a'gen, is, used as a conjunction, in the sense of 
" in preparation for the time that " : 

"I hae just been putting your honour's things in readiness 
again ye were waking." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 23. 

The standard usage allows " against " in this sense : Dickens 
has, in The Pickwick Papers, " Throw on another log of wood 
against father comes home." 

150. Comparative conjunctions. 

Comparative: Nor, na, as, gin, gin; or = " than"; sae-s, 
se z = " so-as " ; 's = " as " ; by'se (as, in comparison with), baiz : 

" That's better gin naething." J. B. Salmond, M. M. S., c, 11. 

" I wish he wad, for he kens better nor me hoo to set aboot 
the job." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 3. 

" The big ane's bigger na usual." J. M. Barrie, Thrums, c. 2. 

" It's as weel to come sune's syne, lass." D. Gilmour, Paisley 
Weavers, c. 8. 

" Sae dear's that joy was bought, John, 
Sae free the battle fought, John." 

Baroness Nairne, The Land o the Leal (Song). 

" Better soon as syne ; better a finger aff as aye wagging." 
Scott, Rob Roy, c. 18. 

"For the whole place aye seems fu' o' a presence, an' it's 
a hantle mair to me nor the kirk an' the sermon forby." G. 
Macdonald, David Elginbrod, I, c. 7. 

" Little to be expeckit fae them, by'se fae the set o' leern't 
(learned) men't hed ta'en upo' them to provoke them to mischief." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 18. 



CHAPTER IX 

INTERJECTIONS 

151. Summoning interjections. 

Hae, he: ; haw, ha:, hey, hei calling a person, in order to 
offer something ; a form of " have." 

" ' Hae then/ said she, placing the dish before him, ' there's 
what will warm your heart.' " Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 46. 

Or to have the person listen to a remark : 

" And from a window above came a jeering hail ' Haw, you 
wi' the fancy hat ! ' " J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 10. 

" Hey! what are ye daein' there?" A. Geikie, Scottish Remi- 
niscences, c. 6. 

152. Assertive interjections. 

Assertive particles : sang, sai) ; 'od, 'odd, od ; nyod, njod, 
pod ; sail, sal ; sal, sal ; ma certies, ma 'sartiz ; ma certes, ma 
'sartez, my certy, my certie ; 'deed, did ; fegs, fegz ; by faigs, 
bai fegz ; by crivens, bai 'knvanz ; wow, WAU ; catch them ; 
catch us ; mind ye : 

Sang precedes a deliberative statement : 

"Sang, she'll better nae try't though." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 15. 

Od, odd of mild surprise. 

" Od, man, your name has travelt far faurer nor these wee 
legs '11 ever carry yoursell." A. Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, 
c. 6. 

Nyod implies pleasant assertion : 

"He added 'Nyod, that's capital fusky.'" W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 13. 

Sail (upon my soul) is an expression of astonishment or 
admiration : 

"When Mrs Macfayden allowed it to ooze out in the Kil- 
drummie train that she had obtained a penny above the market 



174 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

price for her butter, she received a tribute of silent admiration, 
broken only by an emphatic ' Sail ' from Hillocks." Ian Maclaren, 
Days of A. L. S., "A Triumph in Diplomacy." 

" My certy, but this makes a perfect feel (fool) o' the kirk 
o' Foot Dee." A. Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, c. 13. 

" ' Proud, John ? ' 

' 'Deed, ay ! ' " J. J. Bell, Wanderers Return. 

"Ma certies, Janet, but that's a sicht for a hungry man." 
Scotsman, Nov., 1909. (The Roarin' Game.) 

"And fegs he did it tae perfection." Scotsman, Nov., 1909. 

"'By faigs, Sandy,' says I, 'that's waur....'" J. B. Salmond, 
M. M. S., c. 2. 

" By crivens, he's gotten a richt horse for Donal', noo." J. B. 
Salmond, M. M. S., c. 1. 

" O, wow, my winsome bairn, Cuddie." Scott, Old Mortality, 
c. 6. 

Catch them or catch us implies a negative, with emphasis : 

" They want mair daylight, likely ? Catch them." H. Mac- 
laine, M. F. the P., p. 66. 

" Catch us, we're no sae Gaelic." H. Maclaine, M. F. the P., 
p. 91. 

" Mind ye, its awfu' eerie bein' at sea in the nicht-time." 
H. Maclaine, M. F. the P., p. 94. 

153. Ejaculations of discomfort. 

Exclamations of weariness, regret, sorrow. 

Sirce-me, strs-mi ; sirce the day, hegh, hex ; hegh sirs, imply 
woe or sadness or weariness : 

" Thirce me, neebour, I'm thorry for ye ! Thith ith a terrible 
affair." G. Douglas, H. with Green Shutters, c. 24. 

" Eh, sirce me ; an' me was so happy no mony 'oors syne." 
J. B. Salmond, M. M. S., c. 8. 

Aichy ex, is an expression of fatigue : 

" The verra attemp' an' dinna ye think that I haena made 
it aich." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 70. 

Och hone, ox hon, is an exclamation of distress or weariness : 
" ' Och hone ! och hone ! ' said Granny from her bed." G. 
Macdonald, Robert Falconer, c. 13. 



GRAMMAR 175 

" Ohone ! ohone ! the day o' grace is by at last ! " G. 
Macdonald, Robert Falconer, c. 13. 

Ochan; a Highland expression of sorrow or lament: 

" Ochan, ochan ; hanging a man for stealing sheeps ! " A. 
Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, c. 8. 

Willawins /, 'wilawmz, " alas ! " : 

" Willawins ! willawins ! Such a misfortune to befa' the 
house of Ravenswood, and I to live to see it." Scott, B. of 
Lammermoor, c. 11. 

" Oh, Willawins, Mons Meg, for you, 
'Twas firing cracked thy muckle mou'." 

R. Fergusson, King's Birthday at Edinburgh. 

Waesucks ! 'wesAks, " alas ! " : 

" Waesucks ! for him that gets nae lass." 

Burns, Holy Fair. 

154. Ejaculations of astonishment or advice or reproof. 

Megsty me, 'megsti mi ; gweeshteens, 'gwiftinz ; hooly, 'hull ; 
heely, 'hili ; hech, hex ; losh, loj ; losh me, loshtie, wheesht, whisht, 
keep me, keep's a : 

Megsty me ! gweeshteens, express surprise or astonishment : 

" Megsty me, what am I about, daffing all this time here ! " 
Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 16. 

" Gweeshteens, ye've seerly been sair ta'en up." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 14. 

Hooly, heely imply caution or warning : 

" With a sigh, he answered, Hooly enoch, Mrs Bowie, hooly 
enoch." D. Gilmour, Gordons Loan, "The Wanters." 

" Weel, jist heely till I gi'e a cry." W. Alexander, Johnny 
Gibb, c. 11. 

" ' O, hooly, hooly, sir,' she said, ' ye'll wauken oor guidman.' " 
The Jolly Beggar (Song). 

"Hech ! that's a droonin'.awfu' strange, and waur than ane 
and a'." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 39. 

Losh, loshtie imply surprise and deprecation, expostulation 
or sympathy : 

" Losh, Drumsheugh, be quiet." Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, 
" Domsie," c. 2. 






176 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" But losh me ! when we cam' oot the coffin wi' my grannie 
in't was awa'." A. Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, c. 13. 

"Loshtie man, ye're seerly gyaun gyte." W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 44. 

" Wheest! here's the wife ; no a word aboot it." H. Maclaine, 
M. F. the P., p. 34. 

" ' Oh, whisht ! my bairn ! whisht,' replied Mause." Scott, 
Old Mortality, c. 7. 

" ' Keep me, Sandy.' says I, ' is that whet's brocht ye here ? ' ' 
J. B. Salmond, M. M. S. t p. 5. 

Keep me, keeps a' are somewhat similar in usage to 
losh me : 

" Keep's a', Burnbrae, is that you ? " Ian Maclaren, Days of 
A.L.S.," For Conscience Sake." 

Hoot awa, hut a'wa: ; hout tout, hut tut ; hoots, huts ; hout 
fie (feu), convey mild expostulation and reproof: 

" Hout awa, the laws are indifferently administered here to 
a' men alike." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 18. 

" ' Hout tout, neighbor, ye mauna take the warld at its word/ 
said Saddletree." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 11. 

" Hoots, lassie, I never got a telegram in a' my days." J. J. 
Bell, The Wanderers Return. 

" Hout fie, stir, ye suld aye be taking." Scott, Old Mortality, 
c. 23. 

155. Derisive ejaculations. 

Set him up for is a phrase used in derision : 

" Set him up for a confectioner ! " Scott, St Ronaris Well, 

c. 15. 



Shute, Jyt ; himforrit or forward is often added : 
" A lord ! set them up and shute them forward." Scott, 
St Ronaris Well, c. 15. 

156. Exclamations of disgust or impatience. 

Dozen t, doznt (confound it !), implies disgust : 
" ' Dozen't, men, I never thocht o' that,' said Peter Birse, Jr." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 37. 



GRAMMAR 177 

A uch, ax, ox, implies impatience : 

" ' Auch, she's in the shop/ he says heich oot." J. B. Salmond, 
M. M. S., p. 83. 

Sheugh, j fa, Jux, implies impatience and abhorrence : 

" Sheugh, sheugh awa with ye, that hae spilled sae muckle 
blude, and now wad save your.ain." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 17. 

157. Exclamations of resignation or assent. 

Aweel, a'wil, implies submission to what cannot be helped : 

" Aweel ! this body's nothing but a wheen claes to my soul." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 58. 

Weel-a-weel, 'wila'wil, implies assent : 

" ' Come to yer tea, West Mains,' said Myreside cordially. 

'Weelaweel. Thank ye kindly.'" Ramsay, " Emancipation 
of Sandy Macgregor," Scotsman, Nov. '09. 

1 58. Calls to animals ; with colloquial terms. 

Yean, Jen, is an exclamation implying holding back or 
slowing : 

" As each horse passed the gate the driver left its head, and 
took his place by the wheel, cracking his whip, with many a 
'hup horse ; yean horse ; woa lad ; steady ! " G. Douglas, H. with 
Green Shutters, c. 1. 

Hup is also a call to a horse to go to the right ; wind, wynd, 
waind ; wyne, wain, a call to the left. Hence neither hup nor 
wind signifies " to move in no direction whatever " : 

"A feckless loon of a Straven weaver... had catched twa 
dragoon naigs, and he could neither gar them hup nor wind." 
Scott, Old Mortality, c. 23. 

" By their answerin' to our ca' Hup, Wyne, go back, step 
awa." Watson, Poems (1853, Lanarkshire). (W.) 

" Formerly, in speaking to their horses, carters employed hup 
and wynd in ordering them to either side, now mostly high-wo, 
and jee." Jamieson, Dictionary, under haup, hap, hup. 

Proo, proo, prochiemoo, prui, 'prufimu : 

"It is interesting to hear these young women (in south 

Ayrshire) calling to their cows proo, proo, prochiemoo, a call 

which the animals understand and obey. The words are said to be 

a corruption of approchez-moi and to date from the time, three 

G. 12 



178 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

hundred years ago, when French ways and French servants 
were widely in vogue throughout Scotland." A. Geikie, Scottish 
Reminiscences, c. 7. 

A cat is called baudrons, baudrins, 'bgidranz, 'baidranz : 
" Auld Hornie did the Laigh Kirk watch 
Just like a winkin baudrons." 

Burns, The Ordination. 

A cat is usually addressed as "Pussy baudrons" : 
" Poussie, poussie baudrons, 

What got ye there ? 
I got a fat inousikie 
Binning up a stair." 

Chambers, Popular Rhymes. (W.) 

A dog, especially a collie or shepherd's dog, is spoken of as 
bawty, 'bgiti, r ba:tt, and so addressed : 

" The Spanish empire's tint a head, 
An' my auld teethless Bawtie's dead." 

Burns, Elegy on the Departed Year, 1788. 
A stray or ill-conditioned dog is a tyke, talk : 
" Wha now will keep you frae the fox, 

Or worrying tykes ? " Burns, The Twa Herds. 
A donkey is cuddie : 

" The auld tinkler bodie, 
Wi' his creel and his cuddie." 

Ballantine, Poems. (W.) 

" The highway is as free to our cuddies as to his gelding." 
Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 8. 

A fox is Tod Lowrie, Todlowrie, 'tod'lAun : 
"Todlowrie, come out o' your den." Scott, Fortunes of 
Nigel, c. 31. 

" Tod Lowrie kens best, wi' his lang head sae sly ; 
He met the pet lammie...." 

Baroness Nairne, The Mitherless Lammie. 
A cow has hawkie, 'hgikj, 'haikj, for a general or pet name ; 
originally applied to a white-faced cow : 

" An' dawtit, twal-pint hawkie's gaen 

As yell's the bill." Burns, Address to the Deil. 



CHAPTER X 

PREFIXES, SUFFIXES AND COMPOUNDS 

PREFIXES 

159. "a-." "a-" takes the place of the St. "be-" in many 
words : 

allow, a'blo: (with intrusive "b"); afore, a'foir; ahint, 
d'h^nt; aneath, a'niO ; asides, a'saidz ; atween, a'twin; ayont, 
9'yont, in place of "below," "before," "behind," "beneath," 
"beside," "between," and "beyond." (See under Prepositions.) 

160. "Be-." 

" Be " is used (1) before verbs to strengthen them, e.g. be- 
grudge " to regret keenly " ; (2) to make nouns into verbs, e.g. 
begowk or begunk " to deceive " ; (3) to form adverbs, belive, 
belyve, ba'laiv, " immediately," " soon " : 

"Then, on the other hand, I beflumm'd (fooled) them wi' 
Colonel Talbot." Scott, Waverley, u, c. 35. 

"But if ye didna fa' in wi' yer father within ten year, ye 
maun behaud (hold yourself) a wee,... an' go awa' ower the sea 
to Calcutta." G. Macdonald, Robert Falconer, c. 14. 

" Belyve, the elder bairns come drapping in." Burns, Cotter's 
Saturday Night. 

161. "For-." 

(a) The prefix for- or fore-, = " early," gives several com- 
pounds. Forbear, 'forber, is " ancestor " : 

"Your grandfather... did some gude langsyne to the forbear 
of this great MacCallummore." Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 26. 

Forenicht = " the early part of the evening." 

" He's very entertaining when he comes over forenicht." S. R. 
Crockett, Minister of Nether Dullery. 

Fore-end = " first-fruits." 

" I send you, out of the fore-end of my earnings, something 
to buy a new gown." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 25. 

122 



180 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

(6) There is another/or- (Ger. ver-) - " against." Foregather, 
forgedder is to " meet for a special purpose " : 

"Dog-dirders an' others forgedderin' to get a house." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 19. 

Also " to meet by chance." 

" If it ever was my fortune to forgather with a Frenchman." 
Moir, Mansie Wauch, c. 25. 

(c) The second for is also used, like ver, of "reversal," 
" destruction," " exhaustion " : 

Forwandered' strayed/' a stronger form of-" wandered " : 

" But he's awa' ower by the Wolfs Slock the day lookin' for 
some forwandered yowes." S. R. Crockett, Tutor of Curlywee. 

Forbear is to " avoid." 

" I know all his haunts, and he cannot forbear them long." 
Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 25. 

Forfeuchan, forTyxan, far'f juxan, " exhausted " : 

" Weel, you may jalouse we were a wee bit forfeuchan when 
we cam' to the kirkyard." A. Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, 
c. 13. 

Forfoughten, far f foxtan,/or/ocAeft, f9r'foxan;forfoochen,for- 
foughen, far'fuxon, is " exhausted with fighting," " wearied out " : 

" Ye're baith o' ye sair forfoochen." Ian Maclaren, Days of 
A. L. S., " Drumsheugh's Love Story," c. 1. 

"I am so forfoughten...that I think I had better ensconce 
myself in one of those bushes." Scott, Legend of Montr ose, c. 14, 

"This good little gentleman that seems sair forfoughen...iri 
this tuilzie." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 28: 

Forfecht, far'fext, is to " weary out " : 

" Fat needs fowk forfecht themsel's fan they hae plenty ? " 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 30. 

Forfain, farTen, is "played out," the opposite of "fain," 
" eager " : 

" I hae putten the gudeman to his bed, for he was e'en sair 
forfain." Scott, Antiquary, c. 26. 

162. " Mis-" 

" Mis-" is associated with what is unpleasant : 

Mishanter is an " accident " : 






GRAMMAR 181 

" There's sae mony mishanters 't we hear o' happenin." W. 
Alexander, Johnny GM, c. 46. 

Mislippen is to " neglect," " abuse " : 

"Ye wudna like to hae neen o' the bucklins mislippen't." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 46. 

Mistryst, mis'traist, is to " alarm " : 

" Pate Macready does say they are sair mistrysted (alarmed 
and annoyed) yonder in their Parliament House about this 
rubbery o' Mr Morris." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 14. 

Misken, mis'ken, is to " mistake " : 

" No man fell so regularly into the painful dilemma of mis- 
taking, or, in Scottish phrase, ' miskenning,' the person he spoke 
to." Scott, St Ronans Well, c. 16. 

Misdoot, mis'dut, is to " suppose what is unpleasant " : 

" I misdoot it's gaun to be terrible weather." S. R. Crockett, 
Ensamples to the Flock. 

163. Negative uses of " on " and " wan." 

" On-," " ohn-" is an equivalent of the English " un." For 
its use with the past part, and gerundive, see under ohn, on : 
Gr. 51 and note. 

Onkenned " unknown." 

Weel, it's no onkenned to you that the twa first Maister 
Slees wraite their sermons." S. R. Crockett, The Three Maister 
Peter Slees. 

" I wadna advise you to keep up expectin' an ondeemas (not 
to be reckoned) price for't." W. Alexander, Johnny GM, c. 6. 

Wan- signifies " absence " or " lack " : 
Wanworth is a " trifle," " what is worthless " : 
"Chain work got at a mere 'wanworth.'" W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 27. 

Wanrestfu, wan'restfa (restless) ; wanuse, wan'juiz (abuse, 
wreck and ruin) ; wanownt, wan'Aunt (unclaimed) : 
" An' may they never learn the gaets 
Of ither vile, wanrestfu' pets ! " 

Burns, Poor Mailie. 



182 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



SUFFIXES. 

164. -Art. 

The suffix -art is used like the old French -ard to form 
personal words, adjectives and nouns : 

Thrawart, '9rawart, is " difficult/' " unpleasant," " hard " : 

"Mony a thrawart job I hae had wi' her first and last." 
Scott, H. of Midlothian, c. 12. 

Willyard (with intrusive y) is " obstinate " : 

" Uh ! uh ! it's a hardset willyard beast this o' minS." Scott, 
H. of Midlothian, c. 12. 

165. Absence of " -d" " -ed" in past participles. 

The dental termination of the past participle, borrowed from 
French or Latin, does not take on final " -d " or " -ed " in Scottish. 
Compare modern London usage, " situate " = " situated." 
"John Anderson, my jo, John, 
When we were first acquent (acquainted)." 

Burns (Song). 

"Domsie's a thraun body at the best, and he was clean 
infatuat' wi' George." Ian Maclaren, Brier Bush, " Domsie," c. 3. 

166. -El. 

-El of direction implies "towards," the converse of lin, 
implying "direction from." (For lin = Eng. ling in "darkling," 
see par. 176.) 

" O, if ye get to easel or wessel again I am undone." Scott, 
Guy Mannering, c. 1. 

"Now, weize yoursell a wee easel ward." Scott, Antiquary, 
c. 7. 

" How do you this blae eastlin wind, . 
That's like to blaw a body blind ? " 

Burns, Letter to James Tennant. 

" Erskine, a spunkie Norland (Norlin ?) billie." Burns, 
Author's Earnest Cry. 

(The resemblance in sound between -lin and -Ian (= " land ") 
has no doubt led to a confusion between the two suffixes.) 



GRAMMAR 183 

167. -En, -ern. 

The termination " -n," " -en," " -ern " occurs where the 
standard English has the simple noun or some other termination : 

"The west Post is of stonern work." Scott, Fortunes of 
Nigel, c. 2. 

" They had pillaged my mither's auld house sae, that beechen 
bickers and treen trenchers and latten platters were whiles the 
best at our board." Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 5. 

168. -Er. 

-Er takes the place of final "-e" in words like "orange," 
" lozenge," probably by sympathy with " messenger," " dowager " : 

" Mr Broon was fair divertit, an' gi'ed her yin o' his cough 
lozengers." J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 2. 

" He cam hame frae the Sawbath-schule suree the ither nicht 
wi' fower Grangers an' guid kens hoo mony pokes o' sweeties." 
J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 3. 

169. -Erie. 

Sc. -erie, St. " -ery." -Erie is used freely like standard -ery 
in " trumpery," but with a French flavour : 

" There's a wee spicerie of I'll no say what in this." Gait, 
Sir A. Wylie, II, c. 1. 

" What's the need o' a' this fasherie ? " /&., II, c. 7. 

"He has corned between me and as muckle spreicherie 
('sprixari), as wad hae made a man of me for the rest of my life." 
Scott, The Pirate, c. 7. 

170. -Fast. 

The termination -fast occurs in the compound bedfast 
(confined to one's bed) : 

" It laid me bedfast for a fortnight." Wilson, Tales B., " The 
Deserted Wife." 

171. -Fu'. 

Sc. -fu, St. " -ful." 

"She's a rale genteel wumman, an' awfu' easy offendit." 
J. J. Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 3. 



184 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

-Fu* implies the subjective condition; fearfu is "timid," 
sooth/u' is "honest," waefu is "melancholy" or "sad." The 
suffix implying the production of a condition is -some (q.v.). 

172. -Reid. 

-Heid, hid, takes the place of St. " -hood" and is used in 
different combinations; bairnheid, maidenheid, youthheid, nee- 
bourheid, 'nibarhid, liveliheid, 'laivlihid : 

"Your mither's wull wud be a law to ye sae lang, i' yer 
bairnheid." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 49. 

"...Toil't awa' upo' this plan fae youthheid to aul' age." 
W. Alexander,. Johnny Gibb, c. 44. 

" An' gi'e industrious fowk the means o' makin' a liveliheid." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 47. 

" He's been a great freen to the cause in this neebourheid." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 31. 

173. Sc. use of diminutive "-ie." 

-le is a diminutive suffix particularly common in Scottish, 
and passages where it occurs in the vernacular cannot be rendered 
into standard English without dropping the diminutive form : 

"I bide i' that wee hoosie (house) down at the brig." G. 
Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 38. 

"It wad flee nae mair nor a deid deukie (duck) i' this 
weather." G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 16. 

"But Peter showed nae regard for either the bit tender 
lammie (lamb) or its mother." Wilson, Tales B., " The Deserted 
Wife." 

In some quarters, for instance in Dumfriesshire, it is added 
to nouns whenever the sentence is thus made to run more 
smoothly. Probably this explains its appearance in the House 
with the Green Shutters, the locality of which, Ochiltree in 
Ayrshire, is close to the Dumfriesshire border : 

" From sidie to sidie they swung till the splash-brods were 
skreighing on the wheels." 

This usage is also found in the Aberdeen and Forfarshire 
district. The saying which is quoted makes no reference to a 
diminutive man or horse : 






GRAMMAR 185 

" It's jist sic mannie, sic horsie at ween the twa for thab 
maitter." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 19. 

174. -Le. 

There is a curious termination -le in the north of Sc. equi- 
valent to -ful, e.g. " A seckle o' corn," i.e. a sackful ; " a platle 
o' pottage " ; " a spadle o' muck " ; " a cairtle o' peats " ; "a hantle 
o' fowk." 

In Buchan, Abd., they have an adj. forgetle = forgetful. 
Under date of 7th Sept. 1515, in the Aberdeen Council Register, 
" The quhilk day, David Brownn grantit him award to my lord 
the Elect of Abirdene iiii xx Cartill of dry petis." 

Alexander Hume in 1598 wrote : " In abating from the word 
following, we in the North use a mervelouse libertie. As... a 
ship'l of fooles, for a shipful of fooles." 

Hantle (a small portion) is not confined to the North-East, 
but is common south of the Forth. Murray suggests two ety- 
mologies: (1) anted Scandinavian for "a number," which suits 
the meaning ; (2) -le = -ful, handful, hankie, hantle ; but handfu 
is common in all the dialects. 

175. -Like. "-Like" after adjectives. 

-Like attached to adjectives qualifies the meaning, giving it 
a more general bearing : 

Wise-like, wais-laik, means "presenting a good appearance " : 

" ' Ye ken what ye're about, wricht,' said Hillocks. . ., ' an' ye've 
turned out a wise-like kist.' " Ian Maclaren, Days of A. L. S., 
" A Servant Lass," c. 1. 

" ' The awfu'-like thing,' as Miss Mizy ever afterward spoke 
of the schoolboy's conspiracy." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, i, c. 3. 

" Everything about the house was, to use her own phrase, 
' in wyselike order.' " Cross, Disruption, c. 1. 

Wainistit-like, 'wenift laik, is " having a shrunken appear- 
ance." 

"I was thinkin' 'im luikin jist raeLwainish't-like aboot the 
queets." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 35. 

" ' Daft-like !,' she had pronounced it. ' A jaiket that'll no 
meet.' " R. L. Stevenson, Weir of H., c. 6. 



186 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

176. "-Lin," "-lins," "-lang," of way or condition. 

-Lin, -lins, is a termination signifying " way," " condition," 
or "direction," surviving in English poetry in "darkling" 
(in the dark). In Scottish it is found with adverbs, adjectives 
and nouns : 

Halflin(s) or hafflins, 'haifljnz, 'hafljnz, 'hqifljnz, is " half- 
grown " : 

"Chiefly through the exertions o' a hafflins laddie whose 
name was James Patrick." Wilson, Tales B., " Willie Wastle's 
Wife." 

Also "partly": "While Jennie halflins is afraid to speak." 
Burns, Cotter's Saturday Night. 

Hinderlins, 'hfncforlinz, are the " hindquarters " : 

" We downa bide the coercion of gude braid-claith about our 
hinderlins." Scott, Rob Roy, c, 23. 

Blindlins, 'blincftinz, is " in a blind condition " : 

" ' Na, na ; I could gang hame blindlins,' remonstrated Annie." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 29. 

Oughtlins, " in any way," " at all " : 

" Or if he was grown oughtlins douser." Burns, To a Gentle- 
man Who Had Sent Him a Newspaper. 

Another form of -lin is -lang : 

Endlang, 'endlaij, is " on end," " continually " : 

"He never could preach five words of a sermon endlang." 
Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 11. 

177. -Most 

" -Most " is found as a suffix, with intensive force, in the 
word bunemost : bune " above." 

" I crammed them (the supplications) baith into his hand, and 
maybe my ain was bunemost." Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 4. 

178. "-Ock" as a diminutive. 

-Ock is used freely in a familiar way as a diminutive ; 
boiurock, 'burak; winnock, 'wjnak (small window); gullock, 
'gAlak ("small beetle"), bannock (small bun), bittock (little 
bit): 






GRAMMAR 187 

"Sequestered for near a month in a bowrock (little bower 
or cottage) of old cold ruins on the Bass." R. L. Stevenson, 
David Balfour, c. 17. 

" The ' three mile ' diminished into ' like a mile and a bittock.' " 
Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 1. 

The combination of -ock and -ie gives -ockie, -ukie, which 
implies something very small indeed ; and wee bit is often pre- 
fixed, giving a very intensive diminutive form : 
" There was a wee bit wifukie, was comin' frae the fair, 

Had got a wee bit drappukie, that bred her meikle care." 
Alexander Geddes, The Wee Wifukie. 

179. -Oot, -out. 

Out, oot, ut, as a suflfix signifies " outside," " in the Open " : 

"It lats fowk get the young beasts keepit thereoot." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 37. 

A gang -thereout, 'garjlforut; rintheroot, 'rmttarut, is "one 
fond of gadding or going outside " : 

"I daurna for my life open the door to ony o' your gang- 
thereout sort o' bodies." Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 1. 

" Ye'll be drooned afore the mornin'. . ., ye fashous rintherout." 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 62. 

180. -Ous. 

The French facheux is found in Sc. as fasheous, fashous, 
fashions = " troublesome," one of the many borrowings from 
France during the century and a half of close alliance : 
" Tell them frae me, wi' chiels be cautious, 
For, faith ! they'll aiblins fin' them fashious." 

Burns, Letter to James Tennant. 

This may explain the formation, or at least the final form, 
of byous = " extraordinary " ; as an adverb, " extremely " (cf. 
by-ordinar) : 

"Be sure an' plot 'er milk dishes weel, in this byous 
weather." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 1. 

" I was byous anxious to hear aboot her." 

It has the form bias : 

" Our faithfu' servant Colonel Stuart got nae sic bias cour- 
tesy." St. Johnstoun (1823), IT, 276. (W.) 



188 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

181. -Rick 

Survival of O.E. rw, " province " : 

" They sate dousely down and made laws for a haill country 
and kinrick." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 14. 

182. -Rife. 

Adjectival -rife, rjf = " abundant," makes compound adjec- 
tives, signifying " full of the quality of ." 

Gauldrife is " disposed to chilliness " ; wakerife, 'wekrjf, 
waukrife, 'waikr^f, 'wgikrjf, is "disposed to be watchful or 
wakeful": 

" Their poor forlorn mother sitting by herself at the embers 
of a cauldrife fire." Gait, A. of the Parish, c. 17. 

"There was a wakerife common sense abroad among the 
opinions of men that the new way of ruling was to follow." 
Gait, Provost, c. 28. 

" Wae worth the wife 

That has a waukrife wean, 
A wee stoozie stumpie, 
That winna bide its lane." 

Popular Rhyme. 

COMPOUNDS. 

183. A hint, behint. 

Ahint, behint = " behind " give the compounds : 

Behint-hand, ahint the hand = " behind in payments." 

" Ye ken I never was behint hand." Wilson, Tales B., " The 

Hen-pecked Man." 

" Honest folks that may chance to be a wee ahint the hand, 

like me." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 28. 

184. By, bye. 

By, bai, in the sense of " over " or " past," gives bygane : 

"The ball that the gentry used to hae at my bit house a 
gude wheen years bygane." Scott, St Ronaris Well, c. 2. 

By-gane also = " extra," " beyond," " more " : 

" A lusty, good-looking kimmer, of some forty or by-gane." 
Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 14. 






GRAMMAR 189 

So by-ordinar, 'bai'ornar = " beyond the common/' " extra- 
good," "first-rate": 

"They had a by-ordinar sermon frae a student." Ian 
Maclaren, Days of A. L. 8., "For Conscience' Sake." 

Bye, bai, in the sense of " aside," gives bye-hands : 

" I think we may as weel, for the present, set them bye hands 

(bar hancfe), for I have got dreadful news." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, 

n, c. 30. 

In the sense of extra, bye-bit = an " odd morsel " : 
" I had set that down for a bye-bit between meals for mysell." 
Scott, B. of Lammermoor, c. 3. 

In the sense of "off the regular," to fall bye is to "get 
sick": 

" Some jots o' wark at the Manse offices, that's been lyin' owre 
sin' he fell bye." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 49. 

Bye-ganging, 'baigojjan = " passing " : 

" Where your beasts had been taking a rug of their muirland 
grass in the bye-ganging." Scott, Rob Roy, c. 35. 

To let bye is to " allow to pass " : 

" Gin they'll no let me bye, I maun try to run through aneath 
their legs." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 9. 

By, bye following words like down, north, out signifies "near," 
" in the immediate neighbourhood " : 

" There was a man in a glen north -bye... 'at wes sober." Ian 
Maclaren, Days of A. L. S., "A Nippy Tongue." 

" Noo, man, ye'll jist mak' an erran' owre bye to the smiddy." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 32. 

" The tabledot, as they ca' their new-fangled ordinary down- 
by yonder." Scott, St Ronan's Well, c. 2. 

" Here I am after a trot of sixty mile, or near by (about so 
far)." Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 45. 

With " in," bye signifies " into the house," " inside " : 
"Gang in bye, and up the turnpike stair." Scott, H. of 

Midlothian, c. 12. 

" Gang in bye, and be a better bairn another time." Ibid. y 

c. 4. 



190 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

With " on," bye signifies " along," " in company " : 
" ' Take my way of it/ says he, ' and come on by with the rest 
of us here to Rotterdam.' " R. L. Stevenson, David Balfour, c. 22. 
Owre bye = " over here," " with us " : 

" It's keerious no, that Dawvid sudna been owre bye ere this 
time." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 36. 

To care na by = to " have no interest," to " be indifferent " : 
" For, laik o' gear ye lightly me, 
But, trowth, I care na by." 

Burns, Tibbie, I Hae Seen the Day. 

185. Cam-, kam-. 

Cam, kam is an adjective signifying "awry." (Cf. "This is 
clean kam." Shakespeare, Cor. ill, 304.) 

It is used as the first component with other words to give 
the sense of what is twisted, e.g. camsteary, kam'stiiri, cam- 
stairie ; camstrairie, camstrairy, kam'streiri = " difficult to 
manage," " going the wrong way " : 

" But the'll aye be some camstreary craturs in the warld." 
Ian Maclaren, Days of A. L. $., "Milton's Conversion." 

"And wash Ethiopians in the shape of an east country 
gentleman's camstrairy weans." Gait, A. of the Parish, c. 22. 

" He's a camsteary chield, and fasheous about marches." 
Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 50. 

"'Ye're a camstairie lassie/ said Bruce." G. Macdonald, 
Alec Forbes, c. 21. 

Camseuch, 'kamsyx, is " cross-grained," " crabbed " : 

" Just her camseuch faither, and a thrawn auld limmer o' a 
servant lass." Cross, Disruption, c. 6. 

Ramshackle, 'kamfakl, is " twisted " or " mixed-up." 

" It's sae kamshackle, I canna word it." Hogg, Tales. (W.) 

186. Deil in compounds. 

Deil in negative phrases has already been treated under 
Adverbs, par. 79. Deil haet : 

" Tho' deil haet ails them, yet uneasy." 

Burns, The Twa Dogs. 



GRAMMAR 191 

It is used in various other ways : 

" There is probably still room for a dissertation on the part 
the Devil has played in colouring the national imagination of 
Scotland. As is well known, all over the country instances may 
be found where remarkable natural features are assigned to his 
handiwork. Thus we have ' Devil's punchbowls ' among the 
hills and ' Devil's cauldrons ' in the river-channels. Perched 
boulders are known as 'De'il's putting-stanes,' and natural 
heaps and hummocks of sand or gravel have been regarded as 
' De'il's spadefuls.' Even among the smaller objects of nature 
a connection with the enemy of mankind has suggested itself to 
the popular mind. The common puff-ball is known as the 
* De'il's snuff-box ' ; some of the broad-leaved plants have been 
named ' De'il's spoons ' : the dragon-fly is the ' De'il's darning- 
needle.' Then the unlucky number thirteen has been stigma- 
tized as the ' De'il's dozen/ and a perverse unmanageable person 
as a ' De'il's buckie.' " A. Geikie, Scottish Reminiscences, c. 4. 

187. Doun. 

Phrases and compounds with down, doon, doun, dun : 
Douncome = " fall," " ruin " : 

" It had amaist a douncome lang syne at the Keformation." 
Scott, Rob Roy, c. 19. 

Put down = to " hang," " execute " : 

" And we were a' put down for ane, 
A fair young wanton lady." 

Child's Ballads, Gypsy Laddie, p. 483. 

Doon-laid = " laid-down," " express " : 

"But to cairry oot Sir Simon's doon-laid orders." W. 
Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

Doonsittiri = " resting-place " : 

" Hoot ! hoot ! dinna further the ill hither by makin' a bien 
doonsittin' an' a bed for't." G. Macdonald, David Elginbrod, c. 13. 

Doon throu' = " in the lower territory," " nearer sea level " : 

" Dr Drogemweal, who had settled ' doon throu',' so as to be 
beyond the limits of his father's ' suchen.' " W. Alexander, 
Johnny Gibb, c. 19. 



192 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Doon the waiter = " down the river Clyde," " at the seaside." 
A Glasgow phrase : 

" Doon the watter, five in a bed, an' takin' your meat on the 
tap o' a tin box is nae holiday wi' ma reckonin'." H. Maclaine, 
M. F. the P., p. 35. 

Doonwith = " downward," " to a later time " : 

"As mony a man frae King Dawvid doonwith afore him.'* 
G. Macdonald, Alec Forbes, c. 73. 

188. Fore,fur,fA.r. 

The word " furrow " is found in the forms fur, fore, to form 
compounds. 

Fur ahin,fur afore, the two " furrow " or right-hand animals 
drawing the plough. The other two in the team were known as 
Ian (land) ahin and Ian afore : 

" My fur-ahin's a wordy beast 
As e'er in tug or tow was traced." 

Burns, The Inventory. 

"I might as weel hae tried to drive our auld fore-a-hand 
(=fur-ahin) ox without the goad." Scott, Old Mortality, c. 13. 

189. Gate, gait. 

Gate signifies " road," " way." The Canongate in Edinburgh 
is a continuation of High Street, leading down from the Tron to 
Holyrood ; the Cbwgate is the road by which the cattle were 
formerly driven to market. In Glasgow the Trongate is " Market 
Street." In Ayr, Burns's town, Sandgate is the thoroughfare 
west of High Street, and closer to the sands. 

Naegate or naegait signifies " in no wise " or " nowhere." 

Outgait = " going about," " visiting " : 

" She was a fine Leddy maybe a wee that dressy and fond 
o' outgait." Gait, Sir A. Wylie, I, c. 28. 

That gate signifies "in that manner" : 

"Dear brother, dinna speak that gate o' the gentlemen 
volunteers." Scott, The Antiquary, c. 6. 

Other gate is used as an adjectival phrase = " different," "a 
different kind of": 

" But Solomon should sit in other gate company than Francis 
of France." Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, c. 5. 



GRAMMAR 193 

190. In. 

In about " under one's influence " : 

" An' fan the like o' 'im's amo' them that canna keep 'im in 
about." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 23. 

Income = (a) a contracted disease affecting the general 
health : 

" Afflicted with the rheumatics, and suchlike incomes." Gait, 
The Steamboat, c. 4. 

(6) a tumor or gathering : 

" Maister John, this is the mistress ; she's got a trouble in 
her breest ; some kind o' an income, I'm thinking." John Brown, 
Rob and His Friends. 

In/are = a reception after the wedding at the bridegroom's 
new home : 

" At bridal and infare I've braced me wi' pride." J. Baillie, 
Todliri Name, p. 350. 

Infield, in-field, infeedle (Abd.) ; see quotation 1 : 

" The part of the township properly arable, and kept as such 
continually under the plough, was called in-field." Scott, The 
Monastery, c. 1 . 

" The Tower of Glendearg was distant, and there was but a 
trifling quantity of arable or infield land attached to it." Ibid., 
c. 13. 

" That bit elbuck at the back o' your infeedle." W. Alex- 
ander, Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 

Intown, intoon, is another name for the same kind of land : 
"The cultivators... are obliged to bring their corn to be 
grinded at the mill of the territory, for which they pay a heavy 
charge, called the intown multures." Scott, The Monastery, c. 13. 

Inlack, inlaik, intake, signifies " gap," " loss " : 
" Egad, he dashed at the old lord, and there would have 
been inlake among the peerage, if the Master had not whipt 
roundly in." Scott, The Bride of Lammermoor, c. 3. 

Input is " contribution " : 

" . . .Ilka ane to be liable for their ain input." Scott, H. of 
Midlothian, c. 12. 

G. 13 



194 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

191. On. 

On is found in various compounds. 

Onding = 'ondjij, " downfall " (ding on) : 

" ( Onding o' snaw, father/ answered Jock, after having opened 
the window, and looked out with great composure." Scott, H. 
of Midlothian, c. 8. 

Ongae, 'onge:, is " business " or " affair," a " going on " : 

" A sad ongae they made o't." W. Alexander, Johnny GM, 
c. 18. 

Oncomes see quotation : 

"The pretended cures which she performed, especially 'in 
oncomes,' as the Scotch call them, or mysterious diseases, 
which baffle the regular physician." Scott, B. of Lammermoor, 
c. 31. 

On-cairry = " carrying on," " celebration " : 

"They've been haein' a gey on-cairry doon at the Ward." 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 17. 

192. Oot-, out-. 

Ootwuth, 'utwAG, is " further," " outlying " : 
" Nae the ootwuth nyeuk o' fat we ca' the Pardes park ? " 
W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 45. 
Out-cast is a quarrel : 

" The twa best herds in a' the wast 

* * * 

Hae had a bitter black out-cast." 

Burns, The Twa Herds. 
Out, oot, ut, is used freely as a prefix : 
Outbye, ootbye, ut'bai, is " outside," " out of doors " : 
" Did ye no' see hoo sweirt he wis to gang ootbye ? " J. J. 
Bell, Wee Macgreegor, c. 8. 

Outfields, ootfeedles (Abd.) are arable lands lying some distance 
from the farmstead : 

" The grun offisher. . .cam' oure to lay aff a bit o' oor ootfeedles 
last year." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 10. 

" There was, besides, out-field land, from which it was thought 
possible to extract a crop now and then, after it was abandoned 



GRAMMAR 195 

to the ' skyey influences/ until the exhausted powers of vegeta- 
tion were restored." Scott, Monastery, c. 1. 

Out an in=" constantly," "intensely"; said of great intimacy : 
" Duncan sighed baith out and in." Burns, Duncan Gray. 
" Out an' in neighbours." Watson, Poems. (W.) 

193. Ower-, owre-, o'er-. 

Owregae, Aur'ge: = to " trespass " (pres. part, owregyaun, 
Aur'gjam) : 

"Gin 'we dinna tak' an order wi' them that's owregyaun the 
laws o' the land." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 42. 

O'ercome, 'AurkAm = " repetition " or " refrain " : 
" An' aye the o'ercome o' his sang 

Was ' Wae's me for Prince Charlie.' " 
Jacobite song usually attributed to WILLIAM GLEN. 

O'erhie, Aur'hi: ; o'erhigh, o'erhye, AUi'hai = "overtake" ; oer- 
turn = " refrain " or " chorus of a song." " At last one of the best 
mounted overhighed the postilion." Crookshank, Hist (1751), 
1. 395. 

Ower and abune " over and above " : 

" There will aye be some odd expenses ower and abune." 
Scott, Guy Mannering, c. 44. 

Owre bye(l) " over here " : 

" It's keerious no, that Dawvid sudna been owre bye ere this 
time." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 36. 

(2) "close at hand": 

" She answered meekly, ' I was taking a dander to him owre- 
bye.' " G. Douglas, H. with Green Shutters, c. 4. 

(3) " across the way " : 

" I saw the Lord Keeper's servants drinking and driving ower 
at Luckie Sma' trash's, owre-bye yonder." Scott, B. of Lammer- 
moor, c. 13. 

194. Up-. 

Upgang, 'Apgarj (an "ascent"); upgive, Ap'gi: (to inform); 
uppit, Ap'ptf (to put up or lodge) ; up-tak, r Aptak (catching-on 
or understanding) : 

132 



196 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"Maybe we will win there the night yet, God sain us; 
though our minnie here's ratherd riegh in the upgang (slow at 
ascent)." Scott, Heart of Midlothian, c. 28. 

"I freely here upgive with thee." Child's Ballads, Outlaw 
Murray, p. 635. 

"Whilk Francis, Yerl o' Bothwell, tenanted o' me for sax 
hale months, and then absconded, without pay in' me a plack for 
his uppitting." Wilson, Tales B., " The Fatal Secret." 

" Hoot- toot- toot, ye're wrang i' the up-tak' (you take me up 
wrongly)." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 10. 

"The notary may be mair gleg i' the uptak' (quicker at 
grasping things) than ye're thinking." Wilson, Tales B., " The 
Fatal Secret." 

Up by, up bye (1) " to the place up there," " in the place up 
there": 

" This was lattin at me, ye ken, for inveetin the coachman 
an' the gamekeeper up bye." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 19. 

(2) Metaphorically, "out of one's reach," "in a high 
position " : 

" Weel, weel, Thomas, we'll get that an' mony ither things 
redd up to us when we gang up by (to heaven)." D. Gilmour, 
Pen Folk, p. 57. 

Up by cairts is a proverbial expression, traditionally traced 
to the eighteenth century. During a heavy snowfall at Aberdeen, 
a fool, Jamie Fleeman, tethered his mare to what he believed 
was the chimney or "lumhead" of a cottage. A thaw came 
during the night, and he found the mare dangling from the 
steeple of the tolbooth. "Ay, faith," said Jamie, "ye're up by 
cairts this mornin'." Wright's Dialect Dictionary (with W. 
Murison as authority). It implies " rising socially " : 

" It winna be in oor day that Willie M c Aul an' the lassie '11 
be so far up b' cairts (well-to-do) as be needin' a castell to baud 
their braw company." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 44. 

Up-throu, 'Ap'OrAU = " the upper part of the country ": 
"A visitor, a particular friend from 'up-throu,' an agricul- 
turist like himself." W. Alexander, Johnny Gibb, c. 11. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM : Johnny Oibb of Gushetneuk in the Parish oj 

Pyketillim; with glimpses of the parish politics about A.D. 1843. 

(Aberdeenshire and Banflfshire.) 
BARRIE, JAMES MATTHEW : Auld Licht Idylls, 1888; A Window in Thrums, 

1889; The Little Minister, 1891. (Forfarshire.) 
BELL, J. J. : Wee Macgreegor, 1903; The Wanderer's Return (The W.'s R.), 

1909; Oh Christina!, 1910. (Glasgow and the Clyde.) 
(BROWN), GEORGE DOUGLAS : The House with the Green Shutters, 1901. 

(South Ayrshire.) 
CHEVIOT, ANDREW : Proverbs, Proverbial Expressions and Popular Rhymes 

of Scotland, 1896. 
CROCKETT, S. R. : The Stickit Minister and Some Common Men, 1893. 

(Galloway.) 
CROSS, WILLIAM : The Disruption, a Tale of Trying Times, 1844. 2nd ed. 

1877. (Renfrewshire.) 
FLOM, GEORGE TOBIAS : Scandinavian Influence on Southern Lowland 

Scotch. New York, 1900, The Columbia University Press. 
GALT, JOHN : The Annals of the Parish, 1821 (A. of P.}; The Steamboat, 

1822 (St.) ; Sir Andrew Wylie of That Ilk, 1822 ; The Provost, 1822 ; 

The Entail, 1823. (Avrshire.) 
GILMOUR, DAVID : Reminiscences of the Pen' Folk, Paisley Weavers of Other 

Days, 1889; Gordon's Loan. (Renfrewshire.) 
Glasgow Herald : the leading paper in the West of Scotland. 
HAMILTON, ELIZABETH : The Cottagers of Olenburnie, 1808. (West Coast.) 
JAMIESON, JOHN : Dictionary of the Scottish Language, in which the words 

are explained in their different senses, authorized by the names of the 

writers by whom they are used, or the titles of the works in which they 

occur, and derived from their originals. New ed. revised and enlarged 

by John Longmuir, 1887. 
MACDONALD, GEORGE : David Elginbrod, 1863 ; Alec Forbes of Howglen, 

1865; Robert Falconer, 1868. (Aberdeenshire.) 
MACLAINE, HEW : My Frierf the Provost (M. F. the P.), 1909. Paisley, 

A. Gardner. (Renfrewshire.) 
MACLAREN, IAN (Rev. John Watson) : Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush, 1895; 

The Days of Auld Lang Syne, 1895. (Perthshire and Stirling.) 
MOIR, DAVID MACBETH : The Life of Mansie Wauch, Tailor in Dalkeith, 

1828. Ed. 1855. (The Lothians.) 



198 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

MURRAY, JAMES A. H. : The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland, 

1873. Originally published in the Transactions of the Philological 

Society of London, 1873. 
RAMSAY, E. B. (Dean) : Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character, 1858. 

(East Coast.) 
ROBERTSON, WILLIAM : Auld Ayr, 1901 ; The Annals of Drumsmudden, 

1903. (Ayrshire.) 
SALMOND, J. B. : My Man Sandy (M.M.S.}, 1894. 3rd ed. London, Sands 

& Co., 1903. (Forfarshire.) 
Saltcoats Herald: local Ayrshire journal. 
SCOTT, SIR WALTER : Waverley, 1814 ; Guy Mannering, 1815 ; The A ntiquary, 

1816; The Black Dwarf, 1816; Old Mortality, 1816; Rob Roy, 1817; 

The Heart of Midlothian, 1818 ; The Bride of Lammermoor, 1819; The 

Legend of Montrose, 1819; The Fortunes of Nigel, 1822 ; Redgauntlet, 

1824; St Ronan's Well, 1824. 

Scotsman : the leading paper in Edinburgh and possibly in Scotland. 
Scottish- American : a New York paper of standing, published weekly for the 

Scotch community in the U.S.A. ; now (1920) in its sixty-fourth volume. 

A. M. Stewart, (late) editor. 
Scottish Review : a weekly paper published in Edinburgh by the firm of 

Nelson during the years 1905 8 ; of excellent literary standing. 
SMITH, G. GREGORY : Specimens of Middle Scots, 1902. Edinburgh, 

Blackwood. 

SMITH, Rev. WILLIAM WYE : The New Testament in Braid Scots, 1894. 
STEVENSON, ROBERT Louis : David Balfour, 1893 ; Weir of Hermiston, 1896. 

(The Lothians.) 
WADDELL, Rev. P. HATELY : The Psalms frae Hebrew intil Scottis ; ed. 

1902. The first ed. appeared in 1871. (Glasgow.) 
Whistle-Binkie : a nondescript miscellany, prose and poetry. Glasgow, 1853 ; 

ed. 1878. (Glasgow and the Clyde.) 
WILSON, JOHN : Tales of the Borders, 1835 40. (Berwickshire and the 

Borders.) 
WRIGHT, JOSEPH : English Dialect Dictionary. Oxford, 1905. (W.) 



PART III 

HEADER 



INTRUSION OF ENGLISH INTO SCOTS 

As Scots and Standard English are descended from the same 
original speech, they contain many words that are still similar 
and even identical in form. The further back we go in the 
history of each dialect, the greater we find this similarity to 
be. The spelling of Scots words is founded on the Midlothian 
dialect spoken at the Scottish Court prior to 1603, while that 
of Standard English represents roughly the London pronuncia- 
tion of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Each dialect is 
presented to the eye in an earlier stage of its history and there- 
fore in a form in which the words are more alike. This partly 
explains the well-known fact that an Englishman finds it easier 
to read Scots than to understand the spoken dialect. 

Before the Union of the Crowns in 1603, many Southern 
words and spellings had crept into our literary Scots, chiefly 
through the influence of our Scottish Chaucerians and of the 
religious writers of the sixteenth century. For nearly 100 years 
after 1603, Scots was used but rarely for literary purposes. 
When it was revived as a medium of poetic expression by 
Ramsay and his followers in the eighteenth century, much of the 
old Scottish vocabulary had been lost, or had been replaced by 
Southern words. English was also taking the place of Scots in 
the pulpit, in the school, on the public platform and in polite con- 
versation. All classes heard the stately language of the Author- 
ized Version every Sunday in the Scripture lesson, in the prayer 
and in the sermon. In many a humble home, too, the language 
of Holy Writ would be used in family worship, in the father's 
exhortation and prayer. Hence in the consciousness of the 
Scottish speaker, English was regarded as the language of 
serious and reasoned discourse and a dignified form of speech 
for strangers and superiors. In the best of our Scottish writers, 
it will be found that an approach to English or the complete 



READER 



201 



substitution of English for Scots, corresponds to a subtle change 
in the mental attitude of the speaker, and is therefore as a rule 
artistically correct. Thus, in Tarn o Shanter, VII A, when 
Burns is moralising, he drops into English, as in the passage 
beginning "But pleasures are like poppies spread." In The 
Cotter's Saturday Night, the dedicatory verse is in English, so 
also are the verses in which the poet speaks about injured 
innocence and the verses that describe the family worship. In 
this poem it should be noted that Burns was using an English 
metre so that Scots did not come to him as readily as when he 
was handling an old Scottish stave. In the extract from 
Johnny Gibb XIV A, Sammy, the piper, makes a ludicrous 
attempt at English in order to impress his boisterous companions, 
"Seelance that shottin this moment or I'll not play anoder 
stroke for no man livinV Again in the extract from Rob Roy, 
II A, Scott makes a subtle distinction between the language of 
the Highland Chieftain and that of his burgher relative, Bailie 
Nicol Jarvie. In the extract from Mansie Wauch X A, the nar- 
rative is couched in a kind of Anglified Scots while the conver- 
sation is in genuine dialect. 

We must not suppose, however, that English spelling always 
means English pronunciation. Examples to the contrary may 
be found in rhymes, and the following are a few culled from our 
extracts : 



Ext. VII A. 


floods rhymes with woods. 


Sc. Ph. 


flAdz wAdz. 


Ext. IX A. 


begyle toil. 


Sc. Ph. 


bi'gail tail. 




roun' town. 


Sc. Ph. 


run tun. 


Ext. XV A. 


trouble nibble. 


Sc. Ph. 


tnbl nibl. 


Ext. XVII B. 


die he, me. 


Sc. Ph. 


di: hi:, mi:. 



On the other hand, numerous examples may be found in the 
rhymes, showing conclusively that English spelling can be 



202 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

interpreted only by English pronunciation, unless the rhyme is 
to be sacrificed. 

Ext. VII A. shoe rhymes with fou. 

Sc. Ph. J0: fu:. 

E. Ph. Ju:. 

Ext. IX A. eye kye. 

Sc. Ph. i: kai. 

E. Ph. ai. 

Ext. IX B. friend attend. 

Sc. Ph. frin a'tend 

E. Ph. frsnd. 

Ext. X B. dwell well (adv.). 

Sc. Ph. dwal wil. 

Ext. XIII B. four door. 

Sc. Ph. fAusr do:r. 

E. Ph. foir. 

day away. 

Sc. Ph. de: a' war. 

E. Ph. 9'we:. 

Yet in this same Extract XIII B, away is made to rhyme 
correctly with a:, E. all. 

It is evident, then, that the Scottish versifier often has 
recourse to English to eke out his rhymes, and this practice of 
borrowing from the sister dialect has been extended to the body of 
the verse and to prose. We have already seen (Intro, pp. xx, xxi) 
that Stevenson openly boasts of using English when his rhyme 
jibs. Allan Ramsay set the pernicious example of writing 
popular songs in Anglified Scots or Scottified English and he 
has had many imitators no doubt because these abominations 
are well received in English music halls and command a high 
price. Now it must be admitted that there are districts in 
Scotland where the mixture of .population has led to a curious 
amalgam of English and Scots, and that writers who seek local 
colour are perfectly entitled to use such a hybrid dialect, but it 
should not pass muster as Scots. Good Scots, notwithstanding 
the School Board, may still be heard in many parts of the country, 
particularly in Buchan, Caithness, Roxburgh, Forfar, Galloway ; 






READER 203 

and something should be done to foster it. Instead of weakly 
using an English equivalent our writers should strive to find 
the appropriate native word; and if they are to succeed, a 
thorough knowledge of a living dialect is absolutely essential. 
Scots writers, furthermore, ought to know something of the 
history of their language and of its grammar in so far as it 
differs from Standard English. They should be steeped in 
ancient and modern Scots literature, so that they can draw 
from the literary vocabulary as well as from their own local 
speech. To this end we ought to have a systematic study of 
our old national speech and literature in our schools and 
colleges. The Scottish Language can never be national in the 
same sense as it was before King Jamie left Auld Reekie for 
the delights of London town, but there are still some features 
of Scottish life and character that find their truest and most 
artistic expression in the Northern Lede. Burns and Scott and 
Barrie and many another writer are sufficient proof of this. 
Every Scotsman should take a pride in being bilingual and 
refuse to merge his individuality in the Englishman, however 
much he may glory in being a citizen of the British Empire. 






204 



I A. GLAUD AND SYMON 

THE GENTLE SHEPHERD. 

ALLAN RAMSAY (1686-1758). 

ACT SECOND, SCENE I. 

A snug thack-house, before the door a green ; 
Hens on the midden, ducks in dubs are seen. 
On this side stands a barn, on that a byre ; 
A peat-stack joins, an' forms a rural square. 
The house is Glaud's there you may see him lean, 
An' to his divot-seat invites his frien'. 
Time 11 A.M. 

Glaud. Good-morrow, neibour Symon come, sit down, 
An' gie's your cracks. What's a' the news in town ? 
They tell me ye was in the ither day, 
An' said your crummock, an' her bassen'd quey. 
I'll warrant ye've coft a pund o' cut an' dry ; 
Lug out your box, an' gie's a pipe to try. 

Symon. Wi' a' my heart ; an' tent me now, auld boy, 
I've gather 'd news will kittle your heart wi' joy. 
I cou'dna rest till I cam o'er the burn, 
To tell ye things hae taken sic a turn, 
Will gar our vile oppressors stend like flaes, 
An' skulk in hidlings on the heather braes. 

Glaud. Fy, blaw ! Ah, Symie ! rattling chiels ne'er stand 
To deck an' spread the grossest lies aff-hand, 
Whilk soon flies round, like wild-fire, far an' near ; 
But loose your poke, be't true or fause let's hear. 



205 

I A. GLAUD AND SYMON 

THE GENTLE SHEPHERD. 

ALLAN RAMSAY (1686-1758). 

ACT SECOND, SCENE I. 

a snAg 'Bak'hus, brfbir $9 do:r 9 grin ; 
henz on 59 'midn, *dAks in (khz er sin. 
on Sis S9id 2 stanc?z 9 barn, on Sat 9 3 bair; 
9 'pitstak dg9inz, 9n formz 9 'ruirel skwair. 
S9 bus iz 4 gla:dz Se:r ju me si: him tin, 
9n t9 h{z 'div9t 5 set m'vits iz frin. 

Time 11 A.M. 

4 gla:d. gyd'mor9, 'nibgr 'simgn kAm, sit dun, 
9n gi:z J9r kraks. Avats 4 a: 89 nju:z ^n tun ? 
Se tel mi ji W9z \n 89 'iSgr de:, 
9n 4 sa:y J9r 'krAmgk, 9n 9r basnt kwe:. 
9! warn jiv koft 9 pAnrf o kAt n drai ; 
Ug ut J9r 6 boks, 9n gi:z 9 p9ip t9 trai. 

/ sini9n. wi 4 a: ni9 hert; 9n tent mi nu:, 4 a:lo? 7 boi, 
9V 'geS9rt nju:z 8 w^l kitl jgr hert wi 7 dzoi. 
9 'kAdng rest til 9 kam Aur tte bArn, 
t9 tel ji 0inz he 'takgn sik 9 tArn, 
8 wil 9 ga:r 10 ur vgil 9'pres9rz stend Igik fleiz, 
9n skAlk in 'h^dl^nz on S9 'hsSgr bre:z. 

4 gla:d. far, 4 bla: ! a:, 'simi ! 'rattan t/ilz ne:r 2 stanc? 
t9 klek 9n sprsd S9 'gros9st li:z af 2/ hanrf 

n syn fliiz runcZ, bik wAPfair, fair 9n ni:r; 
IAUZ J9r pok, bi:t tru: or 4 fa:s 12 lsts hi:r. 






2 a: 3 9i 4 91 5 i 6 o 7 01 8 A 9 s 10 wAr, wir, W9r 
u jyn 1^,9 



206 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Symon. Seeing's believing, Glaud ; an' I have seen 
Hab, that abroad has wi' our master been ; 
Our brave good master, wha right wisely fled, 
An' left a fair estate to save his head : 
Because, ye ken fu' weel, he bravely chose 
To stand his Liege's friend wi' great Montrose. 
Now Cromwell's gane to Nick ; and ane ca'd Monk 
Has play'd the Rumple a right slee begunk, 
Restor'd King Charles, an' ilka thing's in tune ; 
An' Habby says, we'll see Sir William soon. 

Glaud. That maks me blyth indeed ! but dinna flaw 
Tell o'er your news again ! and swear till't a'. 
An' saw ye Hab ! an' what did Halbert say ? 
They hae been e'en a dreary time away. 
Now God be thanked that our laird's come hame ; 
An' his estate, say, can he eithly claim ? 

Symon. They that hag-rid us till our guts did grane, 
Like greedy bears, daur nae mair do't again, 
An' good Sir William sail enjoy his ain. 

Glaud. An' may he lang ; for never did he stent 
Us in our thriving, wi' a racket rent ; 
Nor grumbled, if ane grew rich ; or shor'd to raise 
Our mailens, when we pat on Sunday's claes. 

Symon. Nor wad he lang, wi' senseless saucy air, 
Allow our lyart noddles to be bare. 
" Put on your bonnet, Symon tak a seat. 
How's a' at hame ? How's Elspa ? How does Kate ? 
How sells black cattle ? What gies woo this year ? " 
And sic-like kindly questions wad he speer. 

Glaud. Then wad he gar his butler bring bedeen 
The nappy bottle ben, an' glasses clean, 
Whilk in our breasts rais'd sic a blythsome flame, 
As gart me mony a time gae dancing hame. 
My heart's e'en raised ! Dear neibour, will ye stay 



READER 207 

'siman. 'sianz brli:vn, 1 glaid; an a hav sin 
hab, Sat a'brod haz wi 2 ur 'rnestar bin ; 
2 ur breiv gyd 'mestar, 1 Ava: rixt 'waisli fled, 
an left a fe:r fstet ta se:v \z hsd : 
br'ka.-z, ji ksn fu wil, hi breivli t/oiz 
ta 3 stand hiz 'lidgaz frind wi gret man'troiz. 
nu: 'kromwalz ge:n ta nik; an 4 en 1 ka:d mAnk 
haz pleid Sa rAmpl a rixt sli: bi'gAnk, 
n'sto:rt kir) t/arlz, an 'ilka Girjz in tyn ; 
an 'habi seiz, wil si: 5 s^r wilm 6 syn. 

1 gla:d. Sat maks mi blai6 m'did ! bat 'dm??a 1 fla: : 
tel AUF jar njuiz a'gen! an swi:r tilt 1 ai. 
an 1 sa: ji hab ! an Aiat did 'habart se: ? 
Se he: bin i:n a 'dri:ri taim a'we:. 
nu god bi 'Sarjkat Sat 2 ur lerdz kAm hem ; 
an hiz I'stet, se:, kan hi 'iGli klem ? 

'siman. Se: Sat hog'rid AS til 2 ur gAts did gren, 
laik 'gridi be:rz, x da:r ne: me:r d0:t a'gen, 
an gyd 5 s^r wilm sal 7 ^n / d3oi hiz e:n. 

J gla:d. an me: hi lar) ; for 'mvar did hi stsnt 
AS in 2 ur 'Sraivan, wi a 'rakat rent ; 
nor grAmlt, if 4 en gru: ritj; or Jo:rd ta re:z 
2 ur 'melanz, Avan wi pat on 'sAndiz kle:z. 

r siman. nor 9 wad hi Ian, wi 'senslas 1/ sa:si e:r, 
a'lu: 2 ur 'laiart 8 nodlz ta bi be:r. 
" pit on jar 'bonat, 'siman tak a set. 
hu:z l a: at hem? hu:z 'slspa ? hu: diz ket ? 
hu: sslz blak katl ? Avat gi:z ^u: Sis i:r ? " 
an siklaik 'kaindli 'kwsstanz 9 wad hi spi:r. 

1 gla:d. San 9 wad hi 10 ga:r h{z 'bAtlar brir) br'din 
Sa 'napi 8 botl bsn, an 'glssaz klin, 
AVAlk in 2 ur brists n re:zd sik a 'blaiSsam flem, 
an 10 ga:rt mi 12 'mom a taim ge: 'dansan hem. 
ma herts i:n n re:zd! di:r 'nibar, wil ji ste: 



2 wAr, wir, war 3 a: 4 j^n 5 A 6 /yn 
rest 12 o, a, A 



208 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

An' tak your dinner here wi' me the day ? 
We'll send for Elspa too an' upo' sight, 
I'll whistle Pate an' Roger frae the height ; 
I'll yoke my sled, an' send to the neist town, 
An' bring a draught o' ale baith stout an' brown ; 
An' gar our cottars a', man, wife, an' wean, 
Drink till they tine the gate to stand their lane. 

Symon. I wadna bauk my friend his blyth design, 
Gif that it hadna first of a' been mine : 
For ere yestreen I brew'd a bow o' maut, 
Yestreen I slew twa wathers, prime an' fat; 
A furlot o' guid cakes my Elspa beuk, 
An' a large ham hangs reesting in the neuk; 
I saw mysell, or I cam o'er the loan, 
Our meikle pat, that scads the whey, put on, 
A mutton bouk to boil, an' ane we'll roast ; 
An' on the haggies Elspa spares nae cost : 
Sma' are they shorn, an' she can mix fu' nice 
The gusty ingans wi' a curn o' spice : 
Fat are the puddings heads an' feet weel sung ; 
An' we've invited neibours auld an' young, 
To pass this afternoon wi' glee an' game, 
An' drink our master's health an' welcome hame. 
Ye maunna then refuse to join the rest, 
Since ye're my nearest friend that I like best : 
Bring wi' you a' your family ; an' then, 
Whene'er you please, I'll rant wi' you again. 

Glaud. Spoke like yoursell, auld birky, never fear, 
But at your banquet I sail first appear : 
Faith, we sail bend the bicker, an' look bauld, 
Till we forget that we are fail'd or auld. 
Auld, said I ! troth I'm younger be a score, 
Wi' your guid news, than what I was before. 
I'll dance or e'en ! Hey, Madge, come forth ; d'ye hear ? 



HEADER 209 

an tak jar 'denar hi:r \vi mi Sa de: ? 

wil send for 'elspa t<0: an a'po sixt, 

al I AVAS! pet an 'rodgar fre Sa hixt; 

al jok ma sled, an send ta Sa nekst tun, 

an brig a 2 draxt o 3 el be9 stut n brun ; 

an 4 ga:r 5 ur kotarz 6 a:, man, waif, an wen, 

drink til Se tain Sa get ta 2 stand Sar len. 

'siman. a 7 'wadna 6 ba:k ma frind hiz blai9 di'zain, 
gif Sat it 'hadna *fArst o 6 a: bin main : 
for 'e:r ja'strin a bruid a bAu o ma:t, 
ja'strin a slu: 6 twa: 'waSarz, praim an fat ; 
a 1/ fArlat o gyd keks mai 'elspa bjuk, 
an a Ierd3 ham hinz r ristan in Sa njuk; 
a 6 sa: ma'ssl, or a kAm AurSa Ion, 
5 ur mikl pat, Sat skaidz Sa A\ai, pit on, 
a mAtn buk ta bail, an 8 en wil 9 rost ; 
an on Sa 'hagiz, 'slspa spe:rz ne 9 kost : 
6 srna: ar Se 9 Jorn, an Ji kan miks fu nais 
Sa 'gusti 'inanz wi a kArn o spais : 
fat arSa pAdnz 10 hidz an fit wil SATJ; 
an wi:v in'vitat 'nibarz 6 a:lcZ an JAn, 
ta pas Sis 'sftarnyn wi gli: an gem, 
an drink 5 ur 'mestarz hsl0 an 'wslkam hem. 
ji 'manTia San rffjfiiz ta d3ain Sa rest, 
sins ji'ir ma 'niirast frind Sat a laik best; 
brir) wi ji 6 a: jar 'femili; an Sen, 
Avan'eir ji pli:z, al rant wi ju a'gsn. 

6 gla:d. spok laik jar'ssl, 6 a:lcZ 'birk^ 'nivar fi:r, 
bat at jar 'barjkwat a sal 1 fArst a'piir : 
fe9, wi sal bend Sa ^ikar, an ljuk 6 ba:ld, 
til wi far'get Sat wi ar felt or 6 a:ld. 
6 a:ld, sed a! tro9 am JAnar bi a skoir, 
wi jar gyd nju:z, San Avat a waz bi'foir. 
al dans or i:n ! hai, madj, kAm for9, dji hi:r ? 



2 a: 3 jil 4 e 5 wir, war, wAr 6 g: 7 1, A 8 jm 9 o 10 e 
o. 14 



210 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



Enter MADGE. 

Madge. The man's gane gyte ! Dear Symon, welcome here 
What wad ye, Glaud, wi' a' this haste an' din ! 
Ye never let a body sit to spin. 

Glaud. Spin ! snuff ! Gae break your wheel an' burn your tow, 
An' set the meiklest peat-stack in a low ; 
Syne dance about the banefire till ye die, 
Since now again we'll soon Sir William see. 

Madge. Blyth news indeed ! An' wha was't tald you o't ? 

Glaud. What's that to you ? Gae get my Sunday's coat ; 
Wale out the whitest o' my bobit bands, 
My white-skin hose, an' mittans for my hands ; 
Syne frae their washing cry the bairns in haste, 
An' mak yoursells as trig, head, feet, an' waist, 
As ye were a' to get young lads or e'en, 
For we're gaun o'er to dine wi' Sym bedeen. 

Symon. Do, honest Madge an', Glaud, I'll o'er the gate, 
An' see that a' be done as I wad hae't. [Exeunt. 



READER 211 

madg. Sa manz gem gait ! di:r 'siman, 'welkam hiir 
Aiat x wad ji, 2 gla:d, w{ 2 a: Sis hest n din ! 
ji 'mver 3 let a 'bAdi sit ta spin. 

2 gla:d. spin ! snAf ! ge brek jar Aiil n bArn jar tAii, 
an set Sa 'miklast 'pitstak in a IAU ; 
sain dans a'but Sa ben 4 fair til ji di:, 
sins nu: a'gen wil 5 syn 6 s^r wilm si:. 

madg. blaiO njuiz m'did ! an 2 Ava: wast 2 ta:lc? ji ot ? 

2 gla:d. Avats Sat ta ju: ? ge: get ma 'sAndiz kot ; 
wel ut 5a 'Avaitast o ma 'bobit 7 banc?z, 
ma 'Avaitsk^n ho:z, an mitnz for ma 7 hancz; 
sain fre Sar 'wa/an krai Sa 8 bernz m hest, 
an mak jar'sslz az trig, 9 hid, fit, n west, 
az ji war 2 a: ta get JAr) 7 ladz or i:n, 
for wi:r 2 ga:n Aur ta dain wi sim b/din. 

'siman. d^:, 'onast madg an, 2 gla:d, al Aur Sa get, 
an si: Sat 2 a: bi dyn az a x wad het. 



1 1, A 2 g: 3 a, a 4 ai 5 Jyn 6 A 7 a: 



142 



212 



II A. THE FREEBOOTER AND THE BAILIE 

ROB ROY. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT (1771-1832). 
CHAPTER XXIII. 

Bailie Nicol Jarvie, a Glasgow magistrate, pays a visit to the Tolbooth 
of that city, to succour an unfortunate Englishman, the agent of a London 
commercial house, who had been imprisoned for the debts of his firm. The 
Bailie finds two visitors in the prisoner's cell. One of them is Rob Roy, a 
famous outlaw and a cousin of Jarvie's, and the other is a young English 
gentleman, Frank Osbaldistone, the son of the prisoner's employer. The 
conversation that follows brings out clearly the Bailie's Scottish caution, 
his respect for the law, and his keen anxiety, withal, for his kinsman's 
safety. These form a strong contrast to the reckless daring of the freebooter 
and his humorous appreciation of the magistrate's real character. 

" Ah ! Eh ! O ! " exclaimed the Bailie. " My conscience ! 
it's impossible and yet no ! Conscience, it canna be ! and 
yet again Deil hae me ! that I suld say sae Ye robber ye 
cateran ye born deevil that ye are, to a' bad ends and nae 
gude ane can this be you ? " 

" E'en as ye see, Bailie," was the laconic answer. 

" Conscience I if I am na clean bumbaized you, ye cheat- 
the-wuddy rogue, you here on your venture in the Tolbooth o' 
Glasgow ? What d'ye think's the value o' your head ? " 

" Umph ! why, fairly weighed, and Dutch weight, it might 
weigh down one provost's, four bailies', a town-clerk's, six 
deacons', besides stent-masters " 

" Ah, ye reiving villain ! " interrupted Mr Jarvie. " But tell 
ower your sins, and prepare ye, for if I say the word " 

" True, Bailie," said he who was thus addressed, folding his 
hands behind him with the utmost nonchalance, "but ye will 
never say that word." 

"And why suld I not, sir?" exclaimed the magistrate 
" Why suld I not ? Answer me that why suld I not ? " 

" For three sufficient reasons, Bailie Jarvie. First, for auld 
langsyne ; second, for the sake of the auld wife ayont the fire 
at Stuckavrallachan, that made some mixture of our bluids, to 



213 



II A. THE FREEBOOTER AND THE BAILIE 

ROB ROY. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT (1771-1832). 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

"CL: ! e: ! o: ! ma 1 kon/9ns ! its 1 im'posibl an jet 

no: ! i'kon/ans, it 'kanrca bi: ! an jet a'gen dil he: mi ! Sat a 
SAd se: se ji 1/ robar ji 'kataran ji 1 born di:vl Sat ji a:r, ta 
2 a: bad encz and ne: gyd 3 en kan Sis bi ju: ? " 

" i:n az ji si:, 4/ baili." 

" 1/ kon/ans ! \i a 'amna klin bAm'be:zd ju:, ji 6 t/it Sa 'wAdi 
rog, ju: hi:r on jar 'ventar in Sa 'tAubyG o 'glsska ? Avat dji 
0{nks Sa 'velja o jar 5 hid ?" 

" mmm ! Avai, 'fe:rli 6 wait, an dAt/ wsxt, it mixt 6 wai dun 
wan 'provasts, fAur 4/ bailiz, a tun klarks, siks 8/ dikanz, bi'saidz 
'stentmestarz " 

" a:, ji 7 ri:van 'vilan ! bat tel Aur jar smz, an prfpeir 

ji, for if a se: Sa wArd " 

"trui, 4/ baili, bat ji: 7 wil 'nivar se: Sat wArd." 

" an A\ai SAd a not, 7 sir? Avai SAd a not? 'ansar mi 

Sat Mai SAd a not ? " 

"far 6ri: sA'fi/nt re:znz, 4/ baili ^arvi. 7 first, far 2 a:lc 
lansain; 'sikant, far Sa sek o Sa 2 a,:\d waif a'jont Sa 8 fan- at 
stAka'vralaxan, Sat med SAHI 'rmkstar o 9 war blydz, ta rna em 



3 jm 4/ beiyi 5 e 6 ai, e: 7 A 8 ai 9 wir, 



214 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

my own proper shame be it spoken ! that has a cousin wi' 
accounts, and yarn winnles, and looms, and shuttles, like a mere 
mechanical person ; and lastly, Bailie, because if I saw a sign 
o' your betraying me, I would plaster that wa' with your harns 
ere the hand of man could rescue you ! " 

" Ye're a bauld desperate villain, sir," retorted the undaunted 
Bailie ; " and ye ken that I ken ye to be sae, and that I wadna 
stand a moment for my ain risk." 

" I ken weel," said the other, " ye hae gentle bluid in your 
veins, and I wad be laith to hurt my ain kinsman. But I'll 
gang out here as free as I came in, or the very wa's o' Glasgow 
tolbooth shall tell o't these ten years to come." 

" Weel, weel," said Mr Jarvie, " bluid's thicker than water ; 
and it liesna in kith, kin, and ally, to see motes in ilk other's 
eeu if other een see them no. It wad be sair news to the auld 
wife below the Ben of Stuckavrallachan that you, ye Hieland 
limmef, had knockit out my harns, or that I had kilted you up 
in a tow. But ye'll own, ye dour deevil, that were it no your 
very sell, I wad hae grippit the best man in the Hielands." 

"Ye wad hae tried, cousin," answered my guide, "that I 
wot weel ; but I doubt ye wad hae come afF wi' the short 
measure; for we gang-there-out Hieland bodies are an un- 
chancy generation when you speak to us o' bondage. We 
downa bide the coercion of gude braid-claith about our hinder- 
lans ; let a be breeks o' freestone, and garters o' iron." 

" Ye'll find the stane breeks and the airn garters, ay, and 
the hemp cravat, for a' that, neighbour," replied the Bailie* 
"Nae man in a civilized country ever played the pliskies ye 
hae done but e'en pickle in your ain pockneuk I hae gi'en 
ye warning." 

"Well, cousin." said the other, "ye'll wear black at my burial ?" 

"Deil a black cloak will be there, Robin, but the corbies 
and the hoodie-craws, I'se gie ye my hand on that. But whar's 
the gude thousand pund Scots that I lent ye, man, and when 
am I to see it again ? " 

"Where it is," replied my guide, after the affectation of 
considering for a moment, " I cannot justly tell probably where 
last year's snaw is." 



READER 215 

'propar Jem bi ^t 'spokan ! Sat haz a x kAzn w^ a'kunts, an jern 
2 wmlz, an lymz, an /Atlz, laik a mi:r ma'kamkl 'persan; an 
'lastli, 3/ baili, bfkaiz jf a 4 sa: a sain o ju:r bftrean mi, a wud 
'plestar Sat 4 wa: wi jar harnz e:r Sa 5 hand o man kud 'reskja 

ji!" 

"jir a 4 ba:l<i 'desprit 'vilan, 2 sir, an ji: ksn Sat a: 

ksn ji ta bi: se:, an Sat a 6 'wadna 5 stand a 'momant far ma e:n 
n c sk." 

"a ksn wil, ji he: d3sntl blydm jar venz, ana 6 wad 

bi Ie9 ta hArt ma em 'kmzman. bat al gar) ut hi:r az fri: az a 
kam in, or Sa 'vera 4 wa:z o 'gleska 'tAubyB Jal tel ot Si:z ten 
i:rz ta kAm." 

"wil, wil, blydz 'Gikar San 'watar; an ^t 'laizna in 

ki6, km, an 'all, ta si: mots m ijk 'iSarz in if 'iSar in si: Sam 
no:, it 6 wad bi se:r nju:z ta Sa 4 a:lcZ waif brio: Sa bsn o 
stAka'vralaxan Sat ju:, ji 'hilanc^ 'limar, had 'nokat ut mai harnz, 
or Sat a: had 'kiltat ju: Ap in a tAu. bat jil 7 o:n, ji du:r di:vl, 
Sat war ^t no: jar 'vera ssl, a 6 wad he 'gripat Sa best man m 
Sa 'hilandz." 

"ji 6 wad he trait, 1 kAzn, Sat a wot wil; bat a dut 

ji 6 wad he kAm af w^Sa 8 jort 9/ ine:zar ; far wi: 'ganSerut ' 
'bAdiz ar an An't/ansi dgenar'e/n Avan ji spik ta AS o ' 
wi: 'dAuna baid Sa ko'er/n o gyd 'bred'kleG a'but u:r 'hmcforlanz ; 
let a'bi: briks o 'fristen, an 'gertanz o airn." 

"jil fine? Sa sten briks an Sa ern 'gertanz, ai, an Sa hemp 

'gravat, far 4 a: Sat, 'nibar ne: man in a sivi'list 'kmtra 

'ivar ple:d Sa 'pliskiz ji: he dyn bat i:n pikl m jar e:n pok'njuk 
a he gi:n ji 'warnan." 

"wil, 1 kAzn, jil we:r blak at ma 'b^jrial?" 

"dil a blak 8 klok 1 bi: Se:r, 'robin, bat Sa 8/ korbiz an Sa 
hydi /4 kra:z, az gi: ji ma 5 hanc on Sat. bat 4 A\.a:rz Sa gyd 
'0u:zanc? pAnd skots Sat a lent ji, man, an Avan am a ta si: ][t 
a'gen ? " 

u Ave:r it iz, ai 'kanat dgAstli tel 'probabli Ave:r 

last i:rz 4 sna: iz." 



/ belji 4 g: 5 a: 6 i, A T AU 8 o 9 i:andg 



216 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"And that's on the tap of Schehallion, ye Hieland dog," 
said Mr Jarvie ; " and I look for payment frae you where ye 
stand." 

"Ay," replied the Highlander, "but I keep neither snaw 
nor dollars in my sporran. And as to when you'll see it why, 
just when the king enjoys his ain again, as the auld sang says." 

" Warst of a', Robin," retorted the Glaswegian, " I mean, 
ye disloyal traitor Warst of a' ! Wad ye bring popery in on 
us, and arbitrary power, and a foist and a warming-pan, and 
the set forms, and the curates, and the auld enormities o' 
surplices and cearments ? Ye had better stick to your auld 
trade o' theft-boot, blackmail, spreaghs, and gillravaging better 
stealing nowte than ruining nations." 

" Hout, man, whisht wi' your whiggery," answered the Celt, 
"we hae kend ane anither mony a lang day. I'se take care 
your counting-room is no cleaned out when the Gillon-a-naillie 
come to redd up the Glasgow buiths, and clear them o' their 
auld shop-wares. And, unless it just fa' in the preceese way o' 
your duty, ye maunna see me oftener, Nicol, than I am disposed 
to be seen." 

" Ye are a dauring villain, Rob," answered the Bailie; "and ye 
will be hanged, that will be seen and heard tell o' ; but I'se ne'er 
be the ill bird and foul my nest, set apart strong necessity and the 
skriegh of duty, which no man should hear and be inobedient." 

Rob invites the Bailie and the young Englishman to visit his 
Highland home, and the Bailie finally consents to do so. 

" If ye daur venture sae muckle as to eat a dish of Scotch 
collops, and a leg o' red-deer venison wi' me, come ye wi' this 
Sassenach gentleman as far as Drymen or Bucklivie, or the 
Clachan of Aberfoil will be better th.'in ony o' them, and I'll 
hae somebody waiting to weise ye the gate to the place where 
I may be for the time What say ye, man ! There's my thumb, 
I'll ne'er beguile thee." 

"Na, na, Robin," said the cautious burgher, "I seldom like 
to leave the Gorbals ; I have nae freedom to gang amang your 
wild hills, Robin, and your kilted red-shanks it disna become 
my place, man." 



READER 217 

"an Sats on Sa tap o Ji'haljan, ji 'hilanc? *dog, an a 

luk far 'paimant fre ji Avar ji 2 stand." 

" cw, bat a kip 3 'neSar 4 sna: nor 'dolarz in ma 'sporan. 

an az ta Avsn jil si: {t AVCLI, dgAst Avan Sa kir) m'd3oiz hiz e:n 
a'gen, az Sa 4 a:kZ sar) se:z." 

"wairst o 4 a:, 'robin, a min, ji dis'loial 'tretar 

wa:rst o 4 a: ! 5 wad ji brir) 'popari m onz, an 'erbitren 'puar, an a 
foist an a 'warman'pan, an Sa set formz, an Sa 'k0:rats, an Sa 
4 a:k I'normitjz o 'sArplisaz an 'siirmants ? ji had 'bstar st^k 
ta jar 4 a:lc? tred o 'OefVbyt, 'blak'mel, sprexs, an gil / ravad3an 
'betar 'stilan nAut San 'runian ne/nz." 

" hut, man, Avi/t wi jar 'Avigari, wi he ksnt 6 en a'mSar 

7 'mom a ICLTJ dei. a z tak keir juir 'kuntanrum z no: Mint ut 
A\an 5a *ki^ana / jie:li kAm ta red Ap Sa 'glsska by6s, an kli:r t5am 
o Sar 4 a:y x /op'we:rz. an, An'les it d3yst 4 fa: in Sa pn'sis 8 wai o 
jar 'djuti, ji: 'manna si: mi: 'afnar, mkl, San am dis'po:zd ta bi 
sin." 

"jn- a 4/ da:ran 'vilan, rob, an jil bi hant, Satl bi sin an 

9 hard tel o; bat az ne:r bi Sa il bird an ful ma nest, set 9 a'pert 
stror) nfsesiti an Se skrix o 'djuti, A\itJ no: man /ud hi:r an bi 
ino'bidjant." 

"if ji 4 da:r 'ventar se: mAkl az ta it a dij o skotf 'kolaps, 
en a leg o ^'rid'diir 'venzan wi mi:, kAm ji wi Sis 'sasanax 
'dgentlman az 4 fa:r az 'draiman or bAk'laivi, or Sa 'klaxan o 
abar'foil 5 wil bi 'betar San n/ om o Sam, an al he 'sAmbAdi 
12/ waitan ta 13 waiz ji Sa get ta Sa pies Avar a me bi: far Sa taim 
A\at se: ji, man ? Se:rz ma 0um, al ne:r bfgail Si." 

" na:, na:, 'robin. a 'seldam laik ta li:v Sa 'gorbalz; av 

ne: 'fri:dam ta gar) a'marj jar wailc? hilz, 'robin, an jar 'kiltat 
10 'rid'Janks it 'dizna bi'kAm ma pies, man." 



: a: 3 e: 4 g: 5 i, A 6 jm 7 o, A, a 8 ai 

L3 ai 
* See Ph. 56, 61. The n of gillon ends in breath. 



10 e, a n 12 



218 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" The devil damn your place and you baith ! " reiterated 
Campbell. " The only drap o' gentle bluid that's in your body 
was our great grand-uncle's that was justified at Dumbarton, 
and you set yourself up to say ye wad derogate frae your place 
to visit me! 'Hark thee, man I owe thee a day in hairst 
I'll pay up your thousan pund Scots, plack and bawbee, gin 
ye'll be an honest fallow for anes, and just daiker up the gate 
wi' this Sassenach." 

" Hout awa' wi' your gentility," replied the Bailie ; " carry 
your gentle bluid to the Cross, and see what ye'll buy wi't. 
But, if I were to come, wad ye really and soothfastly pay me 
the siller?" 

" I swear to ye," said the Highlander, " upon the halidome 
of him that sleeps beneath the grey stane at Inch-Cailleach." 

" Say nae mair, Robin say nae mair We'll see what may 
be dune. But ye maunna expect me to gang ower the 
Highland line I'll gae beyond the line at no rate. Ye maun 
meet me about Bucklivie or the Clachan of Aberfoil, and 
dinna forget the needful." 

" Nae fear nae fear," said Campbell ; " I'll be as true as 
the steel blade that never failed its master. But I must be 
budging, cousin, for the air o' Glasgow tolbooth is no that ower 
salutary to a Highlander's constitution." 

" Troth," replied the merchant, " and if my duty were to be 
dune, ye couldna change your atmosphere, as the minister ca's 
it, this ae wee while Ochon, that I sud ever be concerned in 
aiding and abetting an escape frae justice ! it will be a shame 
and disgrace to me and mine, and my very father's memory, for 
ever." 

" Hout tout, man! let that flee stick in the wa'," answered his 
kinsman ; " when the dirt's dry it will rub out . Your father, 
honest man, could look ower a friend's fault as weel as anither." 

" Ye may be right, Robin," replied the Bailie, after a 
moment's reflection; "he was a considerate man the deacon; 
he ken'd we had a' our frailties, and he lo'ed his friends Ye'll 
no hae forgotten him, Robin ? " This question he put in a 
softened tone, conveying as much at least of the ludicrous as 
the pathetic. 



READER 219 

"Se diivl dam jer pies en ju: be0! Se 'onlj. drap o 

blyd Sets p. jer 'bodi wez ur gret 'grand'Arjklz Set wez 
'dgAstifit at dAm'bartn, en ju: set jer'sel Ap te sei ji: 1 wed 'dsroget 
fre ju:r pies te 'vizit mi: ! hark Si, man a o: Si e de: in 2 herst: 
el pei Ap jer 0u:zn pAnd skots, plak en 'ba:bi, gin jil bi en 'onest 
'fale fer 3 ens, en dgyst 'deker Ap Se get wj Sis 'sasenex." 

" hut 4 e'wa: w| jer dgen'tiliti. 2/ kery er dgsntl blyd te 

Se kros, en si: A\at jil bai wit. bAt, if e wer te kAm, 1 wed ji 're:lj: 
en 'sy0festli pei mi Se 'siler ? " 

"a swe:r te ji, e'pon Se 'halidem ev him Set slips 

bfniG Se gre: sten et in/'kaljex." 

"se ne: me:r, 'robin se ne: me:r wil si: Avat me bi dyn. 
bet ji 'manwe ik'spek mi te gar) Aur Se 'hilenc? lein el ge: 
bfjond Se lein et no: ret. ji men mit mi e'but bAk'laivi or Se 
'klaxen o aber'foil, en 'd^n^e fer'gst Se 'nidfe." 

"ne: fi:r ne: fi:r, el bi ez tru: ez Se stil bled Set 

'mver feld its 'mester. bet a mAst bi 'bAdgen, 5 kAzn, fer Se e:r o 
'gleske 'tAubyOs no: Sat Aur 'seljeteri te e 'hilenc?erz kon- 
str'tju/n." 

"tro9, en if mai 'djuti wer te bi dyn, ji: 'kAdne 

6 t/eind3 ju:r 'atmosfir, ez Se 'minister 4 ka:z it, Sis je: wi: Aveil 
'ox'on, Set a sAd 'iver bi 7 ken r srnt in 'eden en e'beten en i/skep 
fre 'dgAstis ! rt wil bi e Jem en dis'gres te mi: en mein, en me 
'vere 7/ fe:Serz 'msmeri, fer 'iver." 

"hut tut, men! let Sat fli: sti t k in Se 4 wa:... Aven Se 

dirts drai rtl rAb ut . jer 7/ fe:Ser, 'onest man, kud Ijuk Aur e 
frindz 4 fa:t ez wil ez e'mSer." 

"ji me: bi rixt, 'robin hi wez e ken'siderit man Se 

6 'deiken; hi ksnt wi had 4 a: ur 'freltiz, en hi lu:d hiz frinc^z 
jil no: he fer'gotn im, 'robin ? "... 



i t ns 



220 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



" Forgotten him ! " replied his kinsman " what suld ail me 
to forget him ? a wapping weaver he was, and wrought my 
first pair o' hose But come awa', kinsman, 

' Come fill up my cap, come fill up my cann, 
Come saddle my horses, and call up my man ; 
Come open your gates, and let me gae free, 
I daurna stay langer in bonny Dundee.' " 
"Whisht, sir!" said the magistrate, in an authoritative 
tone " lilting and singing sae near the latter end o' the 
Sabbath ! This house may hear ye sing anither tune yet 
Aweel, we hae a' back-slidings to answer for 1 Stanchells, open 
the door." 

1 The jailor. 



READER 221 

" farYjotn im ! ............ Aiat sAd eil mi ta far'get im ? a 'wapan 

1/ waiv9r hi waz, an 2 wroxt ma 3 fjrst pe:r o ho:z bat kAm 4 a / wci:, 
'kmzman, 

' kAm fil Ap ma kAp, kAm f^l Ap ma kan, 

5 ssdl ma 'horsaz, an 4 ka: Ap ma man; 
'opan jar gets, an 6 lst mi ge: fri:, 
a 4/ da:rna 7 ste: 'larjar in 2/ bom dAn'di:/" 
" Avi/t, 3 sir ............ 'liltan an 'sirjan se: ni:r Sa 'letar snc? o $a 

4/ sa:ba9 ! S^s bus me hi:r ji sir) a'niSar tyn jet a'wil, wi he 4 a: 
'bak'slaidanz ta 'ctnsar for 'stan/alz, opm fta do:r." 



a, a 7 ai 



222 



III A. DUMBIEDYKES AND JEANIE DEANS 

THE HEART OF MIDLOTHIAN. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT. 
CHAPTER XXVI. 

Erne Deans has been condemned to death at Edinburgh for the murder 
of her new-born child. Her sister, Jeanie, resolves to go to London to 
plead with the king for Erne's life. Before starting on her journey, Jeanie 
visits the house of the Laird of Dumbiedykes, to ask him for a loan of 
money to help her in her design. She is very badly received by the laird's 
housekeeper, Mrs Balchristie. The laird hears part of the conversation 
from his room and intervenes as follows : 

" Hark ye," he exclaimed from the window, " ye auld limb o' 
Satan wha the deil gies you commission to guide an honest 
man's daughter that gate." 

Mrs Balchristie replies more humbly. 

"She was but speaking for the house's credit, and she 
couldna think of disturbing his honour in the morning sae 
early, when the young woman might as weel wait or call again ; 
and to be sure, she might make a mistake between the twa 
sisters, for ane o' them wasna sae creditable an acquaintance." 

" Haud your peace, ye auld jade," said Dumbiedikes ; " the 
warst quean e'er stude in their shoon may ca' you cousin, an a' 
be true that I have heard. Jeanie, my woman, gang into the 
parlour but stay, that winna be redd up yet wait there a 
minute till I come doun to let ye in Dinna mind what Jenny 
says to ye." 

" Na, na," said Jenny, with a laugh of affected heartiness, 
" never mind me, lass a' the warld kens my bark's waur than 
my bite if ye had had an appointment wi' the Laird, ye might 
hae tauld me I am nae uncivil person gang your ways in 
by, hinny." And she opened the door of the house with a 
master-key. 

" But I had no appointment wi' the Laird," said Jeanie, 
drawing back ; " I want just to speak twa words to him, and I 
wad rather do it standing here, Mrs Balchristie." 



223 



III A. DUMBIEDYKES AND JEANIE DEANS 

THE HEART OF MIDLOTHIAN. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT. 

"hark ji, .ji 1 a:ld lim o satn 1 Ava: Sa dil gi:z ju: 

ka'mifn ta gaid en 'onast manz 2 'doxtar Sat get ?"... 

" ji wez bet 'spikan far Sa 'husaz 'kredit, an Ji 'kAdna 0j:nk o 
dis'tArban hiz 'onar m Sa 2 'mornan se 'erli, Aian Sa JATJ 'wAman 
m^xt az wil 3 wet or 1 ka: a'gen; an ta bi J0:r, Ji mixt mak a 
mis'tak bftwin Sa 1 twa: 'sistarz, far 4 en o Sam 'wazna se 
'krsditabl an a'kwantans." 

" had jar 5 pis, ji l Cbi\d J d5a:d Sa wairst kwin e:r styd 

m Sar jyn me x ka: ju: 6 k0:zn, an x a: bi tru: Sat a hav 7 hard. 
'dgini, ma 'wAman, gar) ^nta Sa 'parlar ^bat 3 ste:, Sat 'winwa bi 
rsd Ap jet 3 wet Se:r a 'minat til a kAm dun ta 8 let ji in 'dinwa 
maincZ Mat 'dsem ssz ta ji." 

" na:, na: , 'mvar mainc? mi:, las, x a: Sa Warlc? ksnz 

mai barks x wa:r San ma bait if jid had an a'paintmant wi Sa 
lerd, ji mixt he 1 ta:lc? mi am ne: An r si:vl 'persan gar) jar 9 waiz 
mbai, 'him'"'... 

" bat a had no: a'paintmant wi Sa lerd a 10 want dgyst 

ta spik Hwa: wArdz ta him, an a 10 wad lx 'reSar d^: it 12/ stanc?an 
hi:r, 'mistras ba'kraisti." 



ai 4 jm 5 e 6 i, y, A 7 e 8 a, a 9 ai, a: 



10 n 12 



1, A e: a: 



224 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" In the open courtyard ? Na, na, that wad never do, lass ; 
we maunna guide ye that gate neither And how's that douce 
honest man, your father ? " 

Jeanie was saved the pain of answering this hypocritical 
question by the appearance of the Laird himself. 

" Gang in and get breakfast ready," said he to his house- 
keeper" and, d'ye hear, breakfast wi' us yoursell ye ken how 
to manage thae porringers of tea-water and, hear ye, see 
abune a' that there's a gude fire. Weel, Jeanie, my woman, 
gang in by gang in by, and rest ye." 

"Na, Laird," Jeanie replied, endeavouring as much as she 
could to express herself with composure, notwithstanding she 
still trembled, "I canna gang in I have a lang day's darg 
afore me I maun be twenty mile o' gate the night yet, if feet 
will carry me." 

" Guide and deliver us ! twenty mile twenty mile on your 
feet ! " ejaculated Dumbiedikes, whose walks were of a very cir- 
cumscribed diameter," Ye maun never think o' that come in by." 

" I canna do that, Laird," replied Jeanie ; " the twa words 
I hae to say to ye I can say here; forby that Mrs Balchristie 

" The deil flee awa wi' Mrs Balchristie," said Dumbiedikes, 
" and he'll hae a heavy lading o' her ! I tell ye, Jeanie Deans, 
I am a man of few words, but I am laird at hame, as weel as in 
the field; deil a brute or body about my house but I can manage 
when I like, except Rory Bean, my powny ; but I can seldom 
be at the .plague, an it binna when my bluid's up." 

" I was wanting to say to ye, Laird," said Jeanie, who felt 
the necessity of entering upon her business, " that I was gaun 
a lang journey, outby of my father's knowledge." 

"Outby his knowledge, Jeanie ! Is that right ? Ye maun 
think o't again it's no right," said Dumbiedikes, with a coun- 
tenance of great concern. 

"If I were anes at Lunnon," said Jeanie, in exculpation, 
"I am amaist sure I could get means to speak to the queen 
about my sister's life." 

" Lunnon and the queen and her sister's life ! " said 
Dumbiedikes, whistling for very amazement" the lassie's de- 
mented." 



HEADER 225 

"in Sa opm 'kurtjerd ? na:, na:, Sat x wad 'mvar d0:, las; 
wi 'man??a gaid ji Sat get 2/ neSar an hu:z Sat dus 'onast man, 
jar 2 'feSar?" 

" garj m en get 3/ brekfast 'redi an, dji hi:r, 3 'brekfast 

wi AS 'jarsel ji ksn hu: ta / manad3 Se: 'ponndgarz o 2/ ti:watar 
an, hi:r ji, si: a'byn 4 a: Sat Sarz a gyd 5 fair. wil, 'dgini, ma 
'wAman, garj m bai garj in bai, an rest ji." 

"na:, lerd a 'kamia garj m a hav a larj de:z darg 

a'fo:r mi a man bi 6/ twmti mail o get Sa mxt jst, if fit 6 wil 
7 'keq mi." 

"gaid n di'livarz ! 6 'twmti mail 6 'twmti mail on jar fit !... 
ji man 'mvar 9irjk o Sat kAm in bai." 

"a 'kanna d^: Sat, lerd; Sa Hwa: wArdz a he: ta se: 

ta ji a kan se: hi:r; for'bai Sat 'mistras ba'kraisti " 

" Sa dail fli 4 a'wa: wi 'm^stras ba'kraisti an hil he: a 

'hevi 'ledan o ar ! a tel ji/d3ini dinz, am a man o fju: WArdz, bat 
am lerd at hem, az wil az m Sa fild ; dil a bryt or x bAdi a'but mai 
hus bat a kan / manad3 Man a laik, ^k'sep /ro:ri bin, ma r pAum ; 
bat a kan 'ssldam bi at Sa pleg, an it 'binna Avan ma blydz Ap." 

"a waz lx wantan ta se: ta ji, lerd Sat a waz 4 ga:n a 

larj 'd^Arni, ut'bai o ma 2 'feSarz 8/ nolad3." 

"ut'bai hiz 8/ nolad3, 'dgini! iz Sat rixt? ji man 0irjk ot a'gen 
its no: rixt."... 

"if a war 9 ens at 'Unan, am a'mest J0:r a kAd get 

minz ta spik ta Sa kwin a'but ma 'sistarz laif." 

a/ lAnan an Sa kwin an ar 'sistarz laif! Sa 'lasiz 

di'mentat." 



l l, A 2 e: 3 a 4 g: 5 ai 6 A 7 e 8 o 9 jms 
G. 15 



226 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" I am no out o' my mind," said she, " and, sink or swim, I 
am determined to gang to Lunnon, if I suld beg my way frae 
door to door and so I maun, unless ye wad lend me a small 
sum to pay my expenses little thing will do it ; and ye ken 
my father's a man of substance, and wad see nae man, far less 
you, Laird, come to loss by me." 

Dumbiedikes, on comprehending the nature of this applica- 
tion, could scarce trust his ears he made no answer whatever, 
but stood with his eyes riveted on the ground. 

" I see ye are no for assisting me, Laird," said Jeanie ; " sae 
fare ye weel and gang and see my poor father as aften as ye 
can he will be lonely eneugh now." 

" Where is the silly bairn gaun ? " said Dumbiedikes ; and, 
laying hold of her hand, he led her into the house. " It's no that 
I didna think o't before," he said, " but it stack in my throat." 

Thus speaking to himself, he led her into an old-fashioned 
parlour, shut the door behind them, and fastened it with a bolt. 
While Jeanie, surprised at this manoeuvre, remained as near 
the door as possible, the Laird quitted her hand, and pressed 
upon a spring lock fixed in an oak panel in the wainscot, which 
instantly slipped aside. An iron strong-box was discovered in 
a recess of the wall ; he opened this also, and, pulling out two 
or three drawers, showed that they were filled with leathern- 
bags, full of gold and silver coin. 

" This is my bank, Jeanie lass," he said, looking first at her, 
and then at the treasure, with an air of great complacency, 
"nane o' your goldsmith's bills for me, they bring folk to 
ruin." 

Then suddenly changing his tone, he resolutely said 
" Jeanie, I will make ye Leddy Dumbiedikes afore the sun sets, 
and ye may ride to Lunnon in your ain coach, if ye like." 

" Na, Laird," said Jeanie, " that can never be my father's 
grief my sister's situation the discredit to you 

"That's my business," said Dumbiedikes; "ye wad say 
naething about that if ye werena a fule and yet I like ye the 
better for't ae wise body's eneugh in the married state. But 
if your heart's ower fu', take what siller will serve ye, and let it 
be when ye come back again as gude syne as sune." 



HEADER 227 

"am no: ut o ma maincZ ............ an, sink or sum, am dftermpit 

ta garj ta 'knan, {fa SAC! beg ma *wai fre do:r ta do:r an so: a 
2 ma:n, An'les ji 3 wad hud mi a 2 smct: SAm ta pai ma ik'spensaz 
htl 0irj wil d0: it ; an ji ken ma 4/ feSarz a man o 'sAbstans, an 
3 wad si: ne: man, 2 fa:r les ju:, lerd, kAm ta los b{ mi:." 

"a si: jir no: far a'sistan mi, lerd, ............ se fe:r ji wil an garj 

an si: ma p0:r 4/ feSar az am az ji kan hil bi 'lonli 5 a'njux nu:." 

" 2 A\.a:r iz Sa 'silj: 6 bern 2 ga:n ? ............ its no: Sat a 'd^dna 

Girjk ot bi'fo:r ............ bat it stak jn ma 7 0rot." 

" Sis iz ma bank, 'dgini las, ............ nen o jar 'goldsmiGs bilz 

far mi:, Se brirj 8 fAuk ta 'ruin."... 



"'dsini, a 5 wil mak ji 'ledi 'dAmbidaiks a'foir Sa 9 SAn sets, an 
ji me raid ta 'Unan in jar e:n kot/, if ji laik." 

"na:, lerd, ...Sat kan 'mvar bi: ma 4/ feSarz grif ma 'sistarz 
/n Sa discredit ta ju: " 



"Sats mai 'biznas, ............ ji 3 wad se: 'ne0irj a r but Sat ^f ji 

'warna a fyl an jet a laik ji Sa 'betar fort jei wais ' 
5 a'njux m Sa 6/ merit stet. bat if jar herts 'Aur fu:, tak 
'silar 5 wil se:r ji, an n let it bi: Avan ji kAm bak a'gen az gyd 
sain az 12 syn." 



x ai 2 o.: 3 A, i 4 e: 5 A 6 e 7 o 8 o 9 i 
11 a, a 12 Jyn 

152 



228 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" But, Laird," said Jeanie, who felt the necessity of being 
explicit with so extraordinary a lover, "I like another man 
better than you, and I canna marry ye." 

" Another man better than me, Jeanie ? " said Dumbiedikes 
" how is that possible ? It's no possible, woman ye hae 
kend me sae lang." 

" Ay but, Laird," said Jeanie, with persevering simplicity, 
" I hae kend him langer." 

" Langer ? It's no possible ! " exclaimed the poor Laird, 
"It canna be; ye were born on the land. O Jeanie, woman, 
ye haena lookit ye haena seen the half o' the gear." He drew 
out another drawer " A' gowd, Jeanie, and there's bands for 
siller lent And the rental book, Jeanie clear three hunder 
sterling deil a wadset, heritable band, or burden Ye haena 
lookit at them, woman And then my mother's wardrobe, and 
my grandmother's forby silk gowns wad stand on their ends, 
pearlin-lace as fine as spiders' webs, and rings and ear-rings to 
the boot of a' that they are a' in the chamber of deas Oh, 
Jeanie, gang up the stair and look at them ! ' 

But Jeanie held fast her integrity, though beset with temp- 
tations, which perhaps the Laird of Dumbiedikes did not greatly 
err in supposing were those most affecting to her sex. 

"It canna be, Laird I have said it and I canna break my 
word till him, if ye wad gie me the haill barony of Dalkeith, 
and Lugton into the bargain." 

" Your word to him" said the Laird, somewhat pettishly ; 
" but wha is he, Jeanie ? wha is he ? I haena heard his name 
yet Come now, Jeanie, ye are but queering us I am no trow- 
ing that there is sic a ane in the warld ye are but making 
fashion What is he ? wha is he ? " 

"Just Reuben Butler, that's schulemaster at Libberton," 
said Jeanie. 

"Reuben Butler! Reuben Butler!" echoed the Laird of 
Dumbiedikes, pacing the apartment in high disdain, " Reuben 
Butler, the dominie at Libberton and a dominie depute too ! * 
Reuben, the son of my cottar ! Very weel, Jeanie lass, wilfu' 
woman will hae her way Reuben Butler! he hasna in his 
pouch the value o' the auld black coat he wears but it disna 



HEADER 229 

"bat, lerd, a laik a'niSar man 'be tar San ju:, an a 

'kanwa 1/ mer^ ji." 

"a'niSar man 'betar San mi:, 'c^ini ? hu: \z Sat 

2/ posibl ? its no: 2/ posibl, 'wAman ji he 3 ksnd mi: se: Ian." 

" ai bat, lerd a he 3 ksnd him 'larjar." 

" 'larjar ? its no: 2 'posibl ! it 'kanraa bi: , ji war 2 born 

on Sa 4 lanc. o: 'dgini, 'wAman, ji 'hena '1/ukat ji 'hena sin Sa ha:f 

o Sa gi:r 7 a: gAud, 'dgini, an Sarz 4 bancz far 'silar lent 

an Sa 'rental 5 byk, 'd3ini kli:r 6ri 'hAncfor 'sterlan dil a 
'wadset, 'eritabl 4 banc, or 'bArdan ji 'hena 'ljukat at Sam, 
'wAman an San ma 'miSarz 'wardrob, an ma 'granmiSarz for'bai 
silk gunz 6 wad 4 stanch on Sar enc?z, 'perlm les az fain az 
'spidarz wabz, an rinz an 'i:rirjz ta Sa byt o 7 a: Sat Se ar 7 a: in 
Sa 7 t/a:mar o dis o:, 'd3ini, gar) Ap Sa ste:r an Ijuk at Sam ! " 

"it 'kanrza bi:, lerd a hav sed it an a 'kanrca brek ma 
wArd til him, if ji 6 wad gi: mi Sa hel 'baram o da'kie, an 'Ugtan 
'inta Sa 'bargan." 

"jar WArd ta him, .bat 7 Aia: iz hi:, 'dsini ? 7 ^a: iz 

hi:? a 'hena x hard hiz nem jet kAm nu:, 'dgini, ji ar bat 
r kwi:ranz am no: 'trAuan Sat Sar iz sik a 8 en in Sa warlc? ji 
ar bat 'makan fa/n Avat iz hi ? 7 Aia: \z hi ? " 

"dgyst 'ruban 'bAtlar, Sats 'skylmestar at libartan."... 

"'ruban 'bAtlar ! 'ruban 'bAtlar! 'ruban 'bAtlar, Sa 

'domini at 'libartan an a 'domini dfpjut t^: ! 'ruban, Sa 9 sm o 
ma 'kotar! ^'vera wil, 'dgini las, 9/ wilfa 'wAman 9 wil he: har 
10 wai 'ruban 'bAtler ! hi 'hazna m hiz put/ Sa 'velja o Sa 7 a:ld 
blak kot hi n wi:rz bat it 'dizna 'sinjifi."... 



a: 5 ju 6 A, i 7 g: 8 jm 9 A 10 3i u e: 



230 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

signify." And, as he spoke, he shut successively, and with 
vehemence, the drawers of his treasury. " A fair offer, Jeanie, 
is nae cause of feud Ae man may bring a horse to the water, 
but twenty wunna gar him drink And as for wasting my 
substance on other folk's joes " 

There was something in the last hint that nettled Jeanie's 
honest pride. "I was begging nane frae your honour," she 
said ; " least of a' on sic a score as ye pit it on. Gude morning 
to ye, sir ; ye hae been kind to rny father, and it isna in my 
heart to think otherwise than kindly of you." 

Jeanie leaves Dumbiedikes in hot indignation against the 
laird, but the latter soon overtakes her on the high road and the 
first words he utters are, 

"Jeanie, they say ane shouldna aye take a woman at her 
first word ? " 

"Ay, but ye maun tak me at mine, Laird," said Jeanie, 
looking on the ground, and walking on without a pause. " I hae 
but ae word to bestow on onybody, and that's aye a true ane." 

" Then," said Dumbiedikes, " at least ye suldna aye take a 
man at his first word. Ye maunna gang this wilfu' gate siller- 
less, come o't what like." He put a purse into her hand. " I 
wad gie you Rory too, but he's as wilfu' as yoursell and he's 
ower weel used to a gate that maybe he and I hae gaen ower 
aften, and he'll gang nae road else." 

"But, Laird," said Jeanie, "though I ken my father will 
satisfy every penny of this siller, whatever there's o't, yet I 
wadna like to borrow it frae ane that maybe thinks of some- 
thing mair than the paying o't back again." 

" There's just twenty-five guineas o't," said Dumbiedikes, 
with a gentle sigh, "and whether your father pays or disna 
pay, I make ye free till't without another word. Gang where 
ye like do what ye like and marry a' the Butlers in the 
country, gin ye like And sae, gude morning to you, Jeanie." 

" And God bless you, Laird, wi mony a gude morning," said 
Jeanie, her heart more softened by the unwonted generosity of 
this uncouth character, than perhaps Butler might have ap- 
proved, had he known her feelings at that moment; "and 
comfort, and the Lord's peace, and the peace of the world, be 
with you, if we suld never meet again ! " 



READER 231 

"a fe:r 'ofar, 'c^ini, iz nei 1 ka:z o fjud ^'e: man me brirj a 
hors ta Sa 'water, bet 2 twmti 'wAima 3 ga:r im drirjk an az far 
'westan ma 'sAbstans on 'iSar 4 fAuks dgoiz " 

"a waz 'began nen fre jar 'onar, list o 1 a: on s^k a 

skoir az ji: pit it on. gyd 5 'mornan ta ji, 2 sir; ji he bin kaind 
ta ma 6/ feSar, an it 'izna in ma hert ta Sink 'iSar 7 waiz San 
'kaindh o ju:." 

"'dgini, Se se: 8 en 'Judna ai tak a 'wAman at ar 2 first wArd ? " 

"ai, bat ji man tak mi: at main, lerd, a he: bat je: 

wArd ta bfsto: on 5/ ombAdi, an Sats ai a tru: 8 en." 

"San, at list ji 'sAdna ai tak a man at hiz 2 first 

wArd. ji 'rnanwa gar) Sis 2/ wilfa get 'silarlas, kAm ot A\at 

laik " a 9 wad gi: ji 'roiri t0:, bat hiz az 2/ wilfa az jar'sel 

an hiz Aur wil j0st ta a get Sat mebi 10 hi an ai he 6 gen Aur afn, 
an hil garj ne: rod els." 

"bat, lerd, 60 a ken ma 6/ feSar 2 wil 'setisfi 'ivri 

'peni o Sis 'silar, Avat'ivar Sarz ot, jet a 9 'wadna laik ta 7 bora it fre 
8 en Sat mebi Ginks o 'sAmGirj me:r San Sa 'paian ot bak a'gen." 

"Sarz d3yst 2 twmti / faiv 'giniz ot an 2/ A\.aSar jar 

6 'feSar paiz or 'dizna pai, a mak ji fri: tilt wi/6ut a'niSar WArd. 
garj Mar ji laik d0: A\at ji laik an 3/ meri 1 a: Sa 'bAtlarz m Sa 
'kmtra, gin ji laik an se:, gyd 5/ mornan ta ji, 'dgini." 

"an god blis ju:, lerd, wi n/ mom a gyd 5/ mornan, an 

'kAmfart, and Sa lo:rdz 12 pis, and Sa 12 pis o Sa WArld, bi: wi0 ju: , if 
wi SAd 'nevar mit a'gen ! " 



an mi n o, a, A 



e: 7 ai 8 jm 9 i, A w for him 



232 



IV A. THE GABERLUNZIE 

THE ANTIQUARY. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT. 

CHAPTER XII. 

In this novel, the scene is laid in or near the town of Arbroath, E. 
Forfarshire. The language, however, is Mid-Scottish and, unlike " My Man 
Sandy" (see Ext. XVII A), gives little evidence of local peculiarities. 
Edie Ochiltree, who appears in this extract, was one of those professional 
beggars who in former days were licensed to collect alms from the country- 
side and went by the name of blue-gowns or gaberlunzies. By his coolness 
and daring, Edie had helped to rescue Sir Arthur Wardour and his 
daughter from a terrible death. Miss Wardour, in her kindness of heart, 
asked the old man to spend the rest of his life in her father's castle or at 
least under his protection. The old man smiled and shook his head, and 
his answer shows the sturdy independence and pawky humour of the 
Scotsmen even of the humblest class. 

" I wad be baith a grievance and a disgrace to your fine 
servants, my leddy, and I have never been a disgrace to ony 
body yet, that I ken of." 

" Sir Arthur would give strict orders " 

"Ye're very kind I doubtna, I doubtna; but there are 
some things a master can command, and some he canna I 
daresay he would gar them keep hands aff me (and troth, I 
think they wad hardly venture on that ony gate) and he wad 
gar them gie me my soup parritch and bit meat. But trow ye 
that Sir Arthur's command could forbid the gibe o' the tongue 
or the blink o' the ee, or gar them gie me my food wi' the look 
o' kindness that gars it digest sae weel, or that he could make 
them forbear a' the slights and taunts that hurt ane's spirit 
mair nor downright misca'ing ? Besides, I am the idlest auld 
carle that ever lived; I downa be bound down to hours o' 
eating and sleeping ; and, to speak the honest truth, I wad be a 
very bad example in ony weel-regulated family." 

" Well then, Edie, what do you think of a neat cottage and 
a garden, and a daily dole, and nothing to do but to dig a little 
in your garden when you pleased yourself? " 

" And how often wad that be, trow ye, my leddy ? maybe no 
ance atween Candlemas and Yule and if a' thing were done to 






233 



IV A. THE GABEELUNZIE 

THE ANTIQUARY. 
SIR WALTER SCOTT. 

CHAPTER XII. 

"9 1 wed bi be0 a 'griivans an a dis'gres ta jar fain 'servanz, 
ma 'ledi, an a hav 'mvar bin a dis'gres ta 2 'onj:bAdi jet, Sat a 
ksn o." 

"jir 'vera kaind a'dutna, a'dutna; bAt Sar ar sAm 0inz a 
'mestar kan 3 ka'mand, an SAHI hi 'kanna a 'dorse hi x wad 4 ga:r 
Sam kip 3 hancz af mi (an tro9, a Gink Se x wad 'hardli 'ventar on 
Sat 2/ omget) an hi 1 wad 4 ga:r Sam gi: mi ma sup 'pant/ an bit 
met. bAt trAu ji Sat 5 sir 'er6arz 3 ka / manc? kAd far'bid Sa dgaib 
o Sa tArj or Sa blink o Sa i:, or 4 ga:r Sam gi: mi ma fyd wi Sa Ijuk 
o 'kaincfaas Sat 4 ga:rz ^t di^ist se wil, or Sat hi kAd mak Sam 
far'beir 6 a: Sa slixts n 3 tants Sat hArt 8 enz 'spirit me:r nor'dun- 
rixt mis'kaan? bi'saidz, am Sa 'aidlast 6 a:lc? karl Sat 'ivar 7 li:vt ; 
a 'dAuna bi bAnc? dun ta u:rz o itn an 'slipan; an, ta spik Sa 
'onast trye, a x wad bi a 'vsra bad ig'zsmpl in 2/ om wil 'regiletat 
'femh." 

"an hu am : wad Sat bi:, trAu ji, ma 'ledi? 'mebi no 9 ens 
a'twin 3 'kanc?lmas an jyl an if 6 a: 0ir) war dyn ta ma 3 hand, az 



, A 2 o 3 a: 4 e 5 A 6 g: 7 li:vd 8 jmz 9 jms 



234 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

my hand, as if I was Sir Arthur himsell, I could never bide the 
staying still in ae place, and just seeing the same joists and 
couples aboon my head night after night. And then I have a 
queer humour o' my ain, that sets a strolling beggar weel 
eneugh, whase word naebody minds but ye ken Sir Arthur 
has odd sort o' ways and I wad be jesting or scorning at them 
and ye wad be angry, and then I wad be just fit to hang 
mysell." 

" 0, you are a licensed man," said Isabella ; " we shall give 
you all reasonable scope : so you had better be ruled, and re- 
member your age." 

" But I am no that sair failed yet," replied the mendicant. 
tl Od, ance I gat a wee soupled yestreen, I was as yauld as an 
eel. And then what wad a' the country about do for want o* 
auld Edie Ochiltree, that brings news and country cracks frae 
ae farm-steading to anither, and gingerbread to the lasses, and 
helps the lads to mend their fiddles, and the gudewives to clout 
their pans, and plaits rush-swords and grenadier caps for the 
weans, and busks the laird's flees, and has skill o' cow-ills and 
horse-ills, and kens mair auld sangs and tales than a' the barony 
besides, and gars ilka body laugh wherever he comes ? troth, 
my leddy, T canna lay down my vocation ; it would be a public 



" Well, Edie, if your idea of your importance is so strong as 
not to be shaken by the prospect of independence " 

"Na, na, Miss it's because I am mair independent as I 
am," answered the old man; "I beg nae mair at ony single 
house than a meal o' meat, or maybe but a mouthfu o't if it's 
refused at ae place, I get it at anither sae I canna be said to 
depend on ony body in particular, but just on the country at 
large." 

"Well, then, only promise me that you will let me know 
should you ever wish to settle as you turn old, and more in- 
capable of making your usual rounds; and, in the meantime, 
take this." 

"Na, na, my leddy; I downa take muckle siller at anes, 
it's against our rule and though it's maybe no civil to be 



READER 235 

if a waz 1 sir 'er0ar him'sel, a kAd 'mvar baid Sa 2 stean stil in je: 
pies, en dgyst 'sian Sa sem 3 d/5aists an kAplz a'byn ma 4 hid mxt 
'eftar mxt. an San a hav a kwiir 'jyrnar o ma e:n, Sat sets a 
'strolan 'begar wil Vnjux, A\ez wArd 'neb Adi maindz bat ji ken 
1 sn* 'er0ar haz od sort o 5 waiz an a 6 wad bi ^estan or 'skornan 
at Sam an ji: 6 wad bi 'arjri, an San a 6 wad bi d3yst fit ta har) 
ma'sel." 

"bat am no: Sat se:r felt jet, od, 12 ens a gat a wi: 

suplt ja'strin, a waz az 7 ja:ld az an il. an San Avat 6 wad 7 a: Sa 
'kmtra a'but d0: far 6 want o 7 a,:\d 'edi 'oxiltri, Sat brirjz njuiz an 
'kmtra kraks fre je: 8 ferm'stedan til a'niSar, an 'dgnK^brid ta Sa 
'lasaz, an helps Sa 9 ladz ta menc? Sar fidlz, an Sa gyd'waivz ta klut 
Sar panz, an plets "rA/'suirdz an grena'dir keps far Sa wemz, an 
bAsks Sa lerdz fliiz, an haz skil o 'ku'ilz an 'hors'ilz, an kenz meir 
7 Guild sarjz an telz San 7 a: Sa 'baram~ bi'saidz, an 8 ga:rz 'ilka 'bAdi 
9 lax Avar'ivar hi kAmz ? tro9, ma 'ledi, a x kan?ia lei dun ma 
vo'ke/an; it 6 wad bi a 'pAblik los." 

"na:, na:, m^s its bfkaiz am me:r independent az a am, 

a beg ne: me:r at 10/ oni siijl hus San a mel o met, or 

'mebi bat a 'mu(0)fa ot if its rffj^izd at je: pies, a get {t at 
a'niSar se a 'kanna bi sed ta depend on 10 'ombAdi in par'tiklar, 
bat dgyst on Sa 'kmtra at lerdg." 

"na:, na:, ma 'ledi; a 'dAuna tak niAkl 'silar at 12 ens, its 
a'genst n ur ru:l an 0o its 'mebi no: si:vl ta bi rr*pitn Sa laik o 



1 A 2 ai 3 i, ai 4 e 5 ai 6 A, i 7 g: 8 e 9 a: 
11 war, wAr, wir 12 j 



236 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

repeating the like o' that they say that siller is like to be 
scarce wi' Sir Arthur himsell, and that he's run himsell out 
o' thought wi' his houkings and minings for lead and copper 
yonder." 

Isabella had some anxious anticipations to the same effect, 
but was shocked to hear that her father's embarrassments were 
such public talk ; as if scandal ever failed to stoop upon so 
acceptable a quarry, as the failings of the good man, the decline 
of the powerful, or the decay of the prosperous. Miss Wardour 
sighecl deeply " Well, Edie, we have enough to pay our debts, 
let folks say what they will, and requiting you is one of the 
foremost let me press this sum upon you." 

" That I might be robbed and murdered some night between 
town and town ? or, what's as bad, that I might live in constant 
apprehension o't ? I am no (lowering his voice to a whisper, 
and looking keenly around him) I am no that clean unpro- 
vided for neither; and though I should die at the back of a 
dike, they'll find as muckle quilted in this auld blue gown as 
will bury me like a Christian, and gie the lads and lasses a 
blithe lykewake too ; sae there's the gaberlunzie's burial pro- 
vided for, and I need nae mair. Were the like o' me ever to 
change a note, wha the deil d'ye think wad be sic fules as to gie 
me charity after that ? it wad flee through the country like 
wild-fire, that auld Edie suld hae done siccan a like thing, and 
then, Fse warrant I might grane my heart out or ony body wad 
gie me either a bane or a bodle." 

" Is there nothing, then, that I can do for you ? " 

" Ou ay I'll aye come for my awmous as usual and whiles 
I wad be fain o' a pickle sneeshin, and ye maun speak to the 
constable and ground-officer just to owerlook me, and maybe 
ye'll gie a gude word for me to Sandie Netherstanes, the miller, 
that he may chain up his muckle dog I wadna hae him to 
hurt the puir beast, for it just does its office in barking at a 
gaberlunzie like me. And there's ae thing maybe mair, but 
ye'll think it's very bauld o' the like o' me to speak o't." 

" What is it, Edie ? if it respects you it shall be done, if it 
is in my power." 



READER 237 

Sat Se se: Set 'siler iz leik te bi skers wi 1 sir 'erSer him'sel, en 
Set hiz rAn him'sel ut o 2 0oxt wi hiz 'hAukenz en 'meinenz fer 
led en 'koper 'joncfor." 



" Set e mixt bi 2/ robet en 'mArdert sAin mxt bi'twin tun en 
tun ? or, Avats ez bad, Set e mixt li:v in 'konstent apn'hsn/en ot ? 

em no: em no: Sat klin Anpro'veidet for 3/ neSer ; en Go e 

4 /Ad di: et Se bak o e deik, Sel l fmd ez mAkl 'kwAltet i c n Sis 5 a:lcZ 
blu: gun ez l wi\ 'b^.-n-mi leik e 'kristjen, en gi: Se 6 ladz en lasez 
e bleiS 'leikwek t^: ; se Se:rz Se gaberlunjiz 'b0:riel pre'veidet 
for, en e nid ne: me:r. wer Se leik o mi: 'rver te 7 t/eindg e not, 
5 Ava: Se dil dji Sink 8 wed bi sik fylz ez te gi: mi: 't/eriti 'efter 
Sat? ^t 8 wed fli: 0ru Se 'kintre leik 'wAPfeir, Set 5 a:ld x edi 4 /Ad 
he dyn 'siken e leik 0in, en San, az 'waren e mixt gren me hsrt 
ut or 2/ om c bAdi 8 wed gi: mi 3/ eSer e ben or e 2 bodl." 



"u: ai el eikAm ferme 5 a:mz ez"j0:zwel en Aieilz e 8 wed 
bi fe:n o e pikl snijn, en ji men spik te Se 'konstebl en grAn 
'ofi/er dgyst te Aur'ljuk mi:, en 'mebi jil gi: e gyd wArd for mi te 
'sandi 'neSerstenz, Se 1 miler, Set hi me 10 t/ein Ap iz mAkl 11 dog 
e 8/ wedne he him te hArt Se p0:r best, fer ^t dgyst diz ^ts 
'ofij m 'barken et e gaber'lunji leik mi:. en Serz ^'e: S^T) 'mebi 
me:r, bet jil Sink its 'vsre 5 ba:lrf o Se leik o mi: te spik ot." 



A A 2 o 3 e: 4 sAd 5 o.: 6 a: 7 i 8 i, A 9 ai 
11 A, AU 



238 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



" It respects yoursell, and it is in your power, and I maun 
come out wi't. Ye are a bonny young leddy, and a gude ane, 
and maybe a weel-tochered ane but dinna ye sneer awa the 
lad Lovel, as ye did a while sinsyne on the walk beneath the 
Briery-bank, when I saw ye baith, and heard ye too, though ye 
saw nae me. Be canny wi' the lad, for he loes ye weel, and it's 
to him, and no to ony thing I could have done for you, that Sir 
Arthur and you wan ower yestreen." 



READER 239 

"it rfspsks jar'sel, an \t iz m jar pu:r, an a 1 ma:n kAm ut 
wilt. ji ar 9 2 'bom JATJ ,'ledi, an a gyd 5 en, an 'mebi a wiP'toxart 
6 en bat 'dinna ji sniir 1 a'wa: Sa 3 la:d 2 'lAval, az ji did a Avail 
sm'sain on 5a 1 wa:k bi'niS Sa 'brian bank, Avan a 1 sa: ji be0, 
en 3 herd ji t0i, 0o ji 1 sa: na mi:, bi 'kanni w{ Sa 3 la:d, far i 
lu:z ji wil, an ^ts ta him, an no: ta 2/ om9ir) a: kAd av dyn 
far ju:, Sat 4 s^r 'srGar an ju: wan Aur ja'strin." 



a 



240 


VA. BRAID CLAITH 

ROBEKT FKRGUSSON (1750-1774). 

Ye wha are fain to hae your name 
Wrote in the bonny book of fame, 
Let merit nae pretension claim 

To laurel'd wreath, 
But hap ye weel, baith back and wame, 

In gude Braid Claith. 

He that some ells o' this may fa', 
An' slae black hat on pow like snaw, 
Bids bauld to bear the gree awa', 

Wi' a' this graith, 
Whan bienly clad wi' shell fu braw 

O' gude Braid Claith. 

Waesuck for him wha has nae fek o't ! 
For he's a gowk they're sure to geek at, 
A chiel that ne'er will be respekit 

While he draws breath, 
Till his four quarters are bedeckit 

Wi' gude Braid Claith. 

On Sabbath days the barber spark, 
Whan he has done wi' scrapin wark, 
Wi' siller broachie in his sark, 

Gangs trigly, faith ! 
Or to the Meadows or the Park, 

In gude Braid Claith. 

Weel might ye trow, to see them there, 
That they to shave your haffits bare, 
Or curl and sleek a pickle hair, 

Wud be right laith, 
When pacing wi' a gawsy air 

In gude Braid Claith. 



241 

VA. BRAID CLAITH. 

ROBERT FERGUSSON (1750-1774). 

ji 1 Ava: ar fein ta he: jar nem 
wrot m Sa 2/ bom 3 b;'uk o fern, 
4 let 'merit ne: prr'ten/n klem 

ta 1 la:rld wreQ, 
bat hap ji wil, be0 bak an wem, 

i t n gyd bred kle9. 
hi Sat SAm elz o Sj:s me 1 fa:, 
an sle: blak hat on pAu laik 1 sna:, 
bjdz 1 ba:y ta beir Sa gri: 1 a / wa:, 

wi 1 0bi Sis gre0, 
Avan 'binli kled wi Jel fu 1 bra: 

o gyd bred kle0. 

r we:zak far him 1 A\a: haz ne: fsk ot ! 
far hi:z a gAuk Ser J0:r ta gsk at, 
a t/il Sat ne:r 5 wil bi rfspekat 

Avail hi a dra:z breO, 
til hiz 'fAuar 'kwartarz ar bi'dekat 

wi gyd bred kle0. 
on 'sa:ba0 de:z Sa x barbar spark, 
A\an hi haz dyn wi 'skra:pan wark, 
wi 's^lar 'brot/i m iz sark, 

ganz tr^gh, fe0 ! 
or ta Sa 'medaz or Sa park, 

m gyd bred kle0. 
wil mixt ji trAu, ta si: Sam Se:r, 
Sat Se: ta Je:v jar 'hafats berr, 
or kArl an slik a pikl he:r, 

wAd bi n c xt Ie0, 
Avan 'pesan wi u a 1/ ga:sj e:r 

m gyd bred kle0. 



3 y 4 a, a 5 A 

16 



242 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

If ony mettled stirrah grien 
For favour frae a lady's een, 
He maunna care for being seen 

Before he sheath 
His body in a scabbard clean 

0' gude Braid Claith. 

For gin he comes wi' coat threadbare, 
A feg for him she winna care, 
But crook her bonny mou' fu' sair, 

An' scald him baith. 
Wooers should aye their travel spare 

Without Braid Claith. 

Braid Claith lends fowk an unco heese, 
Maks mony kail-worms butterflies, 
Gies mony a doctor his degrees 

For little skaith ; 
In short, you may be what you please 

Wi' gude Braid Claith. 

For thof ye had as wise a snout on 
As Shakespeare or Sir Isaac Newton, 
Your judgment fowk would hae a doubt on, 

I'll tak my aith, 
Till they cou'd see ye wi a suit on 

O' gude Braid Claith. 






READER 243 



if 1/ onj metlt 'stira grin 
far 'fe:var fre 9 'Isdiz in, 
hi 'manrca ke:r far bian sin 

bi'fo:r hi Je6 
hiz 1 bodi in a 'skabard klin 

o gyd bred kle6. 

far gin hi kAmz v?i kot '0rid'be:r, 
a fsg far hpn Ji 2 wmwa ke:r, 
bat kruk har 1/ bon^ mu: fu: se:r, 

an 3 ska:y him be0. 
'wuarz 4 Jud ai Sar treivl speir 

wi/9ut bred kle0. 

bred kle0 Isnc^z fAuk an 'Anka hi:z, 
maks 5/ mom 'kelwArmz 'bAtar'fliiz, 
gi:z 5/ mont a 'doktar hiz dfgrirz 

far htl ske9; 
in. 1 /ort, ji me: bi 3 Avat ji pliiz 

wi gyd bred kle0. 

far 0of ji had az wais a snut on 

az 'Jekspir or 2 sir 6 'aizak 'njuton, 

jar 7 d3Ad3mant fAuk 8 wad he a dut on, 

al tak ma e9, 
til Se kAd si: ji w{ a sut on 

o gyd bred kle0. 



o, A, a 6 ai 7 y 



162 



244 



VI A. MAUDGE AND THE ORPHAN 
JOHN GALT (1779-1839). 

THE ENTAIL. 
CHAPTERS I AND II. 

Claud Waikinshaw was the sole surviving male heir of the Walkinshaws 
of Kittlestonheugh. The family estate had been lost in the Darien specu- 
lation and Claud had been left in the care of an old nurse, Maudge Dobbie. 
The old woman and her charge lived in Glasgow in the direst poverty. 
One afternoon, they had been walking in the suburbs of Glasgow, talking 
of the former glory of the family and viewing in the distance Claud's 
ancestral estate, when the Provost of Glasgow and his good lady appeared 
on the scene. This gives Maudge an opportunity of comparing their up- 
start grandeur with that of her master's family in days gone by. Then a 
conversation ensues between Maudge and the Provost and his wife. 
Maudge exhibits the same stubborn independence as the gaberlunzie in 
Ext. IV. 

Claud was filled with wonder and awe at the sight of such 
splendid examples of Glasgow pomp and prosperity, but Maudge 
speedily rebuked his juvenile admiration. 

" They're no worth the looking at," said she ; " had ye but 
seen the last Leddy Kittlestonheugh, your ain muckle respekit 
grandmother, and her twa sisters, in their hench-hoops, with 
their fans in their han's the three in a row would hae soopit 
the whole breadth o' the Trongate ye would hae seen some- 
thing. They were nane o' your new-made leddies, but come o' 
a pedigree. Foul would hae been the gait, and drooking the 
shower, that would hae gart them jook their heads in til the 
door o' ony sic thing as a Glasgow bailie Na; Claudie, my 
lamb, thou maun lift thy een aboon the trash o' the town, and 
ay keep mind that the hills are standing yet that might hae 
been thy ain ; and so may they yet be, an thou can but master 
the pride o' back and belly, and seek for something mair solid 
than the bravery o' sic a Solomon in all his glory as yon 
Provost Gorbals. Heh, sirs, what a kyteful o' pride's yon'er ! 
and yet I would be nane surprised the morn to hear that the 
Nebuchadnezzar was a' gane to pigs and whistles, and driven 
out wi' the divor's bill to the barren pastures of bankruptcy." 



245 



VIA. MAUDGE AND THE ORPHAN 

JOHN GALT (1779-1839). 

'THE ENTAIL. 
CHAPTERS I AND II. 

" Se:r no: wAr0 Sa 'Ijukan at, had ji bat sin Sa last 'ledi 

'kitlstan^hjux, jar em mAkl rfspskat j 'granmiSar, an bar 2 twa: 
'sistarz, m Sar 'hen/'hups, wi Sar fanz in Sar 3 hanc?z Sa Sri: m 
a 2 ra: 4 wad he 'supat Sa hel bri0 o Sa 'tronget ji 4 wad he sin 
'sAm9in. Se: war nen o jar nj turned 'lediz, bat kAm o a 'pedigri. 
ful 4 wad he bin 6a get, an 'drukan Sa '/uar, Sat 4 wad he 5 ga:rt 
Ssm d3uk Sar 6 hidz 'mtil Sa do:r o 7/ oni s^k 8ir) az a 'glsska 
8/ baili na:; 2/ kla:di, ma la:m, Su man lift Sai in a'byn 5a traj o 
Sa tun, an ai kip main Sat Sa hilz ar 3/ stanc?an jet Sat mixt he 
bin Sai e:n ; an so: me Se jet bi:, an Su kan bat 'mestar Sa praid 
o bak an 'beli, an sik for 'sAm9ir) me:r 'sol^d San Sa 'bre.'vri o sik 
a 'solaman m 2 a:l hiz 'glo:ri az jon 'provast 'gorbalz. hex, 1 sirz, 
Avat a 'kaitfa o praidz 'jonar ! an jst a 4/ wadna bi nen 9 sar / praizd 
Sa 7 morn ta hi:r Sat Sa nebAxad'nedzar waz 2 a: ge:n ta pigz an 
AVAslz, an drivn ut wi Sa 'daivarz bil ta Sa 'baran 'pastjarz o 
'barjkrApsi." 



a: 4 A, i 5 s 6 e 7 o 8/ bel;'i 9 sar / praist 



246 MANUAI*OF MODERN SCOTS 

After taking a stroll round the brow of the hill, Provost 
Gorbals and his lady approached the spot where Maudge and 
Claud were sitting. As they drew near, the old woman rose, 
for she recognized in Mrs Gorbals one of the former visitors at 
Kittlestonheugh. The figure of Maudge herself was so remark- 
able, that, seen once, it was seldom forgotten, and the worthy 
lady, almost at the same instant, said to the Provost, 

" Eh ! Megsty, gudeman, if I dinna think yon's auld 
Kittlestonheugh's crookit bairnswoman. I won'er what's come 
o' the Laird, poor bodie, sin' he was rookit by the Darien. Eh ! 
what an alteration it was to Mrs Walkinshaw, his gudedochter. 
She was a bonny bodie; but frae the time o' the sore news, she 
croynt awa, and her life gied out like the snuff o' a can'le. 
Hey, Magdalene Dobbie, come hither to me, I'm wanting to 
speak to thee." 

Maudge, at this shrill obstreperous summons, leading 
Claud by the hand, went forward to the lady, who immediately 
said, 

" 1st t'ou ay in Kittlestonheugh's service, and what's come 
o' him, sin' his Ian' was roupit ? " 

Maudge replied respectfully, and with the tear in her eye, 
that the Laird was dead. 

" Dead ! " exclaimed Mrs Gorbals, " that's very extraordinare. 
I doubt he was ill off at his latter end. Whar did he die, poor 
man ? " 

" We were obligated," said Maudge, somewhat comforted by 
the compassionate accent of the lady, " to come intil Glasgow, 
where he fell into a decay o' nature." And she added, with a 
sigh that was almost a sob, " 'Deed, it's vera true, he died in a 
sare straitened circumstance, and left this helpless laddie upon 
my hands." 

The Provost, who had in the meantime been still looking 
about in quest of a site for his intended mansion, on hearing 
this, turned round, and putting his hand in his pocket, 
said, 

" An' is this Kittlestonheugh's oe ? I'm sure it's a vera 
pitiful thing o' you, lucky, to take compassion on the orphan ; 
hae, my laddie, there's a saxpence." 



HEADER 247 

"e: ! 'megstkgyd'mctn, if a 'dm??a 9ir)k jonz 3 0uild 'k^tlstan^hjuxs 
'krukat 2/ bernzwAm9n. a 'wAnar Avats kAm o Sa lerd, p0:r 'bAdi, 
spi i waz 'rukat bi Sa 'derian. e: ! A\at an altar's Jn jt waz ta 
'misiz 3 'waikin/a, hiz gyd 4/ doxtar. Ji WAZ a 4/ bom 'bAdi; bat 
fre Sa taim o fta so:r njuiz, Ji 5 kromt 3 a'wa: an bar laif gid ut 
laik Sa snAf o a 36 kanl. hai, 'mogdalin 'dobi, kAm 'hiSar ta mi, 
am 7/ wantan ta spik t-a Si." 



"'ist 8 tu ai p 'kitlstan^hjuxs 'serviSjan Aiats kAm o him, sm 
iz 6 lan waz 'rAupat ? " 

a/ did! Sats 'vsra ikstra'ordmar. a dut hi waz il of 

at iz 'latar end 3 Aia:?- d\d hi di:, p0:r man ? " 

" wi war oblfgetat ta kAm 'intil 'glsska, A\ar i fel 'pita 

a di'ke: o 'netar did, its 'vera tru:, hi di:d in a se:r stretnt 

1/ sirkAmstans, an left S^s 'helplas 'ladi o'pon mai 6 hanz." 

" an iz Sis 'kitlstan 1/ hjuxs o: ? am J^:r its a 'vera 'pitifa 0irj o 
ju:, lAki, ta tak kam'pa/n on Sa 'orfan; he:, ma 'ladi, Seirz a 
'sakspans." 



*A 2 e 3 g: 4 o 5 ai 6 a: 7 t , A ^See Ph. 217 (d) 



248 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Saxpence, gudeman ! " exclaimed the Provost's lady, " ye'll 
ne'er even your ban' wi' a saxpence to the like of Kittleston- 
heugh, for sae we're bound in nature to call him, landless though 
his lairdship now be ; poor bairn, I'm wae for't. Ye ken his 
mother was sib to mine by the father's side, and blood's thicker 
than water ony day." 

Generosity is in some degree one of the necessary qualifica- 
tions of a Glasgow magistrate, and Provost Gorbals being as 
well endowed with it as any of his successors have been since, 
was not displeased with the benevolent warmth of his wife, 
especially when he understood that Claud was of their own kin. 
On the contrary, he said affectionately, 

" Really it was vera thoughtless o' me, Liezy, my dear ; but 
ye ken I have na an instinct to make me acquaint wi' the 
particulars of folk, before hearing about them. I'm sure no 
living soul can have a greater compassion than mysel' for gentle 
blood come to needcessity." 

Mrs Gorbals, however, instead of replying to this remark 
indeed, what could she say, for experience had taught her that 
it was perfectly just addressed herself again to Maudge. 

" And whar dost t'ou live ? and what hast t'ou to live 
upon?" 

"I hae but the mercy of Providence," was the humble 
answer of honest Maudge, " and a garret- room in John Sinclair's 
Ian'. I ettle as weel as I can for a morsel, by working stockings; 
but Claud's a rumbling laddie, and needs mair than I hae to 
gi'e him : a young appetite's a growing evil in the poor's 
aught." 

The Provost and his wife looked kindly at each other, and 
the latter added, 

" Gudeman, ye maun do something for them. It'll no fare 
the waur wi' our basket and our store." 

And Maudge was in consequence requested to bring Claud 
with her that evening to the Provost's House in the Bridgegate. 
"I think," added Mrs Gorbals, "that our Hughoc's auld claes 
will just do for him ; and Maudge, keep a good heart, we'll no 
let thee want. I won'er t'ou did na think of making an 
application to us afore." 



READER 249 

"'sakspans, gyd'man ! ........... .jil neir iivn jar 1 han wi a 

'sakspans ta Sa laik o 'krtlstan 2 'hjux, far se: wir bAund in 'netar 
ta 3 ka: him, 'lanlas 0o hiz 'lerd/rp nu: bi: ; p0:r 4 bern, am we: 
fart, ji ksn hiz 'miSar waz sib ta main bi Sa 5 'feSarz said, an blydz 
'Oikar San 'watar 6 'om de:." 

"re:l{ it, waz 'vera 6 '6oxtlas o mi, liizi, ma di:r; bat ji ken a 
'havna an 'instink ta mak mi a'kwant wi Sa par'tiklarz o 7 fAuk, 
bffoir 'hiiran a'but Sam. am J^:r no: 'liivan sol kan hav a 
'gretar kam'pa/n San ma'sel far dgsntl blyd kAm ta nid'sssiti." 



" an 3 Ava:r dAs^ 8 tu li:v ? an Avat has 8 tu ta li:v a'pon ? " 
"a he: bat Sa 'msrsi o 'providans, ............ an a 'garatrurn 

in 6 d3on 'sinklarz 1 l(ind a stl az wil az a kan far a 'morsal, bi 
'wArkan 'stokanz; bat 3 kla:dz a 'rAmlan l7 ladi, an nidz me:r 
San a he: ta gi: him : a JArj 'apatits a 'grAuan i:vl in Sa p0:rz 
a:xt." 

"gyd'man, ji mam d^: 'sAmeirj for Sam. itl no: feir Sa 3 wa:r 
w{ u:r 'baskat an u:r sto:r." 

"9 6i t nk ............ Sat u:r 'hjuaks 3 a:H kle:z wil dgyst d0: far 

him; an 3 ma:d3, kip a gyd hert, wil no: 9 lst Si 10 want. a 'wAnar 
8 tu 'd{dna Gmk o 'makan an aplfke/n ta AS a'foir." - 



a, a 10 i, A 



e: 6 o 7 o 8 See Ph. 217 (d)andGr.22 



250 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"No," replied the old woman, "I could ne'er do that I 
would hae been in an unco strait before I would hae begget on 
my own account; and how could I think o' disgracing the 
family ? Any help that the Lord may dispose your hearts to 
gi'e, I'll accept wi' great thankfulness, but an almous is what 
I hope He'll ne'er put it upon me to seek ; and though Claud 
be for the present a weight and burden, yet, an he's sparet, he'll 
be able belyve to do something for himsel'." 

Both the Provost and Mrs Gorbals commended her spirit ; 
and, from this interview, the situation of Maudge was consider- 
ably improved by their constant kindness. 



HEADER 251 

"no:, a kAd ne:r d0: 5at a l wad e bin in an'Anka stret 

brfbir a *wad he 'begat on mai o:n a'kunt; an hu: kAd a Gink o 
dis'gresan Sa 'femli ? x eni help Sat 5a lo:rd me dis r po:z jar hsrts 
ta gi:, al ak'ssp wi gret 'Gankfalnas, bat an 2 'airaas iz Avat a hAup 
hil ne:r pit a'pon mi ta sik; an 9o 2 kla:d bi: far fta prsznt a 
wext an 'bArdan, jet, an hiz speirt, hil bi ebl brlaiv ta d^: 
far him'sel."... 



252 

VII A. TAM O' SHANTEK 

ROBERT BURNS (1759-1796). 
Ayrshire Dialect. 

In this, as in all the other poems of Burns, printed in this 
work, the text is taken from the Centenary Edition of Robert 
Burns by Henley and EFenderson. 

In Burns' dialect all the e sounds are very broad, almost 
equal to g. a: is generally represented by Q: and o by o. The 
glottal catch is heard before t, p, k, and both medially and 
finally in familiar speech may take the place of the consonant. 

When chapman billies leave the street, 
And drouthy neebors, neebors meet ; 
As market-days are wearing late, 
An' folk begin to tak the gate ; , 
While we sit bousing at the nappy, 
An' getting fou and unco happy, 
We think na on the lang Scots miles, 
The mosses, waters, slaps, and stiles, 
That lie between us and our hame, 
Whare sits our sulky, sullen dame, 
Gathering her brows like gathering storm, 
Nursing her wrath to keep it warm. 

This truth fand honest Tarn o' Shanter, 
As he frae Ayr ae night did canter, 
(Auld Ayr, wham ne'er a town surpasses, 
For honest men and bonie lasses.) 
Tarn, had'st thou but been sae wise, 
As taen thy ain wife Kate's advice ! 
She tauld thee weel thou was a skellum, 
A blethering, blustering, drunken blellum ; 
That frae November till October, 
Ae market-day thou was nae sober ; 
That ilka melder wi' the miller, 
Thou sat as lang as thou had siller ; 






253 

VII A. TAM O' SHANTER 

ROBERT BURNS (1759-1796). 

Aven 't/apmen 'bilj.z li:v Se strit, 
en 'dru0i 'niberz, 'niberz mit ; 
9z 'market de:z er 'wiiren let, 
en fok br'gin te tak Se get ; 
A\eil wi sit 'bu.'zen et Se 'napj, 
en gstn fu: en 'Arjke 'hapj, 
wi 6{nk ne on 5e lar) skots meilz, 
Se 'mosez, 'waterz, slaps, en steilz, 
Set lai bftwin AS en 1 ur hem, 
Aier s^ts ur 'sAlki, 'sAlen dem, 
'geSren er bruiz leik "geSren storm, 
'nArsen er ra9 te kip \t warm. 

5is try6 fancZ 'onsst tarn o "Janter, 
ez hi: fre e:r je: mxt did x kanter, 
($:\d e:r, Avem ni:r e tun sAr'pasez, 
fer 'onsst mn en 'bom 'lasez.) 
o: tarn, hadst Su: bAt bin se weis, 
ez tern Sai e:n weif kets ed'veis ! 
Ji ta:lc? Si wil Su WAZ e 'skglem, 
e 'bl^Sren, 'bUstren, drAkrj 'blejem ; 
Set fre ne'vgmber til ok'tober, 
je: 'market'de: Su 'wAzne 'sober ; 
Set like 'milder wi Se 'miler, 
Su sat ez lar) ez Su had 'siler ; 



254 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

That ev'ry naig was ca'd a shoe on, 

The smith and thee gat roaring fou on ; 

That at the Lord's house, even on Sunday, 

Thou drank wi' Kirkton Jean till Monday. 

She prophesied, that, late or soon, 

Thou would be found deep drowned in Doon ; 

Or catch'd wi' warlocks in the mirk, 

By Alloway's auld, haunted kirk. 

Ah ! gentle dames, it gars me greet, 

To think how monie counsels sweet, 

How monie lengthen'd sage advices, 

The husband frae the wife despises ! 

But to our tale : Ae market-night, 
Tarn had got planted unco right, 
Fast by an ingle, bleezing finely, 
Wi' reaming swats, that drank divinely; 
And at his elbow, Souter Johnie, 
His ancient, trusty, drouthy cronie: 
Tarn lo'ed him like a vera brither ; 
They had been fou for weeks thegither. 
The night drave on wi' sangs and clatter ; 
And aye the ale was growing better : 
The landlady and Tarn grew gracious, 
Wi' secret favours, sweet, and precious : 
The souter tauld his queerest stories ; 
The landlord's laugh was ready chorus : 
The storm without might rair and rustle, 
Tarn did na mind the storm a whistle. 
Care, mad to see a man sae happy, 
E'en drown'd himsel amang the nappy. 
As bees flee hame wi' lades o' treasure, 
The minutes wing'd their way wi' pleasure ; 
Kings may be blest, but Tarn was glorious, 
O'er a' the ills o' life victorious ! 



READER 255 

Sat 'evri neg waz kg:d a Ju: on, 
Sa smi9 an Si gat 'ro:ran fa: on ; 
Sat at Sa loirdz bus, i:n on 'sAnde, 
Su drank w{ 'kertan d3in til 'mAnde. 
Ji 1/ profasit, Set, let ar 2 sun, 
Su wad bi fAn dip drund in 3 dun ; 
ar kat/t wi 'wo,:rlaks in Sa mirk, 
bi 'alowaz g:lc, 'hantat kirk. 
a: ! dggntl demz, {t garz mi grit, 
ta 6ink hu: 'niAm kunslz swit, 
hu: 'niAm 'Ign6ant sedg ad'vaisaz, 
Sa 'hAzbanc^ fre Sa waif dis'paizaz ! 

bat t0 4 ur tel : -je: 'markat'nixt, 
tam had got 'plantat 'Anka r^xt, 
fast bai an irjl, 'bliizan 'fainli, 
wt 'riman swats, Sat drank dfvainli ; 
an at iz 'lba, 'sutar 'dgoni, 
hiz 'an/ant, 'trAstk 'druSi 'kroni : 
tam laid im laik a 'vgra 'briSar ; 
Se had bin fu: far wiks Sa'giSar. 
Sa nixt dreiv on wi sarjz an 'klgtar ; 
an ai Sa jel waz 'grAuan 'be, tar : 
Sa 'lanc^ledi an tam gru: 'gre/as, 
wi 'sikrat 'fe:varz, swit, an 'prejas: : 
Sa 'sutar tqild iz 'kwi^est 'stoiriz ; 
Sa 'lanc^lardz lax waz 'rsdi 'koiras : 
Sa storm wi'Gut mixt re:r an rAsl, 
tam 'didna mainc? Sa storm a AiAsl. 
ke:r, mad ta si: a man se: 'hapi, 
i:n drunt im'sgl a'mar) Sa 'napi. 
az bi:z fli: hem wi ledz o 'tr:gar, 
Sa 'minits wint Sar wai wi 'plgjgar; 
kinz me: bi blest, bat tam waz 'gloinas, 
Aur 9: Sa ilz o laif vik'to:nas ! 



'profesaid 2 Jyn 3 dyn 4 war 



256 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Nae man can tether time or tide ; 
The hour approaches Tarn maun ride : 
That hour, o' night's black arch the key-stane, 
That dreary hour Tarn mounts his beast in ; 
And sic a night he taks the road in, 
As ne'er poor sinner was abroad in. 
The wind blew as 'twad blawn its last ; 
The rattlin' showers rose on the blast ; 
The speedy gleams the darkness swallow'd ; 
Loud, deep, and lang the thunder bellow'd ; 
That night, a child might understand, 
The deil had business on his hand. 

Weel mounted on his gray mare Meg, 
A better never lifted leg, 
Tarn skelpit on thro' dub and mire, 
Despising wind, and rain, and fire ; 
Whiles holding fast his guid blue bonnet ; 
Whiles crooning o'er some auld Scots sonnet ; 
Whiles glow'ring round wi' prudent cares, 
Lest bogles catch him unawares : 
Kirk-Alloway was drawing nigh, 
Whare ghaists and houlets nightly cry. 

By this time he was cross the ford, 
Whare in the snaw the chapman smoor'd ; 
And past the birks and meikle stane, 
Whare drunken Charlie brak's neck-bane ; 
And thro' the whins, and by the cairn, 
Whare hunters fand the murder 'd bairn ; 
And near the thorn, aboon the well, 
Whare Mungo's mither hang'd hersel. 
Before him Boon pours all his floods ; 
The doubling storm roars thro' the woods ! 
The lightnings flash from pole to pole ; 
Near and more near the thunders roll ; 
When, glimmering thro' the groaning trees, 
Kirk-Alloway seem'd in a bleeze ; 



READER 257 



ne: man kan 'tSar taim ar taid ; 
Sa u:r a'prot/ez tarn man raid : 
Sat u:r, o nixts blak ertj Sa 'kiisten, 
Sat 'dri:n u:r tarn mAnts \z bist in ; 
an s:ik a mxt hi taks Sa rod pi, 
az ni:r p0:r 'sinar waz a'brod in. 
Sa wAn blu: az twad blgin its last ; 
Sa 'ratlan Ju:rz ro:z on Sa blast ; 
Sa 'spidi glimz 6a 'darknas 'swglat ; 
lud, dip, an larj ?5a '6Anc?ar 'belat ; 
Sat mxt, a t/aild mixt Anc?arstgnc?, 
Sa dil had 'biznes on iz 



wil niAntat on \z gre: mi:r 
9 7 btar 'nevar 'l^ftat lg, 
tam 'skglpat on 0ru dAb an man 1 , 
dfspaizan WAn, an ren, an fair ; 
Availz 'hgdan fast hiz gyd blu: 'bonat ; 
A\.ailz 'krunan Aur an g:lc? skots 'sonat ; 
Availz 'gUuran rune? w{ 'prudant keirz, 
lest boglz katj him Ana'weirz : 
kjrk 'alowa waz 'drgan nai, 
A\.ar gests an 'hulats 'mxtli krai. 

bi Sis taim hi waz kros Sa f^ird, 
Avar in Sa sno,: Sa "t/apman sm^ird ; 
an past Sa birks an rnikl sten, 
Avar drAkr) 't/eirli braks ngkben ; 
an 0ru Sa AVAnz, an bai Sa ke:rn, 
Avar 'hAntarz fane? Sa 'mArdart be:rn ; 
an ni:r Sa 0orn, a'byn Sa wgl, 
Avar 'niAngoz 'miSar hant ar'sgl. 
bffoir him dun puirz g: hiz nAdz ; 
Sa 'dAblan storm roirz 0ru Sa wAdz ! 
Sa 'Isx^nanz flaj fre pol ta pol ; 
ni:r an mo:r niir Sa 7 0Anc?arz rol ; 
Avan, 'glimran 0ru Sa 'groman tri:z, 
kirk 'alowa simd in a bli:z ; 

G. 17 



258 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Thro' ilka bore the beams were glancing, 
And loud resounded mirth and dancing. 

Inspiring bold John Barleycorn, 

What dangers thou canst make us scorn ! 

Wi' tippenny, we fear nae evil ; 

Wi' usqubae, we'll face the Devil ! 

The swats sae ream'd in Tammie's noddle, 

Fair play, he car'd na de'ils a boddle. 

But Maggie stood, right sair astonish'd, 

Till, by the heel and hand admonish'd, 

She ventur'd forward on the light; 

And, vow ! Tarn saw an unco sight ! 

Warlocks and witches in a dance : 

Nae cotillion, brent new frae France, 

But hornpipes, jigs, strathspeys, and reels, 

Put life and mettle in their heels. 

A winnock-bunker in the east, 

There sat Auld Nick, in shape o' beast ; 

A tousie tyke, black, grim, and large, 

To give them music was his charge : 

He screw 'd the pipes and gart them skirl, 

Till roof and rafters a' did dirl. 

Coffins stood round, like open presses, 

That shaw'd the dead in their last dresses ; 

And, by some devilish cantraip sleight, 

Each in his cauld hand held a light : 

By which heroic Tarn was able 

To note upon the haly table, 

A murderer's banes in gibbet-airns ; 

Twa span-lang, wee, unchristen'd bairns ; 

A thief new-cutted frae a rape 

Wi' his last gasp his gab did gape ; 

Five tomahawks, wi' bluid red-rusted ; 

Five scymitars, wi' murder crusted ; 

A garter which a babe had strangled ; 



READER 259 



0ru '{Ike boir Sa bimz war 'glansan, 
an lud n'suncfot mirO an 'dansan. 



m'spairan bg:ld d3on 'barhkorn, 

Aiat 'dend3arz 3u: kanst mak AS skorn I 

wi 'tipam, wi fi:r ne i:vl; 

wi 'Askwabe, wil fes Sa di:vl ! 

Sa swats se: rimd m 'tam:j.z nodi, 

fe:r pie:, hi 'ke:rdna dilz a bodl. 

bat 'magi styd, rixt se:r a'stonj/t, 

til, bi Sa hil an hg:nd ad'mom/t, . 

Ji 'vsntart 'forat on Sa l^xt ; 

an, WAU ! tarn SQ: an x Anka sixt ! 

'wgirlaks an x wAt/az in a dans : 

ne: 'kotiljon, brgnt nju: frs frans, 

bat 'hornpaips, dgigz, straS'spaiz, an rilz, 

pAt laif an mtl m 5ar hilz. 

a 'wAnak'bAnkar m Sa ist, 

Se:r sat $'Ad njk, m Jep o bist ; 

a 'tu:zi talk, blak, grim, an lerdg, 

ta gi: Sam 'm0:zik waz \z t/erdg : 

hi skru:t 5a paips an gart Sam skirl, 

til ryf an 'raftarz g: did d^rl. 

'kofmz styd run, laik opm 'presaz, 

Sat Jg:d Sa did m Ser last 'dresaz ; 

an, bai sAm 'di:vlif 'kantnp slixt, 

it/ m its kg:lc hgncZ hild a lixt : 

bi MAtJ hi'roik tarn waz ebl 

ta not a'pon Sa 'heli tebl, 

a 'mArdrarz benz m 'dgibat'eirnz ; 

Hwg: 'spanlan, wi:, An'kirsant be:rnz; 

a 0if nju:'kAtat fre a rep 

wi hiz last gasp iz gab did gep ; 

faiv toma'hgzks, wi blyd rid'rAstat ; 

faiv 'simitarz, wi 'niArdar 'krAstat ; 

a 'gertar AYAtJ a beb had stranlt ; 



172 



260 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

A knife a father's throat had mangled 
Whom his ain son o' life bereft 
The grey-hairs yet stack to the heft ; 
Wi' mair of horrible and awefu', 
Which even to name wad be unlawfu'. 

As Tammie glower'd, amaz'd and curious, 

The mirth and fun grew fast and furious ; 

The piper loud and louder blew, 

The dancers quick and quicker flew ; 

They reel'd, they set, they cross'd, they cleekit, 

Till ilka carlin swat and reekit, 

And coost her duddies to the wark, 

And linket at it in her sark ! 

Now Tarn, Tarn ! had thae been queans, 
A' plump and strapping, in their teens ! 
Their sarks, instead o' creeshie flannen, 
Been snaw- white seventeen hunder linen ! 
Thir breeks o' mine, my only pair, 
That once were plush, o' guid blue hair, 
I wad hae gi'en them aff my hurdies, 
For ae blink o' the bonie burdies ! 

But wither'd beldams, auld and droll, 
Bigwoodie hags wad spean a foal, 
Lowping and flinging on a crummock, 
I wonder didna turn thy stomack, 

But Tarn kend what was what fu' brawlie : 
There was ae winsome wench and wawlie 
That night enlisted in the core, 
Lang after kend on Carrick shore 
(For monie a beast to dead she shot, 
And perish'd monie a bonie boat, 
And shook baith meikle corn and bear, 
And kept the country-side in fear.) 
Her cutty sark, o' Paisley harn, 



READER 261 



9 naif a 'feSarz 0rot bed manlt 
Aiam hiz em SAH o laif bi'rgft 
Sa 'gre:he:rz jet stak to Sa hgft; 
w{ me:r o 'horibl an 'o,:fa, 
AiAtf i:n t9 nem W9d bi An'lg:fa. 

az 'tami gUurt, 9'me:zd 9n 'k;0:rias, 
59 m^rS 9n fAn gru: fast 9n f)'0:nas ; 
Sa 'paipar lud n 'ludar blu:, 
Sa 'dansarz kw^k an 'kwikar flu: ; 
Se rilt, Se set, Se krost, Se 'klikat, 
til ^Ik9 'kerlm swat 9n 'rikat, 
9n kyst 9r 'dAdiz t9 S9 wark, 
9n 'lirjkgt 9t ^t in 9r sark ! 

nu: tarn, o: tarn ! h9d Se bin kwinz, 
g: pUmp 9n 'strapan, in Sar tinz ! 
Sar serks, m'stid o 'kri/i ^flanan, 
bin 'sngiAvait 'sivntin 'hAnar 'linan ! 
Sir briks o main, ma 'onl{ pe:r, 
Sat jms war pUJ, o gyd blu: he:r, 
a wad a gin Sam af ma 'hArdiz, 
far je: blink o S9 'boni 'bArdiz ! 

b9t 'wiS9rt 'bgldemz, ^:ld 9n drol, 
rig'wAdi ha^z W9d spen 9 fol, 
'lAupgn 9n 'flingn on a 'krAmak, 
a 'wAncZar 'didna tArn Sai 'stAmak, 

bat tarn knt Mat waz Avat fu: 'br^di : 
Sar waz je: 'wAnsam wnj an w^:li 
Sat nptt m'listat ^n Sa ko:r, 
. larj 'gftar knt on 'karik Jo:r 
(far 'mAni a bist ta did Ji Jot, 
an 'pgrift 'niAni a 'bom bot, 
an Jyk be9 mikl korn an bi:r, 
an kpt Sa 'kmtrasaid in fi:r.) 
bar 'kAtj; serk, o 'pesli harn, 



1 Another reading is flainen = 'flsnan which would make 
good half-rhyme to linen. 



262 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

That while a lassie she had worn, 
In longitude tho' sorely scanty, 

It was her best, and she was vauntie 

Ah ! little kend thy reverend grannie, 
That sark she cofb for her wee Nannie, 
Wi' twa pund Scots ('twas a' her riches), 
Wad ever grac'd a dance o' witches ! 

But here my Muse her wing maun cour, 
Sic flights are far beyond her power : 
To sing how Nannie lap and flang, 
(A souple jad she was and strang), 
And how Tarn stood like ane bewitch'd, 
And thought his very een enrich'd : 
Even Satan glowr'd, and fidg'd fu' fain, 
And hotch'd and blew wi' might and main ; 
Till first ae caper, syne anither, 
Tarn tint his reason a'thegither. 
And roars out : " Weel done, Cutty-sark ! " 
And in an instant all was dark : 
And scarcely had he Maggie rallied, 
When out the hellish legion sallied, 

As bees bizz out wi' angry fyke, 

When plundering herds assail their byke ; 

As open pussie's mortal foes 

When, pop ! she starts before their nose ; 

As eager runs the market-crowd, 

When " Catch the thief! " resounds aloud ; 

So Maggie runs, the witches follow, 

Wi' monie an eldritch scriech and hollo, 

Ah, Tarn ! Ah, Tarn ! thou'll get thy farin ! 
In hell they'll roast thee like a herrin ! 
In vain thy Kate awaits thy comin ! 
Kate soon will be a wofu' woman ! 



READER 263 

Set Avail 9 'lasi Ji had worn, 

in 'lonc^itjud 60 seirlj: 'skanti, 

it waz er bgst, an Ji waz 'vanti ...... 

a: ! htl knt Sai 'revrant 'gram, 

Sat serk Ji koft far bar wi: 'nam, 

wi 1 twg: pAnc skots (twaz g: bar 'ritjaz), 

wad 'svar grest a dans o 'witjaz ! 

bat hiir ma m0:z bar wirj man ku:r, 
sik flixts ar fgir bi'jont bar puir : 
ta sir) hu: 'nan^ lap an flan, 
(a supl dggid Ji waz an stran), 
an hui tarn styd laik jsn bfwitjt, 
an 6oxt iz 'vgra in jnritjt : 
i:n sgitn glAurt, an fidgd fu fe;n, 
an hotjt an blu: wi mixt an mem ; 
til fArst je: 'kepar, sain a'mSar, 
tarn tint iz ri:zn g: Sa'giSar. 
an ro:rz ut : " wil dyn, 'kAti'sark ! " 
an m an 'instant o,: waz dark : 
an 'skersli had hi 'magi 'ralit, 
ut Sa 'hglij 'lidgan 'salit. 



az biiz biz ut wi 'ann faik, 

Aian 'plAnc^ran hsrdz a'sel Sar baik ; 

az opm 'pusiz 'mortal foiz 

Avan, pop ! Ji sterts bi'foir Sar no:z ; 

az 'igar rmz Sa 'markat'krud, 

wan " katj Sa 6if !" rfsun^z alud; 

so: 'magi rmz, Sa 'wAtJaz 'folo, 

wi 'niAni an 2 eldritJ skrix an 'holo. 

a:, tarn ! a:, tarn ! Su:l get Sai feirin ! 
m hl 5el rost Si laik a 'heirin ! 
in ven Sai ket a'wets Sai 'kAman ! 
ket syn wil bi a 'we: fa 'wAman ! 



x e: 2 'eldr t x 



264 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Now, do thy speedy utmost, Meg, 
And win the key-stane of the brig ; 
There, at them thou thy tail may toss, 
A running stream they dare na cross ! 
But ere the key-stane she could make, 
The fient a tail she had to shake ! 
For Nannie, far before the rest, 
Hard upon noble Maggie prest, 
And flew at Tarn wi' furious ettle ; 
But little wist she Maggie's mettle ! 
Ae spring brought aff her master hale, 
But left behind her ain grey tail : 
The carlin claught her by the rump, 
And left poor Maggie scarce a stump ! 

Now, wha this tale o' truth shall read, 
Ilk man and mother's son, take heed : 
Whene'er to drink you are inclin'd, 
Or cutty sarks run in your mind, 
Think ! ye may buy the joys o'er dear : 
Remember Tarn o' Shanter's mare. 



READER 265 



nu:, d0: Sai 'spidi 'Atmast, mgg, 
an wAn Sa 'ki:sten o Sa br^g ; 
Se:r, at Sam Su: Sai tel me tos, 
a 'rinan strim Se 'dg:rna kros ! 
bat e:r Sa 'ki:sten /i kad mak, 
Sa fint a tel Ji had ta Jak ! 
far 'nani, fg:r bi'fo:r Sa rst, 
hard a'po nobl 'magi prgst, 
an flu: at tarn wi 'f)'0:nas tl ; 
bat litl wAst Ji 'magiz mgtl ! 
je: sprirj broxt af bar 'mestar hel, 
bat left bi'hm^ ar e:n gre: tel : 
Sa 'kerlin kl^:xt ar bi Sa rAmp, 
an lft p0:r 'magi skers a stAmp ! 

nu:, I AV: Sis tel o tryG Jal rid, 
ilk man an 'miSarz sAn, tak hid : 
Avani:r ta dritjk ji ar in'klaind, 
an 'kAti serks nn in jar maind, 
0ir)k ! ji me bai Sa dgoiz Aur di:r : 
n'mgmbar tarn o 'Jantarz mi:r. 



e: 



266 

VIII A. MARRIAGE 

SUSAN FERRIER (1782-1854). 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

By her spelling, the authoress gives a fair indication of the pronunciation 
of Mrs Macshake, so that we do not require to note variants to the same 
extent as in the other extracts. 

"An wha thought o' seein ye enow," said she, in a quick 
gabbling voice ; " what's brought you to the toon ? are ye come 
to spend your honest faither's siller, e'er he's weel cauld in his 
grave, puir man ? " 

Mr Douglas explained, that it was upon account of his 
niece's health. 

" Health ! " repeated she, with a sardonic smile, " it wad mak 
an ool laugh to hear the wark that's made aboot young fowk's 
health noo-a-days. I wonder what ye're aw made o'," grasping 
Mary's arm in her great bony hand "a wheen puir feckless 
windlestraes ye maun awa to Ingland for yere healths. Set 
ye up ! I wunder what cam o' the lasses i' my time, that bute 
to bide at hame ? And whilk o' ye, I sude like to ken, '11. ere 
leive to see ninety-sax, like me Health ! he, he ! " 

Mary, glad of a pretence to indulge the mirth the old lady's 
manner and appearance had excited, joined most heartily in the 
laugh. 

" Tak aff yere bannet, bairn, an let me see yere face ; wha 
can tell what like ye are wi' that snule o' a thing on yere head." 
Then after taking an accurate survey of her face, she pushed 
aside her pelisse "Weel, it's ae mercy, I see ye hae neither 
the red heed, nor the muckle cuits o' the Douglases. I ken nae 
whuther ye're faither had them or no. I ne'er set een on him : 
neither him, nor his braw leddie, thought it worth their while 
to speer after me ; but I was at nae loss, by aw accounts." 

" You have not asked after any of your Glenfern friends," 
said Mr Douglas, hoping to touch a more sympathetic chord. 



267 



VIII A. MARRIAGE 

SUSAN FERRJEK (1782-1854). 

' x : CHAPTER XXXIV. 

"an x Ava: 2 0oxt o 'sian ji e'nu; Mats 2 broxt ji t9 5a 

tun ? er ji kAm ta spend jar 'onast 3/ fet5arz 'silar, e:r hiz wil 1 ka:y 
\n h^z fjre:v, p^:r man ? " 

"he!0 !. it wed mak an ul 4 lax ta hi:r Sa work Sats 

med a'but JATJ fAuks hs!0 'nu a deiz. a 'wAnrfar Avat jir 1 cii med 

o a Avin p^:r 'feklas 'wpic^lstreiz ji man 1 a / wa: ta 

'jnlancZ far jar he!0s. set ji Ap ! a 'wAncfor A\at kam o Sa 'lasaz 
{ ma: taim, Sat byt la baid at hem ? an Aqlk o ji, a syd laik ta 
ksn, 1 eir liiv ta si: 'nainti saks, laik mi: hs!0 ! he, he ! " 

u tak af jar r banat, 5 bern, an 6 lst mi si: jar fes; 1 A\a: kan 

tel A\at laik ji ar w^ Sat snyl o a 0m on jar hid 

wil, its^'e: 'mers^, a si: ji he 3 'neSar 5a rsd hid, nor Sa mAkl kyts 
o Sa 'duglasaz. a ksn ne 'AYASar jar 3/ feSar had Sam or no:, a 
ne:r set in on mi : 3/ neSar h^m, nor \z -"^bra: 'ledi, 2 0oxt ^t wAr0 
Sar Avail ta spi:r "eftar mi: ; bat a waz at ne: los, b{ l a: a'kunts." 



1 o,: 2 o 3 e: 4 a: 5 s 6 a, a 



268 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"Time enough wull ye let me draw my breath, man? 
fowk canna say aw thing at ance. An ye bute to hae an Inglish 
wife tu, a Scotch lass wad nae serr ye. An yere wean, I'se 
warran', it's ane o' the warld's wonders it's been unca lang o' 
cummin he, he ! " 

"He has begun life under very melancholy auspices, poor 
fellow ! " said Mr Douglas, in allusion to his father's death. 

" An wha's faut was that ? I ne'er heard tell the like o't, 
to hae the bairn kirsened an' its grandfather deem' ! But fowk 
are neither born, nor kirsened, nor do they wad or dee as they 
used to dae aw thing's changed." 

"You must, indeed, have witnessed many changes," ob- 
served Mr Douglas, rather at a loss how to utter anything of a 
conciliatory nature. 

" Changes ! weel a waat, I sometimes wunder if it's the 
same waurld, an if it's my ain heed that's upon my shoothers." 

"But with these changes, you must also have seen many 
improvements ? " said Mary, in a tone of diffidence. 

" Impruvements ! " turning sharply round upon her, " what 
ken ye about improvements, bairn ? A bonny impruvement or 
ens no, to see tyleyors and sclaters leavin whar I mind Jewks 
and Yerls. An that great glowrin new toon there," pointing 
out of her windows, " whar I used to sit an luck oot at bonny 
green parks, and see the coos milket, and the bits o' bairnies 
rowin an' tummlin, an the lasses tramplin i' their tubs. What 
see I noo, but stane an lime, an stoor an dirt, an idle cheels, 
an dinket-oot madams prancin'. Impruvements indeed ! " 

Mary found she was not likely to advance her uncle's fortune 
by the judiciousness of her remarks, therefore prudently 
resolved to hazard no more. Mr Douglas, who was more au 
fait to the prejudices of old age, and who was always amused 
with her bitter remarks, when they did not touch himself, 
encouraged her to continue the conversation by some observa- 
tion on the prevailing manners. 

"Mainers!" repeated she, with a contemptuous laugh, "what 
caw ye mainers noo, for I dinna ken ; ilk ane gangs bang in till 
their neebor's hoose, and bang oot o't as it war a chynge hoose; 
an as for the maister o't, he's no' o' sae muckle vaalu as the 



READER 269 

"taim Vnjux WA! ji 2 let mi 3 dra: ma bre0, man? fAuk 
se: 3/ a:0nj at 9 ens. an ji: byt ta he: an 'ml{J waif tjfc, a 
skotj las wad ne se:r ji. an jar we:n, az 'waran, jts 4 en o Sa 
warldz wAndforz its bin 'Anka lar) o 'kAman he:, he: ! " 

" an 3 Ava:z 3 fa:t waz Sat ? a ne:r herd tsl Sa laik ot, ta he: 
Sa bern 'kp-sand an {ts 'granfeSar 'dian ! bat fAuk ar 6/ neSar born, 
nor 'kp-sand, nor d^ Se wad or di: az Se 6 j0:zd ta de: 8 'a:0irjz 

7 t/end 3 d." 



" 't/end3az ! 'wila'wat, a 'sAmtaimz 'wAnc?ar ^f ^ts Sa sem 
8 wark?, an if its ma e:n hid Sats a'pon ma "JuSarz." 

" {m'prAvmants ! ............ Mat ksn ji: a'but {m'prAvmants, 

8 bern ? a 'bonj jm'prAvmant or ens no:, ta si: 'tailjarz an 
'skletarz 'liivan 3 Ava:r a maincZ d 3 uks an jsrlz. an Sat gret 
'gUuaran nju: tun Se:r ............ Aiar a 6 j^:zd ta s^t n Uk ut at 

'bonj: grin parks, an si: Sa ku:z 'm^lkat, an Sa b^ts o 8 'berntz 
'rAuan n 'tAmlan, an Sa 'lasaz Grampian i Sar tAbz. Avat si: a nu:, 
bat sten n laim, an stu:r an d^rt, an aidl t/ilz, an 'dmkat ut 
'modamz 'pransan. mi'prAvmants mdid ! " 



" 8/ menarz ! ............ Avat 3 ka: ji 8/ menarz nu:, far ai 'dm/?a 

ken; '{Ik 4 en garjz bar) jn t^l Sar 'nibarz hus, an bar) ut ot 
az j:t war a tjaind 3 hus ; an az for Sa 'mestar ot, hi:z no: o se 



*A 2 a, a 3 : 4 jm 5 e: 6 j0st 7 Note English form, see 
pp. 200 203 8 e 9 jms 



270 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

flunky ahint his chyre. I' my grandfather's time, as I hae 
heard him tell, ilka maister o' a faamily had his ain sate in his 
ane hoose aye, an sat wi' his hat on his heed afore the best o' 
the land, an had his ain dish, an was aye helpit first, an keepit 
up his owthority as a man sude dae. Paurents war paurents 
then bairns dardna set up their gabs afore them than as they 
dae noo. They ne'er presumed to say their heeds war their ain 
i' thae days wife an servants reteeners an' childer, aw trum- 
melt i' the presence o' their heed." 

Here a long pinch of snuff caused a pause in the old lady's 
harangue; but after having duly wiped her nose with her 
coloured handkerchief, and shook off all the particles that might 
be presumed to have lodged upon her cardinal, she resumed* 

" An nae word o' any o' your sisters gawn to get husbands 
yet ? They tell me they're but coorse lasses ; an' wha'll tak ill- 
farred tocherless queans, when there's walth o' bonny faces an 
lang purses i' the market he, he ! " Then resuming her scru- 
tiny of Mary" An' I'se warren ye'll be lucken for an Inglish 
sweetheart tae; that'll be what's takin' ye awa to Ingland." 

" On the contrary," said Mr Douglas, seeing Mary was too 
much frightened to answer for herself, " on the contrary, Mary 
declares she will never marry any but a true Highlander ; one 
who wears the dirk and plaid, and has the second-sight. And 
the nuptials are to be celebrated with all the pomp of feudal 
times ; with bagpipes, and bonfires, and gatherings of clans, and 
roasted sheep, and barrels of whisky, and " 

" Weel a wat an' she's i' the right there," interrupted Mrs 
Macshake, with more complacency than she had yet shown. 
" They may caw them what they like, but there's iiae waddins 
noo. Wha's the better o' them but innkeepers and chise-drivers ? 
I wud nae count mysel married i' the hiddlins way they gang 
aboot it noo." 

" I daresay you remember these things 'done in a very 
different style ? " said Mr Douglas. 

" I dinna mind them when they war at the best ; but I hae 
heard my mither tell what a bonny ploy was at her waddin. 
I canna tell ye hoo mony was at her waddin. I canna tell ye 
hoo mony was at it ; mair nor the room wad haud, ye may be 






EEADER 271 

'va:lja az Sa 'fUnki a'hpit hjz t/air. i ma 'granfeSarz taim, 
ez a he herd pn tsl, '{Ika 'mestar o a 'fa:mlj: had jz em set pi \z 
e:n hus ai, an sat wj hjz hat on \z hid a'for Sa best o Sa l land, 
an had jz em d{J, an waz ai 'helpat fjrst, an 'kipat Ap hjz 
Au'Gonti az a man syd de:, x pa:rants war 'pa:rants Sen 2 bernz 
3/ da:rdna set Ap Sar gabz a'foir Sam San az Se de; nui. Se ne:r 
prfsumt ta se: Sar hidz war Sar em i Se: de:z waif an 'servanz 
' rftinarz an t/jldar, 3 a: trAmlt i a 'prezanz o Sar hid." 

"an ne: wArd o 'en{ o jar 's^starz 3 gam ta get 'hAzban^z jet ? 
Se tel mi Ser bat kurs 'lasaz ; an 3 Aia:l tak 3/ jl / fa:rd 'toxarlas 
kwinz, A\.an Sarz wa!0 o x bon^ 'fesaz an larj 'pArsaz i Sa 'merkat 
he:, he: ! ............ an az 'waran jil bi 'Ukan far an 'mlij 'swithert 

te:; Satl bi Mats 'takan ji 3 a'wa: ta '{ 



"wil a'wat an Jiz i Sa rpt Se:r, ............ Se me 3 ka: Sam 

A\.at Se laik, bAt Sarz ne: 'wadanz nu:. 3 Ma:z Sa 'betar o 
Sam bAt '{nkiparz and 't/ais'draivarz ? a 'wAdne kunt ma'sel 
2 meqt i Sa 'lurllmz 4 we: Se gar) a'but \i nu:." 



" a 'dpna mainc? Sam Men Se war at Sa best ; bAt a he herd 
ma 'miSar tel Avat a 'bon{ ploi waz at bar 'wadan. a 'kanrca tel 
ji hu 'moni waz at bar 'wadan. a x kanna tel ji hu 'monj waz at 
it; me:r nor Sa rum wad x had, ji me bi J^:r, for 'ivri ri'le/n an 



a 



272 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

sure, for every relation an' freend o' baith sides war there, as 
well they sude ; an' aw in full dress ; the leddies in their hoops 
round them, an' some o' them had sutten up aw night till hae 
their heads drest, for they hadna thae pooket-like taps ye hae 
noo," looking with contempt at Mary's Grecian contour. " An' 
the bride's goon was aw shewed ow'r wi' favours, frae the tap 
doon to the tail, an' aw roond the neck, an' aboot the sleeves ; 
and, as soon as the ceremony was ow'r, ilk ane ran till her an' 
rugget an' rave at her for the favours, till they hardly left the 
claise upon her back. Than they did nae run awa as they dae 
noo, but sax an' thretty o' them sat doon till a graund dermer, 
and there was a ball at night, an' ilka night till Sabbath cam 
roond; an' than the bride an' the bridegroom drest in their 
waddin suits, and aw their freends in theirs, walkit in proces- 
sion till the kirk. An' was nae that something like a waddin ? 
It was worth while to be married i' thae days he, he ! " 

Mr Douglas, who was now rather tired of the old lady's 
reminiscences, availed himself of the opportunity of a fresh 
pinch, to rise and take leave. 

" Oo, what's takin ye awa, Archie, in sic a hurry ? Sit doon 
there," laying her hand upon his arm, "an' rest ye, an' tak a 
glass o' wine, an' a bit breed ; or may be," turning to Mary, "ye 
wad rather hae a drap broth to warm ye. What gars ye luck 
sae blae, bairn ? I'm sure it's no cauld ; but ye're juste like the 
lave : ye gang aw skiltin aboot the streets half naked, an' than 
ye maun sit an' birsle yoursels afore the fire at hame." 

She had now shuffled along to the further end of the room, 
and opening a press, took out wine, and a plateful of various- 
shaped articles of bread, which she handed to Mary. , 

" Hae, bairn, take a cookie, tak it up what are you fear'd 
for? It'll no bite. Here's t'ye, Glenfern, an' your wife, an' 
your wean, puir tead, it's no had a very chancy ootset weel a 
wat." 

The wine being drank, and the cookies discussed, Mr Douglas 
made another attempt to withdraw, but in vain. 

" Canna ye sit still a wee, man, an' let me spear after my 
auld freens at Glenfern. Hoo's Grizzy, an' Jacky, and Nicky ? 
aye workin awa at the pills an' the drogs he, he ! I ne'er 



READER 273 

hmd o be9 seidz wer Se:r, ez wil Se syd; en 1 a: m A! dres; Se 
'lediz in Ser hups rund Sam, en SAHI o Sam had sAtn Ap 1 a: nrxt 
t^l he: Ser hidz drest, far Se 'hadna Se: 'puketleik taps ji he: 
nu: ............ an Se braidz gun waz x a: Juid AUP w\ feivarz, 

fre Se tap dun ta Se tel, an x a: runcZ Se nsk, an e'but Se sliivz ; 
an, az syn az Se 'ssramonj waz Aur, {Ik 5 en ran tn 1 ar an 'rAget an 
re:v at ar far 5a 'feivarz, t^l Se 'har^lj left 5a kle:z a'pon ar bak. 
5an 5e 'djdne nn 1 a / wa: az Se de: nu:, bat saks an 'Orstt o Sam 
sat dun t^l a granrf 'denar, an Sar waz a x ba:l at njxt, an '{Ike 
nixt til 1/ saiba9 kam rune? ; an San Sa braid an Sa braid'grym 
drsst m Sar 'wadan syts, an x a: Sar frinc^z m Se:rz, 1/ wa:kat m 
pro'ssjn tjl Sa k^rk. an 'wazna Sat 'sAmG^r) laik a 'wadan ? |t 
waz wAr9 Mail ta bi 3/ meqt i Se: de;z he:, he: ! " 



"u:, Avats 'taken ji 1 e / wa:, 'ert/t, m s^k e 'hAq? s{t dun 
Se:r ............ en rest ji, en tak e gles o wein, en e brt brid; 

or 'mebi, ............ ji wed 2 reSer he e drap bro9 te warm ji. 

Mat ga:rz ji Lvk se ble:, 3 bern ? em J0:r its no: a ka:k; bet jir 
dgyst leik Se le:v : ji gar) x a: 'sk^lten e'but Se strits x ha:f 'na:ket, 
en San ji men sit n brrsl jer'selz e'fo:r Se 4 fair et hem." 

"he:, 3 bern, tak e 'kuki, tak j;t Ap A\.at er ji fi:rt for? |tl 
no: beit. hi:rz tji, gkn'fsrn, en jer weif, en jer we:n, p^:r ted, 
{ts no: hed e 'vere 't/ansj 'utset 'wile'wat." 

"'kanne ji srt st^l e wi:, men, en let mi spi:r 'efter me x a:ld 
frinz et glen'fern. hu:z 'grjzi, en 'dgak^, en 'mjq? ei 'wArken 
1 e'wa: et Se pilz en Se drogz he:, he: ! a: ne:r 'swalet e pil, nor 



a g: 2 e: 3 e 4 ei 5 jm 
G. 18 



274 MANUAL OF MODEKN SCOTS 

swallowed a pill, nor gied a doit for drogs aw my days, an' see 
an ony of them'll rin a race wi' me whan they're naur five 
score." 

Mr Douglas here paid her some compliments upon her 
appearance, which were pretty graciously received ; and added 
that he was the bearer of a letter from his aunt Grizzy, which 
he would send along with a roebuck and brace of moor-game. 

"Gin your roebuck's nae better than your last, atweel it's 
no worth the sendin'. Poor dry fisinless dirt, no worth the 
chowing ; weel a wat, I begrudged my teeth on't. Your muir- 
fowl was na that ill, but they're no worth the carryin; they're dong 
cheap i' the market enoo, so it's nae great compliment. Gin ye 
had brought me a leg o' gude mutton, or a cauler sawmont, 
there would hae been some sense in't ; but ye're ane o' the fowk 
that'll ne'er harry yoursel wi' your presents ; it's but the pickle 
poother they cost you, an' I'se warran ye're thinkin mair o' your 
ain diversion than o' my stamick, when ye're at the shootin' o' 
them, puir beasts." 

Mr Douglas had borne the various indignities levelled against 
himself and his family with a philosophy that had no parallel 
in his life before ; but to this attack upon his game, he was not 
proof. His colour rose, his eyes flashed fire, and something 
resembling an oath burst from his lips, as he strode indignantly 
towards the door. 

His friend, however, was too nimble for him. She stepped 
before him, and, breaking into a discordant laugh, as she patted 
him on the back, "So I see ye're just the auld man, Archie, 
aye ready to tak the strums, an' ye dinna get a' thing ye're ain 
wye. Mony a time I had to fleech ye oot o' the dorts whan ye 
was a callant. Div ye mind hoo ye was affronted because I set 
ye doon to a cauld pigeon-pie, and a tanker o' tippenny, ae 
night to ye're fowerhoors, afore some leddies he, he, he ! Weel 
a wat, ye're wife maun hae her ain adoos to manage ye, for ye're 
a cumstairy chield, Archie." 

Mr Douglas still looked as if he was irresolute whether to 
laugh or be angry. 

" Come, come, sit ye doon there till I speak to this bairn," 
said she, as she pulled Mary into an adjoining bedchamber, 



READER 275 

gi:d 9 dait for drogz 1 a: ma de:z, an si: an 'onj: o Sam 1 nn 9 res 
w{ mi Avan Se:r na:r faiv skoir." 

"gpi jar 'robAks nei 'betar San jar last, at/wil \ts no: wAr9 
Sa 'sendan. p0:r dra i 'ftsanlas d^rt, no: wAr9 Sa 't/Auan; 'wila'wat, 
a bi / grAd3t ma ti9 ont. jar 'm0:rful waz ne Sat jl, bat Ser no: 
wAr9 Sa 'keri9n; Ser dor) tjip { 89 'merk9t e'nu:, so its ne: gret 
'komplim9nt. gm ji h9d broxt mi a leg o gyd niAtn, or o 'kalar 
1 sa:mant, Sar wAd he bin SAHI sens jnt; bat ji:r 3 en o Sa fAuk 
Sat 1 ne:r 2/ her{ jar'sel w{ jar 'prezants ; ^ts bAt Sa p^kl 'puSar Se 
kost ji, an az 'waran jir '9mkan me:r o jar e:n d/ver/n San o mai 
'stamik, A\an jir at Sa '/y^ n Sam ' P0 ;r bists." 



"so a si: jir dgyst S9 l o>:ld man, x ert/{, 9i 'redi t9 tak Sa 
strAmz, an ji x dmwa get x 'a: 9{rj jar em wai. 'mon{ a taim a had 
ta flit/ ji ut o Sa dorts Aian ji waz a 'kalant. d^v ji mainc? hu: 
ji waz a'frAntat bfka:z a set ji dun ta a 1 ka:lc? 'p^dggn'pai, 9n 9 
'tarjkgr o 'tjpn^, ^'e: mxt t9 J9r 'fAuruirz, 9'fo:r SAHI 'lediz he:, 
he:, he: ! 'wib'wat, J9r W9if man he: hgr e:n 9'd^:z ta 'mamdg ji, 
for jir a kAm'stein t/il, 'ert/{." 

"kAm, kAm, s^t ji dun Se:r t{l a spik ta S^s 2 bern." ...... 



>: "e *jpi 

182 



276 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

which wore the same aspect of chilly neatness as the one they 
had quitted. Then pulling a huge bunch of keys from her 
pocket, she opened a drawer, out of which she took a pair of 
diamond ear-rings. " Hae, bairn/' said she, as she stuffed them 
into Mary's hand; "they belanged to your faither's grand- 
mother. She was a gude woman, an' had four-an'-twenty sons 
and dochters, an' I wiss ye nae war fortin than just to hae as 
mony. But mind ye," with a shake of her bony finger, " they 
maun a' be Scots. Gin I thought ye wad mairry ony pock- 
puddin', fient haed wad ye hae gotten frae me. Noo baud ye're 
tongue, and dinna deive me wi' thanks," almost pushing her into 
the parlour again ; " an' sin ye're gawn awa' the morn, I'll see 
nae mair o' ye enoo ; so fare ye weel. But, Archie, ye maun 
come an' tak your breakfast wi' me. I hae muckle to say to 
you; but ye maunna be sae hard upon my baps as ye used 
to be," with a facetious grin to her mollified favourite, as they 
shook hands and parted. 



READER 277 

"he:, 1 bern, Se brlarjt ta jar 'feSarz 'granmiftar. 

Ji waz 9 gyd 'wAman, on had fAur n 'twmti SAnz an 'doxtarz, an 
a w|s ji ne: 2 wa:r 'fortm San d%ysi ta he: az 'mon^. bat mein 

ji, Se man 2 a: bi skots. gm a 0oxt ji wad 1/ men 

'oni 'pok'pAdjn, 3 fpt hed wad ji he gotn fre mi:, nu: had jar 
tAT), an x dm?ia di:v mi wj; Oarjks, an s^n jir 2 ga:n 2 a r wa: Sa morn, 
al si: ne me:r o ji e'nu: ; so fe:r ji wil. bat, 'ert/j, ji man kAin 
an tak jar 'brakfast wi mi. a he mAkl ta se: ta ji; bat ji / man?ia 
bi se hard a'pon ma baps az ji 4 j0:zd ta bi." 



3 



278 



IX A. THE COTTER'S SATURDAY NIGHT 

ROBERT BURNS. 

November chill blaws loud wi' angry sugh ; 

The short'ning winter-day is near a close ; 

The miry beasts retreating frae the pleugh ; 

The black'ning trains o' craws to their repose : 

The toil-worn Cotter frae his labor goes 

This night his weekly moil is at an end, 

Collects his spades, his mattocks, and his hoes, 

Hoping the morn in ease and rest to spend, 

And weary, o'er the moor his course does hameward bend. 

At length his lonely cot appears in view, 

Beneath the shelter of an aged tree ; 

Th' expectant wee-things, toddlih, stacher through 

To meet their dad, wi' flichterin' noise an' glee. 

His wee bit ingle, blinkin bonilie, 

His clean hearth-stane, his thrifty wifie's smile, 

The lisping infant, prattling on his knee, 

Does a' his weary kiaugh and care beguile, 

And makes him quite forget his labor and his toil. 

Belyve, the elder bairns come drapping in, 

At service out, amang the farmers roun', 

Some ca' the pleugh, some herd, some tentie rin 

A cannie errand to a neebor town : 

Their eldest hope, their Jenny, woman grown, 

In youthfu' bloom, love sparkling in her e'e, 

Comes hame ; perhaps, to show a braw new gown, 

Or deposite her sair-won penny-fee, 

To help her parents dear, if they in hardship be. 






279 



IX A. THE COTTER'S SATURDAY NIGHT 
ROBERT BURNS. 

na'vembar tf^l 1 bla:z hid wj: 'anrj. 2 sux ; 
$a 3/ /ortnari 'wintar'de: jz ni:r a kloiz; 
Sa 4 'mairi 5 bists ri'tritan fre Sa 2 pljfux ; 
5a 'blaknan trenz o 1 kra:z ta t5er n'poiz : 
Sa 'taiPworn 'kotar fre hiz 'lebar go:z 
S{s nj:xt hjz 'wiklj moil jz at an end, 
ka'lsks h^z spaidz, h^z 'mataks, an iz ho:z, 
'hAupan Sa 3 morn jn iiz an rsst ta spsnc?, 
an 'wiiri, Aur Sa m^:r h^z kurs daz 'hemward 

at Isn0 h{z '\on\i kot a'piirz pi vju:, 

bi'niS Sa 'Jeltar av an 'edgad tri: ; 

Sa jk'spektant 'wiiGinz, 3/ todlan, 'staxar 0ru: 

ta mit Sar dad, w^ 'fl^xtran 6 noiz an gli:. 

h^z wi: bit {r)l, 'bl^nkan 3/ boml{, 

h^z klin hsrO'sten, h^z '0rjft{ 'waifiz small, 

Sa 'Ijspan x mfan, 'pratlan on \z km:, 

daz l o>: h\z "wiiri kjaix an ke:r bfgail, 

an maks him kwait far'gst h^z 'lebar an h^z tail. 

bflaiv, Sa 1/ a:lc?ar 7 bernz kAm 'drapan m, 

at 'servis ut, a'marj Sa 7/ fermarz run, 

SAm 1 ka: Sa 2 pl/ux, sAm hsrd, SAHI 'tentj rm 

a 7 kan^ 8/ i:ran<i ta a 'nibar tun : 

Sar 'eldast hAup, Sar 'dgsnj, 'wAman grAun, 

in r jy0fa blym, IAV 'sparklan ^n har i:, 

kAmz hem ; par'haps, ta Jo: a x bra: nju: gu, 

or 'drpozit har 'seii/wAii 'pen^fi:, 

ta help har 'perants di:r, ^f Se: m 'hard/ip bi:. 



a e oi 



280 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

With joy unfeign'd brothers and sisters meet, 
And each for other's weelfare kindly spiers : 
The social hours, swift- winged, unnotic'd fleet ; 
Each tells the uncos that he sees or hears. 
The parents partial eye their hopeful years ; 
Anticipation forward points the view ; 
' The mother, wi' her needle and her shears, 
Gars auld claes look amaist as weel's the new ; 
The father mixes a' wi' admonition due. 

Their master's and their mistress's command, 

The younkers a' are warned to obey ; 

And mind their labors wi' an eydent hand, 

An' ne'er, tho' out o' sight, to jauk or play : 

" And ! be sure to fear the Lord alway, 

And mind your duty, duly, morn and night ; 

Lest in temptation's path ye gang astray, 

Implore His counsel and assisting might 

They never sought in vain that sought the Lord aright." 

But hark ! a rap comes gently to the door ; 

Jenny, wha kens the meaning o' the same, 

Tells how a neebor lad came o'er the moor, 

To do some errands, and convoy her hame. 

The wily mother sees the conscious flame 

Sparkle in Jenny's e'e, and flush her cheek ; 

With heart-struck anxious care, enquires his name, 

While Jenny hamins is afraid to speak ; 

Weel pleased the mother hears its nae wild, worthless rake. 

With kindly welcome Jenny brings him^en ; 
A strappin' youth ; he takes the mother's eye ; 
Blithe Jenny sees the visit's no ill taen ; 
The father cracks of horses, pleughs, and kye : 
The youngster's artless heart o'erflows wi' joy, 



READER 281 

wt ^301 An'fe:nd 'briSarz an 's^starz mit, 

an it/ for 'iSarz 'wilfer kaincftf spiirz : 

Sa 'so/al u:rz, swjft'wmd, An'notj.st flit ; 

itf telz 5a 'Ankaz frat hi si:z or hiirz. 

<5a 'perants 'par/al cu Sar 'hAupfal i:rz ; 

antjsr'pejan 'forward paints Sa vju:. 

Sa 'miSar, wj: bar nidi an bar Jiirz, 

ga:rz 2 a:lc? kle:z Ijuk a'mest az wilz Sa nju: ; 

Sa 3/ feSar 'mjksaz 2 a: w^ admo'm/an djui. 

tSar 'mestarz an Sar 'm^strasaz 4 ka'manc?, 
Sa "JAnkarz 2 a: ar 'warnat ta o'be: ; 
an mainc? Sar 'lebarz w\ an 'aidant 4 hanc, 
an neir, 0o ut o s{xt, ta 2 d3a:k or pie: : 
" an o: ! bi J0:r ta fi:r da loird al'wei, 
an mainc? jar 'djut^, 'djulj, 5 morn an n^xt ; 
lest ^.n tsm'te/anz pe0 ji garj a'stre:, 
rm'ploir hjz 'kunsal an a's^stan m^xt : 
Se: 'nivar 5 soxt pi vein Sat 5 soxt Sa lo:rd 



bat hark ! a rap kAmz ^sntli ta Sa 6 do:r ; 

'dgsnj, 2 A\.a: kenz Sa 'minan o Sa sem, 

tslz hu a 'nibar 4 lad kam Aur Sa 6 mo:r, 

ta d0: sAm 7/ i:ranc?z, an 8 kon'voi bar hem. 

Sa 'waili 'miSar si:z Sa 9/ kon/as flem 

sparkl jn / d3enjz i:, an fUJ bar t/ik ; 

w{ 'hertstrAk 'an/as ke:r, 10 {n'kwairz h^z nem, 

Mail 'dgsn^ 'haflpz \z a'fred ta spik: ; 

wil pliizd da 'miSar hiirz its ne: waild, 'wArGlas rek. 



'wslkAm 'd3sm brjrjz h^m ben ; 
a 'strapan jy0 ; hi taks Sa 'miSarz ai ; 
blai0 'dgenj siiz Sa 'viizrts no: i\ ten ; 
Sa 3/ feSar kraks o 'horsaz, 11 pl;uxs, an kai : 
Sa 'JAnstarz 'srtlas hsrt Aur'flo.'z wi 12 d30i, 



1 01 2 g: 3 e: 4 a: 5 o 6 door, nioor are possible 18th cen- 
tury rhymes 7 e 8 kan'vai 9 o 10 ai n A 12 all the rhymes in 01, 
ai, might be pronounced with AI, see Ph. 200, 205. 



282 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

But blate and laithfu', scarce can weel behave ; 

The mother, wi' a woman's wiles, can spy 

What makes the youth sae bashfu' and sae grave ; 

Weel-pleas'd to think her bairn's respected like the lave. 

But now the supper crowns their simple board, 
The halesome parritch, chief o' Scotia's food ; 
The soupe their only hawkie does afford, 
That 'yont the hallan snugly chows her cood : 
The dame brings forth in complimental mood, 
To grace the lad, her weel-hain'd kebbuck, fell, 
And aft he's prest, and aft he ca's it guid ; 
The frugal wine, garrulous, will tell 
How 'twas a towmond auld, sin' lint was i' the bell. 

The chearfu' supper done, wi' serious face, 

They round the ingle form a circle wide ; 

The sire turns o'er, wi' patriarchal grace, 

The big ha'-Bible, ance his father's pride : 

His bonnet rev'rently is laid aside, 

His lyart haffets wearing thin an' bare ; 

Those strains that once did sweet in Zion glide, 

He wales a portion with judicious care ; 

And " Let us worship God ! " he says, with solemn air. 



READER 283 

bet blet an 'leGfa, skers ken wil bfheiv ; 
Sa 'miSar, w\ 9 'wAmanz wailz, kan spai 
Avat maks Sa jy0 se 'bajfa an se greiv ; 
wil'plist ta 0irjk bar 1 bernz rfspskat laik Sa leiv. 

bat nu: Sa 'sipar kruiiz Sar spnpl b0:rd, 

5a 'helsam 'pantj, tjif o 'skojaz fyd ; 

Sa sup dar 'onli 2/ haik^ daz a'f0:rd, 

dat jont Sa 'halan 'snAglj t/Auz bar kyd : 

Sa dem br^rjz for9 ^n komplfmental myd, 

ta gres Sa lad, bar 'wilhemd 'ksbak, fel, 

an aft biz prsst, an aft hi 2 ka:z ii gyd ; 

Sa 'frugal 'waifi, 'garalas, w^.1 tsl 

hu: twaz a 'tAumanrf 2 a:lc?, sp lint waz \ Sa bsl. 



Sa 't/iirfa 'sipar dyn, w^ 'siinas fes, 

Se rund Sa ^]1 form a sjrkl waid ; 

Sa sair tArnz r Aur, w{ petrfarkl gres, 

Sa bjg 2 ha: 3 baibl, 4 ens h^z 5/ feSarz praid: 

biz r bonat 'rsvrantb \z le:d a'said, 

h^z 'laiart "hafats 'wiiran Gp an be:r ; 

So:z strenz Sat 4 ens did swit \n 'zaian glaid, 

hi welz a 'porjan wi dgu'dijas keir ; 

and " 1st AS 'wAr/^p god ! " hi ssz, wi9 'solam e:r. 



a 



284 



XA. THE EESUEEECT10NERS 

LIFE OF MANSIE WAUCH. 

DAVID M. Mom ("DELTA") (1798-1851). 
CHAPTER X. 

Then up and spak the red-headed laddie : " It's no fair ; 
anither should hae come by this time. I wad rin awa hame, 
only I am frighted to gang out my lane. Do ye think the doup 
of that candle wad carry i' my cap ? " 

" Na, na, lad ; we maun bide here, as we are here now. Leave 
me alane ? Lord safe us ! and the yett lockit, and the bethrel 
sleeping with the key in his breek pouches ! We canna win out 
now though we would," answered I, trying to look brave, though 
half frightened out of my seven senses : " Sit down, sit down ; 
I've baith whisky and porter wi' me. Hae, man, there's a cawker 
to keep your heart warm ; and set down that bottle," quoth I, 
wiping the sawdust affin't with my hand, " to get a toast ; I'se 
warrant it for Deacon Jaffrey's best brown stout." 

The wind blew higher, and like a hurricane ; the rain began 
to fall in perfect spouts ; the auld kirk rumbled and rowed, and 
made a sad soughing ; and the branches of the bourtree behind 
the house, where auld Cockburn that cut his throat was buried, 
creaked and crazed in a frightful manner; but as to the roaring 
of the troubled waters, and the bumming in the lum-head, they 
were past all power of description. To make bad worse, just in 
the heart of the brattle, the grating sound of the yett turning 
on its rusty hinges was but too plainly heard. What was to be 
done ? I thought of our both running away ; and then of our 
locking ourselves in, and firing through the door ; but who was 
to pull the trigger ? 

Gudeness watch over us ! I tremble yet when I think on it. 
We were perfectly between the de'il and the deep sea either 
to stand still and fire our gun, or run and be shot at. It was 
really a hang choice. As I stood swithering and shaking, the 
laddie flew to the door, and, thrawing round the key, clapped 



285 



XA. THE KESURRECTIONERS 

LIFE OF MANSIE WA UGH. 

DAVID M. Mom (" DELTA") (1798-1851). 

% 

CHAPTER X. 

San Ap an spak Sa 1 red 2 hedet 'ladi : "jts no: feir; a'mSar 
3 Jud he kAm bj: S{S taim. 9 wad rm 4 a / wa: hem, 'onli am 'fqxtat 
ta gar) ut ma len. dji 0mk da dAup o Sat 5 kancl wad 6/ ken \ ma 
kep?" 

"na:,na:, 5 lad; wi man baid hi:r, az wi ar hi:r mi:. li:v mi: 
a'len ? lo:rd sef as ! an Sa jet 'lokat, an Sa 'bsSral 'slipan w^ Sa 
7 ki: m \z brik "put/az ! wi 'kanrca 8 wm ut nu: 0o wi wAd," 
'ansart CLI, 'traian ta luk bre:v, 60 4 ha:f fqxtot ut o ma 9 sivn 
'sensaz : " s{t dun, sjt dun ; av be0 'A\Ask| an 'portar w^ mi. he:, 
man, Se:rz a 4 'ka:kar ta kip jar hsrt warm ; an set dun Sat botl," 
kwo ai, 'waipan Sa 4/ sa:dAst afnt wj ma 5 hanc#, " ta get a tost; az 
far 7/ dikan 'd^afrez best brun stut." 



'gydnas watj Aur AS ! a tnml jst wan a 6mk ont. wi war 
'perf^kl^ bftwin Sa dil an Sa dip si: 10/ eSar ta 5 stanch stn 1 an 7 fair 
11 ur gAn, or nn an bi Jot at. j.t waz 're:lj a harj t/ais. az a styd 
's*\^Sran an 'Jakan, Sa 'lodi flu: ta Sa do:r, an, 4/ 0raan rune? Sa 7 ki:, 



H, a 2 i 3 sAd 4 ^: 5 a: 6 e 7 ai 8 A 9 e 10 e: n war, 
wp:, wAr 



286 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



his back to it. Oh ! how I looked at him, as he stood for a gliff, 
like a magpie hearkening with his lug cocked up, or rather like 
a terrier watching a rotten. " They're coming ! they're coming ! " 
he cried out ; " cock the piece, ye sumph " ; while the red hair 
rose up from his pow like feathers ; " they're coming, I hear them 
tramping on the gravel ! " Out he stretched his arms against 
the wall, and brizzed his back against the door like mad ; as if 
he had been Samson pushing over the pillars in the house of 
Dagon. " For the Lord's sake, prime the gun," he cried out, " or 
our throats will be cut frae lug to lug before we can cry Jack 
Robison ! See that there's priming in the pan." 

I did the best I could ; but my whole strength could hardly 
lift up the piece, which waggled to and fro like a cock's tail on 
a rainy day ; my knees knocked against one another, and though 
I was resigned to die I trust I was resigned to die 'od, but it 
was a frightful thing to be out of one's bed, and to be murdered 
in an old session-house, at the dead hour of night, by unearthly 
resurrection men, or rather let me call them deevils incarnate, 
wrapt up in dreadnoughts, with blacked faces, pistols, big sticks, 
. and other deadly weapons. 

A snuff-snuffing was heard ; and, through below the door, I 
saw a pair of glancing black een. 'Od, but my heart nearly 
louped off the bit a snouff, and a gur-gurring, and over all the 
plain tramp of a man's heavy tackets and cuddy-heels among 
the gravel. Then came a great slap like thunder on the wall ; 
and the laddie, quitting his grip, fell down, crying, " Fire, fire ! 
murder ! holy murder ! " 

" Wha's there ? " growled a deep rough voice ; " open, I'm 
a freend." 

I tried to speak, but could not ; something like a halfpenny 
roll was sticking in my throat, so I tried to cough it up, but it 
would not come. "Gie the pass-word then," said the laddie, 
staring as if his eyes would loup out ; " gie the password ! " 

First came a loud whistle, and then "Copmahagen," answered 
the voice. Oh ! what a relief ! The laddie started up, like one 
crazy with joy. " Ou ! ou !" cried he, thrawing round the key, 
and rubbing his hands; "by jingo, it's the bethrel it's the 
bethrel it's auld Isaac himsell." 



v 



READER 287 

klapt iz bak ta it. 01 ! hu: a 'Ijukat at im, az i styd far a gljf, laik 
a 'mogpai 'harknan wi h^z kg kokt Ap, or x 'reSar laik a 'teriar 
'wat/an a rotn. " Ser 'kAman ! Ser 'kAman ! " hi krait ut ; " kok Sa 
pis, jisAmf "; MailSa 2 rsd heir reiz Ap fre h^z pAu laik 'feSarz; "Ser 
'kAman, a hi:r Sam 'trampan on Sa greivl ! " ut hi stret/t h^z 
3 ermz a'genst Sa 4 wa:, an br^zd \z bak a'gsnst Sa doir laik mad; 
az ^f hid bin 'samsan x pA/an Aur Sa 'p^larz in Sa hus o 'dogan. 
" for Sa loirdz sek, praim Sa gAn," hi krait ut, " or 5 ur Grots w{l bi 
kAt fre lAg ta lAg bffoir wi kan krai dgsk 'robisan ! si: Sat Sarz 
'praiman m Sa pan." 



" 4 Ava:z Seir ?" grAult a dip rox vais; "opm, am a frinrf." 



"gi: Sa 'paswArd San," ssd Sa ladi, 'steiran az {f \z a^z wad 
Uup ut ; " gi: Sa 'paswArd ! " 

6 fArst kam a lud 6 MAsl, an San " 'kopma'hegan," 'ansart Sa 
vais. o: ! A\at a n'lif ! Sa 'ladi 'stertat Ap, laik 7 en 'kre.'zi w{ 8 d3oi. 
"u: ! u: !" krait hi, 4/ 6raan rune? Sa 9 ki:, an 'rAban jz 10 hanc?z; " bai 
o, its Sa 'bsSral its Sa 'bsSral its 4 a:lc 9/ aizak 



, a 3 s 4 g: 5 war, wir, wAr 6 i 7 in 8 oi 9 ai 



10 



a: 



288 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

First rushed in the dog, and then Isaac, with his glazed hat 
slouched over his brow, and his horn bowet glimmering by his 
knee. " Has the French landed, do ye think ? Losh keep us a'," 
said he, with a smile on his half-idiot face (for he was a kind of 
a sort of a natural, with an infirmity in his leg), " 'od sauf us, 
man, put by your gun. Ye dinna mean to shoot me, do ye ? 
What are ye about here with the door lockit ? I just keppit 
four resurrectioners louping ower the wa'." 

" Gude guide us ! " I said, taking a long breath to drive the 
blood from my heart, and something relieved by Isaac's com- 
pany Come now, Isaac, ye're just gieing us a fright. Isn't 
that true, Isaac ? " 

"Yes, I'm joking and what for no ? but they might have 
been, for onythirig ye wad hae hindered them to the contrair, 
I'm thinking. Na, na, ye maunna lock the door : that's no fair 
play." 

When the door was put ajee, and the furm set foment the 
fire, I gave Isaac a dram to keep his heart up on such a cold 
stormy night. 'Od, but he was a droll fellow, Isaac. He sung 
and leuch as if he had been boozing in Luckie Tamson's, with 
some of his drucken cronies. Feint a hair cared he about auld 
kirks, or kirkyards, or vouts, or throughstanes, or dead folk in 
their winding-sheets, with the wet grass growing over them ; 
and at last I began to brighten up a wee myself; so when he 
had gone over a good few funny stories, I said to him, quoth I, 
" Mony folk, I daresay, mak' mair noise about their sitting up 
in a kirkyard than it's a' worth. There's naething here to harm 
us?" 

" I beg to differ wi' ye there," answered Isaac, taking out his 
horn mull from his coat pouch, and tapping on the lid in a queer 
style " I could gie anither version of that story. Did ye no ken 
of three young doctors Eirish students alang with some resur- 
rectioners, as waff and wild as themsells, firing shottie for shottie 
with the guard at Kirkmabreck, and lodging three slugs in ane 
of their backs, forbye firing a ramrod through anither ane's 
hat ? " 

This was a wee alarming " No," quoth I ; " no, Isaac, man ; 
I never heard of it." 



READER 289 

"haz Sa frsnj 'landat, dji 0ink ? 1 loJ kip AS 2 ct:," 

" od saif AS, men, 3 p^t bai jar gAn. ji 'dim?a min ta Jyt mi:, d0: 
ji ? A\at ar ji a'but hi:r w{ Sa do:r 'lokat ? a d3yst 'kepat fAur 
resAr'ek/anarz 'Uupan Aur Sa 2 wa:." 

" gyd gaid'As ! " " kAm nu:, 4/ aizak, jir dgyst 'gian AS 

a fqxt. iznt Sat tru:, 4 'aizak ? " 

"jes, am 'd3okan an A\at for no: ? bAt Se mjxt a bin, for 
1/ on^9ir) ji: wad he 'hmcfort 5am ta Sa 'kontrar, am '0mkan. na:, 
na:, ji 'manna lok Sa do:r : Sats no: fe:r pie:/' 

Man Sa do:r waz 3 p{t a'd3i:, an Sa fArm set far'nsnt Sa 5 fair, 
a ge:v 4/ aizak a dram ta kip \z hsrt Ap on s{k a 2 ka:lc? 6/ storm| 
ri[xt. od, bAt i waz a drol 'fela, 4/ aizak. hi SATJ n ljux az ;f hid 
bin 'bu:zan m 'Ukj tamsnz, w{ sAm o h^z drAkr) 'kron^z. fint a 
he:r ke:rd hi a'but 2 a:l<i k^rks, or kjrkjerdz, or vAuts, or 'Sruxstenz, 
or did fAuk p Sar 'waindan'/its, wj: 5a wet grss 'grAuan Aur Sam ; 
an at last a bfgan ta 12 br^xr) Ap a wi: ma'ssl ; so: A\an i had ge:n 
Aur a gyd fju: 'fAn^. sto:riz, a ssd ta hjm, kwo: ai, " 7/ moni 6 fAuk, 
a 'darse, mak me:r 8 noiz a'but Sar "s^tan Ap ^.n a kp*k'jerd San ^ts 
2 a: wAr9. Sarz 'neS^r) hi:r ta 9 hermz ? " 

" a bsg ta 'd^far wi ji Se:r," 'ansart 4/ aizak, 'takan ut ^z 6 horn 
mAl fre h^z 6 kot put/, an 'tapan on Sa l{d m a kwi:r stail " a kAd 
gi: a'niSar 'ver/an o Sat 'sto.'r^. dj:d ji no: ken o 0ri: j AT) 'doktarz 
'airij 'stjudants a'larj w^ SAm resA'rskfanarz, az waf an waild az 
Sarn'selz, 4/ fairan Jot^ for '/ot{ w{ Sa ge:rd at kirkma'brek, en 
'Udgan 0ri: sUgz m 10 en o Sar baks, far'bai 4 fairan a 'ramrod 0ru 
a'mSar 10 enz hat ? " 

Sis waz a wi: 9 a'lerman "no:," kwo ai; "no:, 4/ aizak, man; 
a 'mvar n herd ot." 



x o 2 g: 3 A 4 ai 5 a: 6 o 7 o, a, A 8 oi 9 e 10 jm n a 
12/ br[xtan 

G. 19 



290 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



" But, let alane resurrectioners, do ye no think there is sic a 
thing as ghaists ? Guide ye, man, my grannie could hae telled 
as muckle about them as would have filled a minister's sermons 
from June to January." 

" Kay kay that's all buff," I said. " Are there nae cutty- 
stool businesses are there nae marriages going on just now, 
Isaac ? " for I was keen to change the subject. 

" Ye may kay kay, as ye like, though ; I can just tell ye 
this : Ye'll mind auld Armstrong with the leather breeks, and 
the brown three-story wig him that was the gravedigger? 
Weel, he saw a ghaist wi' his leeving een ay, and what's better, 
in this very kirkyard too. It was a cauld spring morning, and 
daylight just coming in, whan he cam' to the yett yonder, 
thinking to meet his man paidling Jock but Jock had sleepit 
in, and wasna there. Weel, to the wast corner ower yonder he 
gaed, and throwing his coat ower a headstane, and his hat on 
the tap o't, he dug away with his spade, casting out the mools, 
and the coffin handles, and the green banes and sic like, till he 
stoppit a wee to take breath. What ! are ye whistling to your- 
sell ? " quoth Isaac to me, " and no hearing what's God's truth ? " 

" Ou ay," said I ; " but ye didna tell me if onybody was cried 
last Sunday ? " I would have given every farthing I had made 
by the needle, to have been at that blessed time in my bed with 
my wife and wean. Ay, how I was gruing ! I mostly chacked off 
my tongue in chittering. But all would not do. 

"Weel, speaking of ghaists when he was resting on his 
spade he looked up to the steeple, to see what o'clock it was, 
wondering what way Jock hadna come, when lo and behold ! in 
the lang diced window of the kirk yonder, he saw a lady a' in 
white, with her hands clasped thegither, looking out to the kirk- 
yard at him. 

"He couldna believe his een, so he rubbit them with his 
sark sleeve, but she was still there bodily ; and, keeping ae ee 
on her, and anither on his road to the yett, he drew his coat and 
hat to him below his arm, and aff like mad, throwing the shool 
half a mile ahint him. Jock fand that ; for he was coming sing- 
ing in at the yett, when his maister ran clean ower the tap o' 
him, and capsized him like a toom barrel ; never stopping till 



, 



READER 291 

" bAt, x let a'len resA'rek/anarz, dji no: Gmk Sarz s{k a Q\y az 
gests ? gaid ji, man, ma 'granj. kAd he tslt az mAkl a'bnt Sem az 
2 wAd av fAlt a 'mm^starz 'sermanz fre dgun ta ^anwarj." 

" ke: ke: Sats 3 a: bAf," a sed. "ar Sar ne: 'kAti'styl 
'bfznasaz ar Sar ne: 'mendgaz 'goan on dgyst nu:, 4/ aizak ?" for 
a waz kin ta H/endg Sa 'sAbd3{k. 

" ji me ke: ke:, az ji laik, Go: ; a kan dgyst tsl ji Sj.s : jil 
mainc? 3 a:k2 'ermstror) wj: Sa 'leSar briks, an Sa brun 'Qri'sto:rj: 
wjg hmi Sat waz Sa 'gre:vd{gar ? wil, hi 3 sa: a gest w{ h^z 'li:van 
in ai, an Mats 'betar, m S^s 'vera Iqrk'jerd t^:. \t waz a 3 ka:lc 
sprit) 5/ mornan, an 'de:l{xt dgyst 'kAman ^.n, Avan i kam ta Sa jet 
"jon^ar, 'Gjrjkan ta mit \z man 'pedlan dgok bat dgok had 
'slipat m, an 'wazna Se:r. wil, ta Sa wast 'kornar Aur "jonc^ar hi 
ge:d, an 'Groan \z 5 kot Aur a 6/ hedsten, an {z hat on Sa tap ot, hi 
dAg 3 a'wa: w{ h^z spa:d, 'kastan ut Sa mulz, an Sa 5/ kofan 7 hanc?lz, 
an Sa grin benz an sjk laik, t{l hi 'stopat a wi: ta tak bre0. Avat ! 
ar ji 2 A\Asln ta jai-'ssl ? " kwo: 4/ aizak ta mi:, " an no: 'hi:ran A\ats 
godz try0 ? " 

"u: ai," sed ai; "bat ji 'dj.dna tel mi ^f 5 'ombAdi waz krait 
last 'sAndt ? " a 2 wAd av gi:n 'ivrj 'fardan a had med bf Sa nidi, 
ta hav bin at Sat 'blisad taim m ma bed w| ma waif an we:n. ai, 
hu: a waz 'gruan ! a 'mestlj 't/akat af ma tArj m 't/itran. bat 3 a: 
2/ wAdna d0:. 

" wil, 'spikan o gests Avan hi waz 'restan on h^z spa:d hi 1/ukt 
Ap ta Sa stipl, ta si: A\at o klok {t waz, 'wAncZran Avat wai dgok 
'hadna kAm, A\an lo: an bfhold ! ^n Sa lar) daist 'winda o Sa k^rk 
"jonc^ar, hi 3 sa: a 'led: 3 a: m Avait, w{ har 7 hanc?z 'klaspat Sa'giSar, 
'Ijukan ut ta Sa k^rk'jerd at jm. 

" hi x kAdna bflhv \z in, so hi'rAbat Sam w{ hjz sark sli:v, bat 
Ji waz st^l 3e:r 8/ bodil{ ; an, 'kipan JQ: i: on har, an a'niSar on \z 
8 rod to Sa jet, hi dru: h^z 5 kot n hat ta h^m bflo: hj.z 9/ erm, an 
af laik mad, 'Groan Sa Jul 3 ha:f a mail a'hpit ^m. dgok 7 fanc? 
Sat ; far i waz 'kAman 'sman m at Sa jet, Avan h^z 'mestar ran klin 
Aur Sa tap o h^m, an kap'saist \m laik a tym barl; 'nivar 



1 a, a 2 a, i 3 g: 4 ai 5 o 6 i 7 a: 8 o 9 e 

192 



292 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

he was in at his ain house, and the door baith bolted and barred 
at his tail. 

" Did ye ever hear the like of that, Mansie ? Weel, man, I'll 
explain the hail history of it to ye. Ye see 'Od ! how sound 
that callant's sleeping," continued Isaac; "he's snoring like a 
nine-year-auld ! " 

I was glad he had stopped, for I was like to sink through 
the ground with fear ; but no, it would not do. 

" Dinna ye ken sauf us ! what a fearsome night this is ! 
The trees will be all broken. What a noise in the lum ! I dare- 
say there's some auld hag of a witch-wife gaun to come rumble 
doun't. It's no the first time, I'll swear. Hae ye a silver six- 
pence ? Wad ye like that ? " he bawled up the chimney. " Ye'll 
hae heard," said he, " lang ago, that a wee murdered wean was 
buried didna ye hear a voice ? was buried below that corner 
the hearthstane there, where the laddie's lying on ? " 

I had now lost my breath, so that I could not stop him. 

" Ye never heard tell o't, didna ye ? Weel, I'se tell't ye 
Sauf us, what swurls of smoke coming doun the chimley I could 
swear something no canny 's stopping up the lum-head Gang 
out and see ! " 

At that moment a clap like thunder was heard the candle 
was driven over the sleeping laddie roared "Help!" and 
" Murder ! " and " Thieves ! " and as the furm on which we were 
sitting played flee backwards, cripple Isaac bellowed out, " I'm 
dead ! I'm killed shot through the head ! Oh ! oh ! oh ! " 

Surely I had fainted away; for when I came to myself I 
found my red comforter loosed, my face all wet Isaac rubbing 
down his waistcoat with his sleeve the laddie swigging ale out 
of a bicker and the brisk brown stout, which, by casting its 
cork, had caused all the alarm, whizz whizz whizzing in the 
chimley lug. 



HEADER 293 

'stopan t\l i waz m at \z e:n bus, an Sa do:r be9 'boltat an ba:rt 
at \z tel. 

" d{d ji 'ivar hi:r Sa laik o Sat, 'mansi ? wil, man, al j.k'splen 
Sa hel 'h^str^ ot ta ji. ji si: od ! hu: sund Sat 'kalants 'slipan," 
kan'tmjad lr aizak ; " hiz 'sno:ran laik a nain i:r 2 a:lc ! " 

a waz glsd hi had stopt, far a waz laik ta sjrjk 0ru: Sa grAn 
w{ fi:r ; bat no:, {t 3/ wAdna d0:. 

"'dprza ji ken sa:f AS ! Mat a 'fizrsam n^xt S^s \z I Sa tri:z 1 
bi 2 a: brokn. Mat a 4 noiz \u Sa Um ! a 'darse Sarz SAm 2 a:lc? 
hag o a 5/ wAtJwaif 2 ga:n ta kAm 'rAm61an dunt. {ts no: Sa 5 fArst 
taim, al swi:r. he: ji a 'sjlar 'sakspans ? 3 wAd ji laik Sat ? " hi 
2 ba:ld Ap Sa 't/iinni. " jil he 6 hsrd," ssd hi, " larj a'go:, Sat a wi: 
'mArdart we:n waz 'bunt 'dplna ji hi:r a vais? waz 'bi:nt bflo: 
Sat 'kornar Sa 'herSsten Se:r, Mar Sa 7 ladiz 'laian on ? " 

a had nu: lost ma bre6, so Sat a 'kAdna stop {m. 

"ji 'mvar 6 herd tel ot, 'd[dna ji ? wil, az telt ji sa:f AS, Mat 
swArlz o smok 'kAman dun Sa tj^ml{ a kAd swi:r 'sAmS^rj no: 
'kanj.z 'stopan Ap Sa lAm 7 hed gar) ut n si: !" 

" help ! " " niArdar ! " " 0ifs ! " " am 7 ded ! am Iqlt 

Jot 6ru Sa 7 hed ! o:! o:! o:! " 



g: a, 



294 



XI A. THE AULD FARMER'S NEW- YEAR 
MORNING SALUTATION TO HIS AULD 
MARE, MAGGIE 

ROBEKT BUKNS. 

A Quid New- Year I wish thee, Maggie ! 
Hae, there's a ripp to thy auld baggie : 
Tho' thou's howe-backit now, an' knaggie, 

I've seen the day 
Thou could hae gaen like onie staggie 

Out-owre the lay. 

Tho' now thou's dowie, stiff, an' crazy, 
An' thy auld hide's as white's a daisie, 
I've seen thee dappl't, sleek, an' glaizie, 

A bonie gray : 
He should been tight that dau'rt to raize thee 

Ance in a day. 

Thou ance was i' the foremost rank, ' 
A filly buirdly, steeve, an' swank, 
An' set weel down a shapely shank 

As e'er tread yird ; 
An' could ha'e flown out-owre a stank 

Like onie bird. 

It's now some nine-an'-twenty year 
Sin' thou was my guid-father's meere ; 
He gied me thee, o' tocher clear, 

An' fifty mark. 
Tho' it was sma', 'twas weel-won gear, 

An' thou was stark. 



295 



XI A. THE AULD FARMER'S NEW- YEAR 
MORNING SALUTATION TO HIS AULD 
MARE, MAGGIE 

ROBERT BURNS, 

9 gyd nju 'i:r 9 1 w^J Si, 'magi ! 
he:, 'Se:rz 9 r^p ta Sai 2/ a:lc 'bagi : 
9o Su:z hAu'bakgt nu:, en A^nagi, 

9v sin S9 de: 
Su kAd he gem taik 3/ om 'stagi 

ut'Aur $9 le:. 



0o nu: Suz x dAui, stif, 9n 'kre:zi, 
9n Sai 2 Q 1 :\d hgidz az Avgits 9 'de:zi, 
av sin Si: daplt, slik, 9n 'gle:zi, 

9 3/ boni gre : 
hi 4 SAd bin t^xt S9t 2 da:rt t9 re:z Si 

5 ens pi 9 de:. 

Su 5 ens W9z i S9 'fo:rm9st rank, 
9 'f[l{ 'b0:rdl{, sti:v, 9n swank, 
9n set wil dun 9 'Jepl^ Jank 

9z e:r tred jjrd ; 
9n kAd he fUun ut'Aur 9 stank 

taik 3 'on{ b^rd. 

its nu: SAm / n9inn / twtnti i:r 

sjn Su W9z mai gyd 6/ feS9rz mi:r; 

hi gi:d mi Si:, o 3/ tox9r kli:r, 

9n 'f\fti mark. 
60 rt W9z 2 sma:, tw9z 'wilwAn gi:r, 

9n Su: W9z stark. 



9 5 jnis 



296 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

When first I gaed to woo my Jenny, 
Ye then was trottin' wi' your minnie : 
Tho' ye was trickle, slee, an' funnie, 

Ye ne'er was donsie ; 
But hamely, tawie, quiet, an' cannie, 

An' unco sonsie. 

That day, ye pranc'd wi' muckle pride, 
When ye bure hame my bonie bride : 
An' sweet an' gracefu' she did ride, 

Wi' maiden air ! 
Kyle-Stewart I could bragged wide, 

For sic a pair. 

Tho' now ye dow but hoyte and hobble, 
An' wintle like a saumont coble, 
That day, ye was a j inker noble, 

For heels an' win' ! 
An' ran them till they a' did wauble, 

Far, far behin'. 

When thou an' I were young and skiegh, 

An' stable-meals at fairs were driegh, 

How thou wad prance, an' snore, an' skriegh, 

An' tak' the road ! 
Town's-bodies ran, an' stood abiegh, 

An' ca't thee mad. 

When thou was corn't, an' I was mellow, 
We took the road ay like a swallow : 
At brooses thou had ne'er a fellow 

For pith and speed ; 
But ev'ry tail thou pay't them hollow, 

Whare'er thou gaed. 

The sma', droop-rumpl't, hunter cattle 
Might aiblins waur't thee for a brattle ; 



READER 297 



A\an ifjrst 9 ge:d ta wu: ma ' 
ji San waz 'trotan wj. J9r 'mmi : 
0o ji W9z 'tr{k:[, sli:, 9n 'fAn^, 

ji ne:r wgz 'dons{ ; 
bAt 'hernl^ 2/ ta:{, kwe:t, 9n 'kanj, 

9n 



Sat dei, ji pranst w{ mAkl praid, 
Avan ji b0:r hem m9 3 'bon{ braid : 
9n swit an 'gresfa Ji d^d raid, 

w{ medn e:r ! 
'kail'stjuart a kAd 'bragat waid, 

far s{k a pe:r. 

0o nu: ji dAu bAt hoit n 3 hobl, 
an 1 wmtl laik a 2 sa:m9nt 3 kobl, 
Sat de:, ji W9z 9 'dgnjkgr 3 nobl, 

f9r hilz 9n wp ! 
an ran Sam fyl Se 2 a: d^d 3 wobl, 

2 fa:r, 2 fa:r bfhm. 

A\an 4 Su: an ai war JAIJ an skix, 
an 'stebl'melz at fe:rz war drix, 
hu: Su 5 wad prans, an sno:r, an skrix, 

an tak Sa 3 rod ! 
tunz 1 bodiz ran, an styd a'bix, 

an 2 ka:t Si mad. 

A\an Su: waz 3 kornt, an 2 a: waz 'mela, 
wi tuk Sa 3 rod ai laik a 'swala : 
at br^izaz Su had ne:r a 'fala 

far pi0 an spid ; 
bAt 'ivrj tel Su pe:t Sam 'hala, 

Avar'eir Su gid. 

Sa 2 sma:, drup'rAmplt, 'hAntar katl 
m^xt 'eblmz 2 wa:rt Si far a bratl ; 



A 2 g: 3 o 4 the genuine dialect form would be Si: an mi: 



or ji: an mi 5 1, A 



298 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

But sax Scotch miles thou try't their mettle, 

An' gar't them whaizle. 
Nae whip nor spur, but just a wattle 

0' saugh or hazle. 

Thou was a noble fittie-lan', 

As e'er in tug or tow was drawn ! 

Aft thee an' I, in aught hours' gaun, 

On guid March-weather, 
Hae turned sax rood beside our ban', 

For days thegither. 

Thou never braing't, an fetch't an' fliskit, 
But thy auld tail thou wad hae whiskit, 
An' spread abreed thy well-fill'd brisket, 

Wi' pith an' pow'r, 
Till sprittie knowes wad rair't and riskit, 

An' slypet owre. 

When frosts lay lang, an' snaws were deep, 
An' threaten'd labour back to keep, 
I gied thy cog a wee bit heap 

Aboon the timmer; 
I ken'd my Maggie wad na sleep 

For that, or simmer. 

In cart or car thou never reestit ; 

The steyest brae thou wad hae fac't it ; 

Thou never lap, an' sten't, an' breastit, 

Then stood to blaw ; 
But just thy step a wee thing hastit, 

Thou snoov't awa'. 

My pleugh is now thy bairntime a' ; 
Four gallant brutes as e'er did draw ; 
Forbye sax mae, I've sell't awa, 

That thou hast nurst ; 
They 'drew me thretteen pund an' twa, 

The vera warst. 



READER 299 



bAt saks skots meilz Su trait S9r metl, 

9n 1 ga:rt S9m Me:zl. 
ne: AVAp nor spAr, bAt dgyst 9 watl 

o 2 sa:x gr he:zl. 

Su W9z 9 nobl 'fjt:[ 2 'la:n, 

9z eir m tAg or tAu W9z 2 dra:n ! 

aft 3 Si: 9n ai, m 4 axt u:rz 2 ga:n, 

on gyd msrt/'weSgr, 
he tArnt saks ryd bi's9id 5 ur 2 ha:n, 

fgr deiz Sg'giSgr. 

Su 'nivgr brendsd, 9n fst/t 9n ' 

bAt Sai 2 a:k tel Su 6 w9d he 

9n spred 9'brid Sai 'wilf^lt 'bqsk^t, 



6 w9d re:rt 9n 
9n X sl9ip9t Aur. 

7 frosts le: Ian, 9n 2 sna:z W9r dip, 
9n Gretnt 'lebgr bak t9 kip, 
9 gi:d Sai kog 9 wi: b{t hip 

9'byn 89 'tjmgr : 
9 kent mai 'magi 6/ w9dn9 slip 

fgr Sat, or 'sjmgr. 

^n kert or 2 ka:r Su 'mv9r 'rist9t ; 
89 'st9i9st bre: Su 6 w9d he fest rt ; 
Su 'niv9r lap, 9n stent, 9n 'brist9t, 

San styd t9 2 bla: ; 
bAt d3yst Sai step 9 wi: 6{r) X hist9t, 

Su snuivt 2 9'wa:. 

mai 8 pl;ux \z nu: Sai 1/ bernt9im 2 a: ; 
fAur 'gabnt bryts 9z eir did 2 dra: ; 
fgr'bai saks me:, 9v sslt 2 9'wa:, 

Set Su hast nArst ; 
Se dru: mi '0rstin pAnc? 9n 2 twa:, 

S9 'vere wArst, 



2 9: 3 genuine dialect Si: 9n mi: 4 a: 5 WIT, wer, WAr 

8 A 



300 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Monie a sair darg we twa hae wrought, 
An' wi' the weary warl' fought ! 
An' monie an anxious day I thought 

We wad be beat ! 
Yet here to crazy age we're brought, 

Wi' something yet. 

An' think na, my auld trusty servan', 
That now perhaps thou's less deservin', 
An' thy auld days may end in starvin', 

For my last fow, 
A heapit stimpart, I'll reserve ane 

Laid by for you. 

We've worn to crazy years thegither ; 
We'll toyte about wi' ane anither ; 
Wi' tentie care I'll flit thy tether 

To some hain'd rig, 
Whare ye may nobly rax your leather, 

Wi' sma' fatigue. 



READER 301 



a se:r 2 darg wi 3 twa: he 
an wj Sa 'wiiri 2 warl 4 foxt ! 
an 1/ mon^ an 'an/as de: a 4 0oxt 

wi 5 wad bi bet ! 
jet hi:r ta 'kreizi edg wir 4 broxt, 

an '0mk na, mai 3 ailc? 'trAstj 'servan, 
Sat nui per'haps Suz les di'zervan, 
an Sai 3 a:ldl deiz me end pi 'sterven, 

far mai last fAu, 
a 'hipat 'st^mpart, al r^'zerv 6 en 

le:d bai far ju:. 

wiv 4 worn ta 'kreizi iirz Sa'giSar ; 
wil toit a'but w^ 6 en a'niSar; 
w^ 'tent{ keir al fl^t Sai 'teSar 

ta sAm heind rjg, 
Aver ji me 'nobl{ raks jar 'leftar, 

wi 3 smai fa't^g. 

1 A, a, o 2 ai 3 gi 4 D 5 A, i 6 ji 



302 



XII A. BLIN' TIBBIE 

ALEC FORBES OF HOWGLEN. 

GEORGE MACDONALD (1824-1905). 
CHAPTER XLIV. 

The scene of Alec Forbes is the village and neighbourhood 
of Huntly in W. Abd. Macdonald makes his characters use the 
" Lingua Scottica " and not the local dialect, no doubt because 
he wished to be easily intelligible to all Scottish speakers. Thus 
he uses the ordinary Scottish spellings guid or gude, wha, whan, 
hoo, auld, wrang, frae, which his characters would have pro- 



In the course of her study of Milton, Annie had come upon 
Samson's lamentation over his blindness ; and had found, soon 
after, the passage in which Milton, in his own person, bewails 
the loss of light. The thought that she would read them to 
Tibbie Dyster was a natural one. She borrowed the volumes 
from Mrs Forbes; and, the next evening, made her way to 
Tibbie's cottage, where she was welcomed as usual by her gruff 
voice of gratefulness. 

" Ye're a gude bairn to come a' this gait through the snaw 
to see an auld blin' body like me. It's dingin' on (snawing or 
raining) is na 't, bairn ? " 

" Ay is't. Hoo do ye ken, Tibbie ? " 

" I dinna ken hoo I ken. I was na sure. The snaw maks 
unco little din, ye see. It comes doon like the speerit himsel' 
upo' quaiet herts." 

" Did ye ever see, Tibbie ? " asked Annie, after a pause. 

" Na ; nae that I min' upo'. I was but twa year auld, my 
mither used to tell fowk, whan I had the pock, an' it jist closed 
up my een for ever i' this warl, ye ken. I s' see some day as 
w eel's ony o' ye, lass." 

" Do ye ken what licht is, Tibbie ? " said Annie, whom Milton 
had set meditating on Tibbie's physical in relation to her mental 
condition. 



303 



XII A. BLIN' TIBBIE 

ALEC FORBES OF HOWGLEN. 

GEORGE MACDONALD (1824-1905). 
CHAPTER XLIV. 

nounced gwid, fa:, fan, hu:, ail, vrarj, fe:. Other indica- 
tions of local pronunciations and usages in his works are : 

speikin 'spdikan cwid kwid 

trowth trAuO ohn bein' angry See Gr. 51, Notes 1,2 

chop tfop ook uk 

saiven saivn greit grait 



" jir 9 gyd 1 bern to kAm a: S^s get 0ru: 59 sna: te si: en a:\d 
blni 'bAdi bik mi:, rts 'djipn on '{znat, 1 bern ? " 

" ai tst. hu: di ji ksn, 't^bi ? " 

" 9 'dmwa ksn hu: a ken. 9 X w9zn9 J^:r. Sa sna: maks 'Anka 
l^tl dni, ji si:. \t kAmz dun bik 59 'spirit him'ssl 9'po kwe:t 
hsrts." 

"d^dji'iv9r si:, 'tibi ? " 

"na:; ne: Sat 9 m9in 9'po. 9 W9z bgt twa: i:r a:lc?, ni9 
'miSgr j0st t9 tsl fAuk, Man 9 hgd S9 pok, 9n |t dgyst klost Ap 
m9 in far 'ivar j 5{s 2 warl, ji ken. ais si: sAm de: 9z wilz 3 on{ 
o ji, las." 

" di ji ken Avat l^xt \z, 'tibi ? " 



2 



a: 



304 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Ay, weel eneuch," answered Tibbie, with a touch of indig- 
nation at the imputed ignorance. " What for no ? What gars 
ye spier ? " 

" Ow ! I jist wanted to ken." 

" Hoo could I no ken ? Disna the Saviour say : ' I am the 
licht o' the warl ' ? He that walketh in Him maun ken what 
licht is, lassie. Syne ye hae the licht in yersel in yer ain hert ; 
an' ye maun ken what it is. Ye canna mistak' it." 

Annie was neither able nor willing to enter into an argument 
on the matter, although she was not satisfied. She would rather 
think than dispute about it. So she changed the subject in a 
measure. 

" Did ye ever hear o' John Milton, Tibbie ? " she asked. 

" Ow ! ay. He was blin' like mysel', wasna he ? " 

" Ay, was he. I hae been readin' a heap o' his poetry." 

" Eh ! I wad richt weel like to hear a bittie o' V 

" Weel, here's a bit 'at he made as gin Samson was sayin' o* 
't, till himsel' like, efter they had pitten oot's een the Phillis- 
teens, ye ken." 

"Ay, I ken weel eneuch. Read it." 

Annie read the well-known passage. Tibbie listened to the 
end, without word of remark or question, her face turned towards 
the reader, and her sightless balls rolling under their closed lids. 
When Annie's voice ceased, she said, after a little reflection : 

" Ay ! ay ! It's bonnie, an' verra true. And, puir man ! it 
was waur for him nor for me and Milton ; for it was a' his ain 
wyte ; and it was no to be expecket he cud be sae quaiet as 
anither. But he had no richt to queston the ways o' the Maker. 
But it's bonnie, rael bonnie." 

" Noo, I'll jist read to ye what Milton says aboot his ain 
blin'ness. But it's some ill to unnerstan'." 

" Maybe I'll unnerstan' 't better nor you, bairn. Read awa'." 

So admonished, Annie read. Tibbie fidgeted about on her 
seat. It was impossible either should understand it. And the 
proper names were a great puzzle to them. 

" Tammy Riss ! " said Tibbie ; " I ken naething about him." 

"Na, neither do I," said Annie; and beginning the line 
again, she blundered over " blind Maeonides." 



READER 305 

" ai, wil 5 a'njux ............ Mat for no: ? Mat 2 rja:rz ji spi:r ? " 

"u: ! 9 dgist 1/ wantet ta ken." 

" hu: kAd a no: ken ? 'dj:zna Sa 'sevjar se: : ' ai em Sa lj.xt o Sa 
3 warl ' ? hi: Sat 'wa:ka9 m hmi mci:n ken Mat l^xt j;z, 'lasj:. sain 
ji he Sa l^xt m jar'sel m jar e:n hert ; an ji ma:n ken Mat ^t {z. 
ji 'kan^a m^s'tak jt." 



i 'ivar hi:r o 4 dgon 'm^ltan, 't^bi ? " ............ 

" u: ! ai. hi waz blp laik ma'sel, 'wazna hi ? " 

" 01, waz i. a he bin 'ridan a hip o \z 'potrj." 

" e: ! a l wad r^xt wil laik ta hi:r a 'b^t^ ot." 

"wil, hi:rz a b^t at hi med az gp 'samsan waz 'sean ot, t\l 

laik, 'sftar Se had p^tn uts in Sa 'f^stinz, ji ken." 
"cii, a ksn wil 5 a / njux. rid {t." 

" ai ! ai ! its 4/ bon^, an r vera tru:. an, p^:r man ! jt waz wa:r 
far h^m nor far mi: an 'm^ltan ; far ^t waz a: h^z e:n wait; an jt 
waz no: ta bi {k'spekat hi kAd bi se kwe:t az a'niSar. bat hi had 
no: rj:xt ta kwsstn Sa 6 waiz o Sa 'mekar. bat ^ts 4 'bonj:, re:l 
4/ boni." 

"nu:, al dgist rid ta ji Mat 'miltan se:z a'but \z e:n 'blmnas. 
bat its SAm ^1 ta 3 Anar / stanc?." 

"mebi al 3 Anar'stant 'bstar nor ju:, 2 bern. rid a'wa:." 



r^s ! ............ a ksn 'neS^rj a'but 

" na:, 7/ neSar di ai " ............ 



X A, i s a: o A ai e: 

20 



306 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Ye're readin' 't wrang, bairn. It sud be 'nae ony days' for 
there's nae days or nichts either to the blin'. They dinna ken 
the differ, ye see." 

"I'm readin' 't as I hae't," answered Annie. "It's a 
muckle M." 

" I ken naething aboot yer muckle or yer little Ms," retorted 
Tibbie, with indignation. " Gin that binna what it means, it's 
ayont me. Read awa'. Maybe we'll come to something better." 

"Ay will we ? " said Annie, and resumed. 

With the words, " Thus with the year seasons return," Tibbie's 
attention grew fixed; and when the reader came to the pas- 
sage, 

" So much the rather thou, Celestial Light, 

Shine inward," 
her attention rose into rapture. 

"Ay, ay, lassie ! That man kent a' aboot it ! He wad never 
hae speired gin a blin' crater like me kent what the licht was. 
He kent what it was weel. Ay did he ! " 

"But, ye see, he was a gey auld man afore he tint his 
eesicht," Annie ventured to interpose. 

" Sae muckle the better ! He kent baith kinds. And he kent 
that the sicht without the een is better nor the sicht o' the een. 
Fowk nae doobt has baith ; but I think whiles 'at the Lord gies 
a grainy mair o' the inside licht to mak' up for the loss o' the 
ootside ; and weel I wat it doesna want muckle to do that." 

"But ye dinna ken what it is," objected Annie, with un- 
necessary persistence in the truth. 

" Do ye tell me that again ? " returned Tibbie, harshly. " Ye'll 
anger me, bairn. Gin ye kent hoo I lie awauk at riicht, no able 
to sleep for thinkin' 'at the day will come whan I'll see wi' my 
ain open een the verra face o' him that bore oor griefs an' 
carried oor sorrows, till I jist lie and greit, for verra wissin', ye 
wadna say 'at I dinna ken what the sicht o' a body's een is. Sae 
nae mair o' that ! I beg o' ye, or I'll jist need to gang to my 
prayers to haud me ohn been angry wi' ane o' the Lord's bairns ; 
for that ye are, I do believe, Annie Anderson. Ye canna ken what 
blin'ness is ; but I doobt ye ken what the licht is, lassie ; and, for 
the lave (rest), jist ye lippen (trust) to John Milton and me." 



READER 307 

" jir 'ridant wran, 1 bern. jt sAd bi: ' ne: 2/ on^ de:z/ far Sarz 
ne: de:z or n^xts 3/ eSar ta Sa blm. Se 'dmwa ken Sa 'd^far, ji 
si:." 

" am ridnt az a he:t ............ its a mAkl sm." 

"a ksn 'neSjr) a'but jar mAkl or jar l{tl emz ............ gm Sat 

'bm??a Avat {t minz, {ts a'jont mi:, rid a'wci:. 'mebi wil kAm ta 

'betar." 
ai, wil wi?" ............ 



" ai, ai, 'las^ ^^ mCLn kent a: e'but rt ! hi: 4 wad 'mvar he 
spi:rt gp a blm 'kretar laik mi: ksnt Avat Sa l^xt waz. hi ksnt 
A\at |t waz wil. ai did i ! " 

"bat, ji si:, hi waz a gai Guild man a'fo:r hi t^nt h^z 'i:s{xt."... 

"se: mAkl Sa 'bstar! hi kent be0 kainz. an i kent Sat Sa 
sjxt w^'Out Sa in \z 'bstar nor Sa sjxt o Sa in. fAuk ne: dut haz 
be0 ; bat a 0{nk A\ailz at Sa lo:rd gi:z a 'grenj me:r o Sa 'msaid 
l^xt ta mak Ap far Sa los o Sa 'utsaid; an wil a wat {t 'djzna 
4 want mAkl ta d0: Sat." 

" bat ji 'dmwa ksn A\at {t jz." ............ 

"di ji tel mi Sat a'gen? ............ jil r anar mi, 1 bern. gm ji 

kent hu a lai a'wa:k at n^xt, no ebl ta slip far 'Gmkari at Sa 
de: w^.1 kAm A\an al si: w{ ma e:n 'opan in Sa 'vera fes o hmi 
Sat bo:r ur grifs an lr kerj.t ur 'soraz, tn 1 a dsist lai an grit, far 
'vera 'w^san, ji 4/ wadna se at a 'd^n^a ken A\at Sa s^xt o a 'bAdiz 
in \z. se ne: me:r o Sat ! a beg o ji, or al dgist nid ta gar) ta ma 
'prearz ta 5 had mi 6 on bin 'anq w^ en o Sa lo:rdz x bernz; far 
Sat ji ar, a du brli:v, 'an^ 'anarsan. ji: 'kanrca ken Avat 'blmnas 
iz ; bat a dut ji ken ,wat Sa l^xt \z, 'last; 9n > f r S9 l e;v ^ dgist ji 
'lipan ta 2 d3on 'mjltan an mi:." 



2 o 3 e: 4 i, A 5 a: 6 see Gr. 51 

20- 



308 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Annie dared not say another word. She sat silent perhaps 
rebuked. But Tibbie resumed : 

" Ye maunna think, hooever, 'cause sic longin' thouchts come 
ower me, that I gang aboot the hoose girnin' and compleenin' 
that I canna open the door and win oot. Na, na. I could jist 
despise the licht, whiles, that ye rnak' sic a wark aboot, and sing 
and shout, as the Psalmist says ; for I'm jist that glaid, that I 
dinna ken hoo to haud it in. For the Lord's my frien'. I can 
jist tell him a' that comes into my puir blin' heid. Ye see there's 
ither ways for things to come intil a body's heid. There's mair 
doors nor the een. There's back doors, whiles,' that lat ye oot to 
the bonnie gairden, and that's better nor the road-side. And 
the smell o' the braw flooers comes in at the back winnocks, ye 

ken. Whilk o' the bonnie flooers do ye think likest Him, Annie 

Anderson ? " 

" Eh ! I dinna ken, Tibbie. I'm thinkin' they maun be a' 
like him." 

"Ay, ay, nae doobt. But some o' them may be liker him nor 
ithers." 

" Weel, whilk do ye think likest him, Tibbie ? " 

" I think it maun be the minnonette sae clean and sae fine 
and sae weel content." 

"Ay, ye're speiken by the smell, Tibbie. But gin ye saw the 
rose " 

" Hoots ! I hae seen the rose mony a time. Nae doobt it's 
bonnier to luik at " and here her fingers went moving about as 
if they were feeling the full-blown sphere of a rose " but I 
think, for my pairt, that the minnonette's likest Him." 

" May be," was all Annie's reply, and Tibbie went on. 

"There maun be faces liker him nor ithers. Come here, 
Annie, and lat me fin (feel) whether ye be like him or no." 

" Hoo can ye ken that ? ye never saw him." 

" Never saw him ! I hae seen him ower and ower again. 
I see him whan I like. Come here, I say." 

Annie went and knelt down beside her, and the blind woman 
passed her questioning fingers in solemn silence over and over 
the features of the child. At length, with her hands still resting 
upon Annie's head, she uttered her judgment. 



READER 309 

"ji 'manna 0ink, hu'ivar, kaz s^k 'lonan 1 0oxts kAm Aur mi, 
Sat 9 gar) a'but Sa hus 'gp-nan an kam'plinan Sat a 'kanna opm 
Sa do:r an wpi ut. na:, na:. a kAd dsist 2 di / spaiz Sa l^xt, Availz, 
Sat ji mak sjk a wark a'but, an s{ij an Jut, az Sa 'sa:mast se:z ; 
far am d^ist Sat gled, Sat a 'dmna ksn hu: ta 3 had \t pi. far Sa 
loirdz ma frin. a kan dgist tel h^m a: Sat kAmz 'mta ma p0:r 
blm 4 hid. ji si: Sarz 'iSar 5 waiz far 0mz ta kAm mtjl a 'bAdiz 
4 hid. Sarz meir do:rz nor Sa in. Sarz bak do:rz, Availz, Sat lat ji 
ut ta Sa 1/ bonj 'gerdan, an Sats 'bstar nor Sa 'rod'said. an Sa 
smel o Sa bra: fluirz kAmz pi at Sa bak 6/ wmaks, ji ken. 6 A\^lk 
o Sa 1/ bon^ fluirz dji 0mk 'laikast h^m, 'anj. 'anarsan ? " 

" e: ! a 'dmwa ksn, 't^bi. am ^nkan Se man bi a: laik hmi." 

"oi, CLI, nei dut. bat SArn o Sam me bi 'laikar hmi nor 
'iSarz." 

" wil, 6 A\ t lk di ji: 0mk laikast hmi, 'tibi ? " 

" a 0mk it man bi Sa mmo'nst se klin an se fain an se wil 
kan'tsnt." 

" cu, jir 'spaikaii lo\ Sa smel, 't$>i. bat gm ji sa: Sa ro:z " 

" huts ! a he sin Sa ro:z 7/ mon{ a taim. ne: dut jts 1/ boniar 

ta ljuk at bat a 0mk, far ma 8 pert, Sat Sa mmo'nets 

'laikast h^m." 

"me bi" 

" Sar man bi r fesaz 'laikar him nor 'iSarz. kAm i:r, 'an^, an lat 
mi fm 6/ A\aSar ji bi laik hmi or no:." 

" hu kan ji: ken Sat ? ji 'nivar sa: him." 

" 'mvar sa: h^m ! a he sin h^m Aur n Aur a'gen. a si: 
Avan a laik. kAm i:r, a se:." 



a: 4 e 5 ai 6 A 7 A, a, o 8 e 



310 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"Ay. Some like him, nae doot. But she'll be a heap liker 
him whan she sees him as he is." 

When a Christian proceeds to determine the rightness of his 
neighbour by his approximation to his fluctuating ideal, it were 
well if the judgment were tempered by such love as guided the 
hands of blind Tibbie over the face of Annie in their attempt to 
discover whether or not she was like the Christ of her visions. 

" Do ye think ye're like him, Tibbie ? " said Annie with a 
smile, which Tibbie at once detected in the tone. 

" Hoots, bairn ! I had the pock dreidfu', ye ken." 

" Weel, maybe we a' hae had something or ither that bauds 
us ohn been sae bonny as we micht hae been. For ae thing, 
there's the guilt o' Adam's first sin, ye ken." 

" Verra richt, bairn. Nae doot that's blaudit mony a face 
'the want o' original richteousness, and the corruption o' our 
whole naturV The wonner is that we're like him at a'. But we 
maun be like him, for he was a man born o' a wumman. Think 
o' that, lass ! " 

At this moment the latch of the door was lifted, and in walked 
Robert Bruce. He gave a stare when he saw Annie, for he had 
thought her out of the way at Howglen, and said in a tone of 
asperity, 

" Ye're a' gait at ance, Annie Anderson. A doonricht rinther- 
oot ! " 

" Lat the bairn be, Master Bruce," said Tibbie. " She's doin* 
the Lord's will, whether ye may think it or no. She's visitin' 
them 'at's i' the prison-hoose o' the dark. She's ministerin' to 
them 'at hae mony preeviledges nae doot, but hae room for mair." 

" I'm no saying naething," said Bruce. 

" Ye are sayin'. Ye're offendin' ane o' his little anes. Tak 
ye tent o' the millstane." 

" Hoot toot ! Tibbie. I was only wissin 'at she wad keep a 
sma' part o' her ministrations for her ain hame and her ain fowk 
'at has the ministerin' to her. There's the mistress and me jist 
mairtyrs to that chop ! And there's the bit infant in want o' 
some ministration noo and than, gin that be what ye ca' 't." 

A grim compression of the mouth was all Tibbie's reply. 
She did not choose to tell Robert Bruce that although she was 



READER 311 

" ai. SAm laik hma, ne: dut. bat Jil bi a hip 'leikar hmi Aian 
Ji si:z h^m az hi jz." 



" dji 0mk ji:r laik hj.m, 'tibi ? " 

" huts, 1 bern ! e had Sa pok 'dridfe, ji ken." 

"wil, 'mebi wi a: he bed 'sAmS^r) or 'iSar Sat 2 hadz AS 3 on 
'bin se 4 'bonj: az wi m^xt he bin. far e: 0m, Sarz Sa g^lt o 'adamz 
5 first sm, ji ken." 

"'vsra iptt, 1 bern. ne: dut Sats 'bla:dat 6 'moni a fes 'Sa 
want o o'ridgmel 'raitjasnas, and 5a ko'rApJn o ur hoi 'netar.' Sa 
'wAnar \z Sat wir laik h^m at a:, bat wi mam bi laik h^ra, far hi 
wez a man 7 born o a 'wAman. 0pjk o Sat, las ! " 

" jir a: get at ens, 'anj: 'anarsan. a 'dunrixt 'nnSar'ut ! " 

"lat Sa x bern bi:, 'mestar 8 brus, ,...Jiz 7 d0an Sa lo:rdz 

5 w^l, 5/ AuSar ji me Sjrjk ^t or no:. Jiz 'vi:z^tan Sem ats m Sa 'pr^zan 
hus o Sa dark. Jiz 'mpustran ta Ssm at he 9/ monj 'priviladgaz 
ne dut, bat he rum far me:r." 

" am no: x sean 'neB^r) "..... 

" ji ar 'seen, jir o'fsndan en o tqz l^tl enz. tak ji tent o Sa 
5/ milsten." 

" hut tut ! 'tibi. a waz 'onl^ 'w^san at Ji 10 wad kip a sma: 1 pert 
o ar mm^trejnz for ar e:n hem an bar e:n fAuk at haz Sa 'mm^s- 
tran ta har. Sarz Sa 'm^stras an mi: dgist 'mertarz ta Sat tjop t 
an Sarz Sa b^t 'mfant m 10 want o SAm mmjs'trejn nu an San, gm 
Sat bi Mat ji ka:t." 



x e 2 a: 3 See Gr. 51, Notes 1, 2 4 o 5 A 6 a, A 
8 old, bris. 9 A, a, o 10 {, A 



312 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

blind and probably because she was blind she heard rather 
more gossip than anybody else in Glamerton, and that conse- 
quently his appeal to her sympathy had no effect upon her. 
Finding she made no other answer, Bruce turned to Annie. 

" Noo, Annie," said he, " ye're nae wantit here ony langer. 
I hae a word or twa to say to Tibbie. Gang hame and learn yer 
lessons for the morn." 

"It's Setterday nicht," answered Annie. 

" But ye hae yer lessons to learn for the Mononday." 

" Ow ay ! But I hae a buik or twa to tak' hame to Mistress 
Forbes. And I daursay I'll bide, and come to the kirk wi' her 
i' the mornin'." 

Now, although all that Bruce wanted was to get rid of her, 
he went on to oppose her ; for common-minded people always 
feel that they give the enemy an advantage if they show them- 
selves content. 

" It's no safe to rin aboot i' the mirk (dark). It's dingin' on 
forbye. Ye'll be a' wat, and maybe fa' into the dam. Ye couldna 
see yer han' afore yer face ance oot o' the toon." 

" I ken the road to Mistress Forbes's as weel's the road up 
your garret-stairs, Mr Bruce." 

" Ow nae doobt ! " he answered, with a sneering acerbity 
peculiar to him, in which his voice seemed sharpened and con- 
centrated to a point by the contraction of his lips. "And there's 
tykes aboot," he added, remembering Annie's fear of dogs. 

But by this time Annie, gentle as she was, had got a little 
angry. 

" The Lord'll tak care o' me frae the dark and the tykes, and 
the lave o' ye, Mr Bruce," she said. 

And bidding Tibbie good-night, she took up her books, and 
departed, to wade through the dark and the snow, trembling 
lest some unseen tyke should lay hold of her as she went. 

As soon as she was gone, Bruce proceeded to make himself 
agreeable to Tibbie by retailing all the bits of gossip he could 
think of. While thus engaged, he kept peering earnestly about 
the room from door to chimney, turning his head on every side, 
and surveying as he turned it. Even Tibbie perceived, from the 
changes in the sound of his voice, that he was thus occupied. 



READER 313 

"nu:, 'aim jir ne: 1/ wantet hi:r 2 'onj: 'larjgr. 9 he 9 

wArd or twa: t9 se t9 't^bi. garj hem 9n Isrn J9r Issnz for 89 
2 morn." 

"{ts 'sst9rd{ npt " 

" b9t ji he J9r Issnz t9 Isrn for 89 'mAn9nd{." 

" u: ai ! b9t 9 he 9 bjuk gr twa: ta tak hem t9 'mistres 
'forbis. 9n 9 'darse 9! boid, 9n kAm t9 89 kjrk wj: h9r \ 89 
2/ morn9n." 

"its no: sef t9 nn 9'but S9 mirk, {ts 'dirjgn on far'bcii. jil 
bi a: wat, 9n 'mebi fa: X mt9 S9 dam. ji 'kAdng si: jgr 4 han 9 r fo:r 
J9r fes ens ut o S9 tun," 

"9 ksn 39 3 rod t9 ni{str9s 'forbisgz 9z wilz 89 3 rod Ap ju:r 
'gar9t"ste:rz, 'mest9r brus." 

"u: ne dut !., 9n S9rz t9iks 9'but " 

" S9 lo:rd 1 tak ke:r o mi fre: S9 dark 9n ^9 tgiks, 9n 39 le:v 
o ji, X mest9r brus " 



I, A 2 o 3 o 4 a: 



314 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Sae your auld landlord's deid, Tibbie ! " he said at last. 

" Ay, honest man ! He had aye a kin' word for a poor body." 

"Ay, ay, nae doobt. But what wad ye say gin I tell't ye 
that I had boucht the bit hoosie, and was yer new landlord, 
Tibbie?" 

"I wad say that the door-sill wants men'in', to baud the 
snaw oot ; an' the bit hoosie's sair in want o' new thack. The 
verra cupples'll be rottit awa' or lang." 

u Weel that's verra rizzonable, nae doobt, gin a' be as ye 
say." 

" Be as I say, Robert Bruce ? " 

" Ay, ay ; ye see ye're nae a'thegither like ither fowk. I dinna 
mean ony offence, ye ken, Tibbie : but ye haena the sicht o' yer 
een." 

" Maybe I haena the feelin' o' my auld banes, aither, Maister 
Bruce ! Maybe I'm ower blin' to hae the rheumatize ; or to smell 
the auld weet thack whan there's been a scatterin' o' snaw or a 
drappy o' rain o' the riggin' ! " 

" I didna want to anger ye, Tibbie. A' that ye say deserves 
attention. It would be a shame to lat an auld body like you " 

" No that auld, Maister Bruce, gin ye kent the trowth ! " 

" Weel, ye're no ower young to need to be ta'en guid care 
o' are ye, Tibbie ? " 

Tibbie grunted. 

" Weel, to come to the pint. There's nae doobt the hoose 
wants a hantle o' doctorin'." 

" 'Deed does't," interposed Tibbie. " It'll want a new door. 
For forbye 'at the door's maist as wide as twa ordinar doors, it 
was ance in twa halves like a chop-door. And they're ill jined 
thegither, and the win' comes throu like a knife, and maist cuts 
a body in twa. Ye see the bit hoosie was ance the dyer's dryin' 
hoose, afore he gaed further doon the watter." 

" Nae doobt ye're richt, Tibbie. But seein' that I maun lay 
oot sae muckle, I'll be compelled to pit anither thrippence on to 
the rent." 

" Ither thrippence, Robert Bruce ! That's three thrippences 
i' the ook in place o' twa. That's an unco rise ! Ye canna mean 
what ye say ! It's a' that I'm able to do to pay my saxpence. 



READER 315 

" se jar a:\d 'landlordz did, 'tibi ! " 

" ai, 'onast man ! hi had ai 9 kain wArd far a p^ir 'bAdi." 

"cii, CLI, ne: dut. bat A\at 1 wad ji se: gm a telt ji Sat CLI had 
2 boxt Sa bit 'husi, an waz jar nju: 'landlord, 'tibi ? " 

" a 1 wad se: Sat Sa / do:r / sil * wants 'menan, ta ha:d Sa sna: ut ; 
an Sa fyt 'hus{ z se:r m x want o a nju: 9ak. Sa 'vera kAplz 1 bi 
'rotat a'wa: or Ian." 

" wil Sats 'vera 'nzanabl, ne: dut, gm a: bi az ji se:." 

" bi az a se:, 'robart brus ? " 

" CLI, ai ; ji si: jir ne 'a:SagiSar laik 'iSar fAuk. a 'd|nna min 
2 'om a'fens, ji ken, 'tibi; bat ji 'henrza Sa s^xt o jar in." 

" 'me bi a 'hen'/za Sa 'filan o ma dild benz, 3/ eSar, 'mestar brus ! 
'rnebi am Aur bl^n ta he: Sa 'rumat^z ; or ta smel Sa d'Ad wit 0ak 
A\an Sarz bin a 'skatran o sna: or a 'drapi o ren o Sa 'rigan ! " 

" a 'd^dna x want ta 'anar ji, 'tibi. a: Sat ji se: di'zervz a'tsn/n. 
it 1 wad bi a Jem ta lat an Guild 'bAdi laik ju: 

" no: Sat aild, 'mestar brus, gin ji kent Sa trAu0 ! " 

"wil, jir no: Aur JATJ ta nid ta bi te:n gyd ke:r o ar ji, 
'tibi?" 

" wil, ta kAm ta Sa paint. Sarz ne: dut Sa hus : wants a hantl 
o 'doktaran." 

"did dAst, itl x want a nju: do:r. for far'bai at Sa 

do:rz mest az waid az twa: 'ordinar do:rz, it waz ens ni twa: 
ha:vz laik a t/op do:r. an Se:r ^1 dgaint Sa'giSar, an Sa wAn kAmz 
6rAu laik a knaif, an mest kAts a 'bAdi jn twa:. ji si: Sa b{t 'husi 
waz ens Sa 'daiarz 'draian hus, a'fo:r hi ge:d 'fArSar dun Sa 
'watar." 

" ne: dut jir rjxt, 'tibi. bat 'sian Sat a man le: ut se: mAkl, 
al bi kam'pslt te pit a'mSar 'Grrpans on ta Sa rent." 

" 'iSar '0rrpans, 'robart brus! Sats 0ri: 'r^pansaz \ Sa uk m 
piss o twa:. Sats an 'Anka 4 raiz ! ji 'kanrca min Mat ji se: ! its 
a: Sat am ebl ta d0: ta pai ma 'sakspans. an d'Ad blj.n ' 



1 1, A 2 o 3 e: 4 ai 



316 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

An auld blin' body like me disna fa' in wi' saxpences whan she 
gangs luikin aboot wi' her lang fingers for a pirn or a prin that 
she's looten fa'." 

"But ye do a heap o' spinnin', Tibbie, wi' thae lang fingers. 
There's naebody in Glamerton spins like ye." 

" Maybe ay and maybe no. It's no muckle that that comes 
till. I wadna spin sae weel gin it warna that the Almichty pat 
some sicht into the pints o' my fingers, 'cause there was nane 
left i' my een. An' gin ye mak ither thrippence a week oot o' 
that, ye'll be turnin' the wather that He sent to ca my mill into 
your dam ; an' I doot it'll play ill water wi' your wheels." 

" Hoot, hoot ! Tibbie, woman ! It gangs sair against me to 
appear to be hard-hertit." 

" I hae nae doobt. Ye dinna want to appear sae. But do 
ye ken that I mak sae little by the spinnin' ye mak sae muckle 
o', that the kirk alloos me a shillin' i' the week to inak up wi' ? 
And gin it warna for kin' frien's, it's ill livin' I wad hae in dour 
weather like this. Dinna ye imaigine, Mr Bruce, that I hae a 
pose o' my ain. I hae nae thing ava, excep' sevenpence in a 
stockin'-fit. And it wad hae to come aff o' my tay or something 
ither 'at I wad ill miss." 

"Weel, that may be a' verra true," rejoined Bruce; "but a 
body maun hae their ain for a' that. Wadna the kirk gie ye the 
ither thrippence ? " 

"Do ye think I wad tak frae the kirk to pit into your till ? " 

" Weel, say saivenpence, than, and we'll be quits." 

" I tell ye what, Eobert Bruce : raither nor .pay ye one baw- 
bee more nor the saxpence, I'll turn oot i' the snaw, and lat the 
Lord luik efter me." 

Robert Bruce went away, and did not purchase the cottage, 
which was in the market at a low price. He had intended Tib- 
bie to believe, as she did, that he had already bought it ; and if 
she had agreed to pay even the sevenpence, he would have gone 
from her to secure it. 



READER 317 

laik mi 'dizna fa: in wi 'sakspansaz A\an Ji garjz 'ljukan a'but wi 
bar lor) 'finarz far a 1 ptrn or a prin Sat Jiz lutn fa':/' 

"bAt ji d0: a hip o 'spman, 't^bi, wi Se: larj 'finarz. Sarz 
'ne:bAdi in 'glamartan spinz laik ji." 

"'mebi CLI an 'mebi no:, its no: mAkl at Sat kAmz til. a 
2 wadna spm se wil gni $ 'warna Sat Sa al'mixti pat SAUI s^xt 'mta 
Sa paints o ma 'finarz, kaz Sar waz nen left i ma in. an gm ji 
mak x iSar 'Sqpans a wik ut o Sat, jil bi 'tArnan Sa 'waSar Sat hi 
sent ta ka: mai 1 m{l ^nta ju:r dam ; an a dut jtl pie: il 'watar wi 
ju:r A\ilz." 

" hut, hut ! 'tibi, ^'Aman ! jt ganz se:r a'gsnst mi te a'pi:r ta 
bi 'hard'hsrtat." 

" a he: ne: dut. ji dm??a 2 want ta a'pi:r se:. bat d0 ji ken Sat 
a mak se: l^tl bj. Sa 'spman ji mak se mAkl o, Sat Sa kjrk a x lu:z 
mi a "Jilan i Sa wik ta mak Ap w^ ? an qm ^t 'warna far kain 
frinz, its jl 'liivan a 2 wad he: in du:r 'weSar lak Sis. 'dpma ji 
fmedgin, 'mestar brus, Sat a he: a po:z o ma e:n. a he: 'neSirj 
a'va:, ek'sep 3/ saivnpans m a 'stokan'fjt. an ^t 2 wad he: ta kAin 
af o ma te: or 'sAmSirj 7 iSar at a 2 wad ^.1 mis." 

" wil, Sat me: bi a: 'vera tru, bat a 'bAdi man he: 

Sar e:n far a: Sat. 2 'wadna Sa kirk gi: ji Sa x iSar X 0ripans ? " 

" dji Sink a 2 wad tak fre Sa kp-k ta pit 'mta ju:r t^ ? " 

" wil, se 3 saivnpans, San, an wil bi kwits." 

" a tel ji A\at, 'robart brus : 3/ reSar nor pai ji wAn x ba:bi mo:r 
nor Sa 'sakspans, al tArn ut i Sa sna:, an lat Sa lo:rd ljuk 'eftar 
mi." 



18 

XIII A. THE WHISTLE 

CHARLES MURRAY. 

Charles Murray, one of the very best of our modern Scots 
poets, comes from the " North Countree." He does not in this 
poem introduce the characteristic pronunciations of his Aber- 
deenshire Doric. The only exception worth noting is futtrat for 
whutrit, i.e. weasel. We find when, whistle, porridge, nose, from, 
which in N.E. Sc. would be fan or fin, AVAS!, pontf or potitj, 
niz, fe. " Dool " and " school " do not rhyme in N.E. Sc., being 
dul and skwil, although they rhyme in St. Eng. dul, skul, or 
in Mid Sc. dyl, skyl. 

Some of Murray's other poems smack more distinctly of the 
North -East, e.g. Winter : 



He cut a sappy sucker from the muckle rodden-tree, 
He trimmed it, an' he wet it, an' he thumped it on his knee ; 
He never heard the teuchat when the harrow broke her eggs, 
He missed the craggit heron nabbin' puddocks in the seggs, 
He forgot to hound the collie at the cattle when they strayed, 
But you should hae seen the whistle that the wee herd made ! 

He wheepled on't at mornin' an' he tweetled on't at nicht, 
He puffed his freckled cheeks until his nose sank oot o' sicht, 
The kye were late for milkin' when he piped them up the closs, 
The kitlins got his supper syne, an' he was beddit boss ; 
But he cared na doit nor docken what they did or thocht or said, 
There was comfort in the whistle that the wee herd made. 

For lyin' lang o' mornin's he had clawed the caup for weeks, 
But noo he had his bonnet on afore the lave had breeks ; 
He was whistlin' to the porridge that were hott'rin' on the fire, 
He was whistlin' ower the travise to the baillie in the byre ; 
Nae a blackbird nor a mavis, that hae pipin' for their trade, 
Was a marrow for the whistle that the wee herd made. 



319 

XIII A. THE WHISTLE 

CHARLES MURRAY. 

" The Ingle's heaped wi' bleezin peats 
An bits o' splutt'rin firry reets 
Which shortly thow the ploughman's beets ; 

An peels appear 
That trickle oot aneth their seats 

A' ower the fleer. 

Here "peats," reets (roots), beets (boots), "seats" all rhyme with 
the Aberdeensh. pronunciation i. Fleer for "floor," Mid Sc. 
flure, rhymes with "appear," i.e. fliir, a'pi:r. The spelling peels 
(pools) also clearly indicates the N.E. pronunciation of this word. 



hi kAt a 'sapj; 'sAkar fre Sa mAkl 'rodn'tri:, 
hi trmit {t, an hi wat it, an hi 0Ainpt it on h\z km: ; 
hi 'mvar -"-herd Sa 'tjuxat A\an Sa 'hara 'bruk ar sgz, 
hi mj:st Sa 'kragat 'hsran 'naban 'pAdaks in Sa ssgz, 
hi far'got ta hAund Sa 'kol{ at Sa katl Avan Se stre:d, 
bAt ji 2 Jud he sin Sa 3 AVAsl Sat Sa wi: herd med ! 

hi Aiiplt ont at 4 'mornan an hi twitlt ont at nj.xt, 

hi pAft hiz frsklt t/iks Antn 1 h^z no:z sank ut o s^xt, 

Sa kai war let for 'm^lkan Man hi paipt Sam Ap Sa klos, 

Sa 'k^tlanz got \z 5 'sApar sain, an hi: waz 'bsdat bos ; 

bAt hi 'ke:rd na dait nor 'dokan Mat Sa did or 4 6oxt or sed, 

Sar waz 'kAmfart m Sa 3 A\Asl Sat Sa wi: hsrd med. 

far 'laian lai) o 4/ mornanz hi had kla:d Sa ka:p far wiks, 
bat nu: hi had h^z 'bonat on a'fo:r Sa le:v had briks ; 
hi waz 3/ AVAslan ta Sa 'pontj dat war 'hotran on Sa 6 fair, 
hi waz 3 'AVAslan Aur Sa 7/ trev{:s ta Sa 8 'baili m Sa 6 bair; 
ne: a 'blakbird nor a 'me:vis, Sat he: 'paipan far Sar tred, 
waz a 'mara ta Sa B MAS! Sat Sa wi: hsrd med. 

x a 2 sAd, sid 3 t 4 o 5 i 6 ai 7 s 8 'belj t 



320 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

He played a march to battle, it cam' dirlin' through the mist, 
Till the halflin' squared his shou'ders an' made up his mind to 

'list ; 

He tried a spring for wooers, though he wistna what it meant, 
But the kitchen-lass was lauchin' an' he thocht she maybe kent ; 
He got ream an' buttered bannocks for the lovin' lilt he played. 
Wasna that a cheery whistle that the wee herd made ? 

He blew them rants sae lively, schottishes, reels, an' jigs, 
The foalie flang his muckle legs an' capered ower the rigs, 
The grey-tailed futt'rat bobbit oot to hear his ain strathspey, 
The bawd cam' loupin' through the corn to "Clean Pease Strae" 
The feet o' ilka man an' beast gat youkie when he played 
Hae ye ever heard o' whistle like the wee herd made ? 

But the snaw it stopped the herdin' an' the winter brocht him 

dool, 
When in spite o' hacks an' chilblains he was shod again for 

school ; 

He couldna sough the catechis nor pipe the rule o' three, 
He was keepit in an' lickit when the, ither loons got free ; 
But he aften played the truant 'twas the only thing he played, 
For the maister brunt the whistle that the wee herd made ! 






READER 321 

hi ple:d 9 msrtj ta batl, rt kam 'djrlan 6ru: Sa m^st, 
tjl Sa 'haiflan skwa:rt \z 'Judarz en med Ap hjz main ta Ipst \ 
hi trait a sprjrj far 'wuarz, 0o hi 1/ w^stna Avat rt ment, 
bat Sa 'IqtJrIcLs waz 2/ laxan an hi 3 0oxt Ji: 'mebi ksnt ; 
hi got rim an 'bAtart r banaks far Sa 'Uvan lilt i pleid. 
'wazna Sat a 'tfiiri 4 MAsl Sat Sa wi: herd med ? 



hi blu: Sam rants se 'laivl^ Ja'ti/az, rilz, an 

Sa 'foil^ flar) iz mAkl Isgz an 'kepart Aur Sa qgz, 

Sa 'gretelt 'fAtrat 'bobat ut ta hi:r hiz e:n straS'spe:, 

Sa baid kam 'Uupan 0ru: Sa 3 korn ta "klin pi:z stre: "; 

Sa fit o '^Ika man an bist gat 'Juki A\en hi ple:d 

he ji 'ivar 2 herd o 4/ A\Asl laik Sa wi: hsrd med ? 

bAt Sa sna: ^t stopt Sa 'herdan an Sa 4/ wAntar 3 broxt ^m 5 dul, 
A\an m spait o haks an 't/^lblmz hi waz Jod a'gen far 5 skul ; 
hi 'kAdna sux Sa 'kat^kaz nor paip Sa ru:l o 0rii, 
hi waz 'kipat in an r likat Man Sa x iSar lunz got fri: ; 
bAt hi 'afn pleid Sa 'truant twaz Sa 'onlj: 0^r) hi pleid, 
far Sa 'mestar brAnt Sa 4/ A\Asl Sat Sa wi: herd med ! 



a: 3 o 4 ^ 5 y 



G. 21 



322 



XIV A. THE " NEWS " OF THE MARRIAGE 

JOHNNY O1BB OF OUSHETNEUK. 

DR WILLIAM ALEXANDER (1826-1894). 

CHAPTER XL. 

The scene of "Johnny Gibb " is supposed to be the neigh- 
bourhood of Culsalmond, Central Abd., and the dialect used is 
that of the N.E. The spelling attempts to represent the local 
pronunciation and with a large measure of success. 

N.E. Scots extends from Deeside to Caithness. Its most 
marked phonetic distinction is its treatment of O.E. and Scan. 
o, Fr. u, which generally become i, e.g. "done, moon, roose 
(praise), music, assure " are deen, meen, reeze, meesic, asseer, din, 
min, ri:z, 'miizik, a'siir. When the vowel is followed by a 
back consonant, ju is the modern development; thus "took, 
cook, nook," are tyeuk, kyeuk, nyeuk, tjuk, kjuk. njuk. When a 
back consonant precedes the vowel aw is developed, e.g. " good, 
cool " become gweed (Mid Sc. gude or guid), cweel, gwid, kwil. 

From Arbroath in Forfarsh. all along the coast to the Spey, 
O.E. a before n appears as i ; thus " one, bone " are pronounced 
in, bin. In Central Bnff., however, the pronunciation is ane, 
bane, en, ben. In this Extract we find aleen and neen alongside 
of ane, banes, stanes, which variation may be the result of the 
influence of literary Scots, or perhaps be due to the fact that the 
writer lived on the borders of two sub-dialects. 



" Ou ay, Hairry, man ! This is a bonny wye o' gyaun on ! 
Dinna ye gar me troo 't ye wasna dancin' the heilan' walloch the 
streen. Fa wud 'a thocht 't ye wud 'a been needin' a file o' an 
aul' day to rest yer banes aifter the mairriage?" 

Such was the form of salutation adopted by Meg Raffan as 
she entered the dwelling of Hairry Muggart early in the after- 
noon of the day after Pa tie's wedding, and found Hairry stretched 
at full length on the deece. 

"Deed, an' ye may jist say 't, Hennie," answered Hairry 
Muggart's wife. " Come awa' ben an' lean ye doon. Fat time, 
think ye, came he hame, noo? " 



323 



XIV A. THE " NEWS " OF THE MARRIAGE 

JOHNNY O1BB OF GUSHETNEUK. 

DR WILLIAM ALEXANDER (1826-1894). 

CHAPTER XL. 

There are some curious diphthongs in this dialect, e.g. fyow, 
byowtifu, fJAU, 'bJAUtifa for "few, beautiful," wyte, gryte, seyvn, 
speyke, wait, grait, saivn, spaik for " wait, great, seven, speak." 

Among the consonantal peculiarities we find f = AA. over the 
N.E. area. Thus " who, what, why, whisky " are fa:, fat, fui, 
'fAskj. This distinction extends as far south as Arbroath, but 
south of the Dee valley tends to limit its action to the pro- 
nominals. 

is used as a substitute for xt as in "daughter, might," 
dother, mith, 'doOar, m^O, and w is often replaced by v, e.g. 
"wrong, lawyer, sow, snow," vrang, lavyer, schaave, snyaave, 
vrojj, lavjar, Jaiv, sir/a: v. 

This and that are used both as Singular and Plural. Thir, 
$ir = these or those is unknown. On = on or un, meaning 
" without," is employed with the Past Part, or Gerund "(see Gr. 
49,51, notes 1,2); example in Extract on leet=" without lying." 

The above are a few of the characteristics of this most in- 
teresting of Scottish Dialects which has, moreover, preserved 
a large number of old words now obsolete in other parts of 
Scotland. 



" u: CLI, 'heq, mm ! $iz \z a 'bom wai o x gja:n on ! 'dma ji gar 
mi tru: tji 'w^zna 'dansen 5a 'hilan 'walax Sa strin. fa: wAd e 
0oxt tji wAd 9 bin nidn e fail o an ail de: ta rest jir benz 2/ eftar 
Sa 



" did, an ji me djjst se:t, 'hem, ............ kAm a'wa: bsn an len 

ji dun. fat taim, Sink ji, kam hi hem, nu: ? " 



1 j-am, see Ph. 32 2 in some parts of Aberdeensh. the 

termination er is sounded JT or 'ir 

212 



324 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



" Weel, but it's a lang road atween this an' the Broch, min' 
ye," said Hairry. "An' ye cudna expeck fowk hame fae a mair- 
riage afore it war weel gloam't." 

" Weel gloam't ! " exclaimed Mrs Muggart. " I 'se jist haud 
my tongue, than. Better to ye speak o' grey daylicht i' the 
mornin'." 

" Hoot, fye ! " answered Hairry. " The souter's lamp wasna 
oot at Smiddyward fan I cam' in'o sicht o' 't fae the toll road." 

" Ou, weel-a-wat, ye've deen won'erfu', Hairry," said the hen- 
wife. " Ye hed been hame ere cock-craw at ony rate. An' nae 
doot it wud be throu' the aifterneen afore ye gat them made 
siccar an' wan awa' fae the Kir 'ton." 

" Ay, an' dennerin an' ae thing or ither." 

" Hoot, noo ; aw mith 'a min'et upo' that. An' coorse the like 
o' young Peter Birse wudna pit 's fowk aff wi' naething shabby. 
Hed they a set denner, said ye ? " 

"Weel, an they hedna, I 'se haud my tongue. Aw b'lieve 
Sarnie's wife was fell sweir to fash wi' the kyeukin o' 't. Jist fan 
they war i' the deid thraw aboot it the tither day, I chanc't to 
luik in. ' Weel, I 'se pit it to you, Hairry,' says she. ' Fan Sarnie 
an' me wus mairriet there was a byowtifu' brakfist set doon 
sax-an'-therty blue-lippet plates (as mony plates as mony fowk) 
naetly full't o' milk pottage wi' a braw dossie o' gweed broon 
sugar i' the middle o' ilka dish, an' as protty horn speens as ever 
Caird Young turn't oot o' 's caums lyin' aside the plates, ready 
for the fowk to fa' tee. Eh, but it was a bonny sicht ; I min' 't 
as weel 's gin it hed been fernyear. An' the denner ! fan my 
lucky deddy fell't a heilan' sheep, an' ilka ane o' the bucks cam* 
there wi' 's knife in 's pouch to cut an' ha'ver the roast an' boil't, 
an' han' 't roun' amo' the pairty. He was a walthy up-throu' 
fairmer, but fat need the like o' that young loon gae sic len'ths ? ' 
says she. ' Ou, never ye min', Mrs Pikshule/ says I, ' gin there 
be a sheep a-gyaun, it '11 be hard gin ye dinna get a shank o' 't 
It '11 only be the borrowin' o' a muckle kail pot to gae o' the 
tither en' o' yer rantletree.' " 

" Na, but there wud be a richt denner Nelly Pikshule wasna 
far wrang, it wudna be easy gettin' knives an' forks for sic a 
multiteed." 



READER 325 

"wil, b^t jts a IdT) rod a'twin Sis n 89 brox, main ji,... 

an ji 'kAdna {k'spek fAuk hem fe a 'mer^d^ a'foir rt war wil 
glomt." 

" wil glomt ! az dgist ha:d ma tArj, San. 'betar ta ji 

spaik o gre: 'de:ljxt i Sa 'rnornan." 

"hut, fai! Sa 'sutarz lamp 'wizna ut at / simrlr'ward 

fan a kam m o sixt o Sa 'tol 'rod." 

" u, 'wila'wat, jiv din 'wAnarfa, 'her^, ji hed bin hem 

eir 'kok'kra: at 'om ret. an ne: dut it wAd bi 0rAu Sa eftar'nin 
a'foir ji gat Sam med 'sikar an wan a'wa: fe Sa 'k{rtan." 

" ai, an 'denaran an e: SITJ or 'iSar." 

"hut, nui; a ni{9 a 'mainat a'po Sat. an kurs Sa laik o JATJ 
'pitar fyrs 'wAdna p^ts fAuk af w^ 'neGir) 'Jabi. hsd Se a set 
'denar, sed ji?" 

" wil, an Se 'hedna, aiz x ha:d ma tAn. a bliiv 'sam^z waif w\z 
fel swiir ta fa/ wj: Sa 'kjukan ot. d^st 2 fan Se war i Sa did 9ra: 
a'but {t Sa 'iSar de:, a t/anst ta ljuk m. 'wil, az pit it ta ju, 
'herj/ ssz Ji. ' 2 fan 'sami an mi: w^.z 'msr^t Sar w^z a 'bJAutifa 
'brakfast set dun saksn'Oertj: blu'l^pat plsts (az 'mon{: plets 
az 'mom fAuk) 'netl{ fAlt o 3 m{lk 'potitj wj: a bra: r dos^ o gwid 
brun 'Jugar i Sa m^dl o ^Ika d^J, an az 'protj: horn spinz az 'ivar 
kja:rd JATJ tArnt ut oz ka:mz 'laian a'said Sa plsts, 'rsdi far Sa 
fAuk ta fa: ti:. e:, b^t ^t w^z a 'bonj s^xt; a maint az wilz gjn rt 
bed bin 'ferniir. an Sa 'denar ! 2 fan ma 'Uk^ 'dedi felt a 'hilan 
Jip, an '{Ika en o Sa bAks kam Se:r wiz knaif mz put/ ta kAt n 
'ha:var Sa rost n bailt, an 4 hant run a'mo Sa 'pert{. hi: w^z a 
'walSj; 'Ap'6rAu 'fermar, b^t fat nid Sa laik o Sat JATJ lun ge: S{k 
lenGs? ' sez Ji. ' u, 'nivar ji main, 'm^stras 'p^kjul,' sez ai, gm Sar 
bi a Jip 5 a'gja:n, ^tl bi ha:rd gm ji: 'd|na get a Jarjk ot {tl 'onl^ 
bi Sa 'boroan o a mAkl kel pot ta ge o Sa 'tiSar sn o jir 'rantl- 
tri ! " 

"na, b^t Sar WAd bi a r^xt 'denar 'nel^ 'pjkjul 'w^zna fa:r 
vran, it 'wAdna bi 'i:zi getn knaifs n forks far s^k a 'mAltitid." 



a 1, 'i A a: a -a:n 



326 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" N , weel, ye see, puckles o' the young fowk wudna kent 
sair foo to mak' eese o' them, though they hed hed them. Sarnie 
'imsel' cuttit feckly, bit aifter bit, on a muckle ashet, wi' 's fir 
gullie, 't I pat an edge on till 'im for the vera purpose ; ithers 
o' 's han't it roun' ; an' they cam' a braw speed, weel-a-wat, twa 
three o' them files at the same plate, an' feint a flee but then- 
fingers a tatie i' the tae han', an' something to kitchie 't wi' i' 
the tither." 

" Eh, wasnin 't a pity that the bridegreem's mither an' 's 
sister wusna there to see the enterteenment," said Meg, rather 
wickedly. " Weel, ye wud start for the Broch syne ? " 

" Aifter we hed gotten a dram ; an' wuss't them luck. But 
jist as we wus settin' to the road, sic a reerie 's gat up ye heard 
never i' yer born days ! Aw 'm seer an' there was ane sheetin' 
there was a score wi' pistills an' guns o' a' kin kin'. The young 
men hed been oot gi'ein draps o' drams ; an' they hed their pis- 
tills, an' severals forbye ; an' the tae side was sheet in, an' the 
tither sheetin back upo' them, till it was for a' the earth like a 
vera battle ; an' syne they begood fungin' an' throwin' aul' sheen, 
Sing dang, like a shoo'er o' hailstanes." 

" Na, sirs ; but ye hed been merry. Sic a pity that ye hedna 
meesic. Gin ye hed hed Piper Huljets at the heid o' ye, ye wud 
'a been fairly in order." 

" Hoot, Meg ; fat are ye speakin' aboot ? Isna Sarnie Pikshule 
'imsel' jist a prencipal han' at the pipes fan he likes ? Aweel, it 
was arreeng't that Sarnie sud ride upon 's bit grey shaltie, an* 
play the pipes a' the road, a wee bittie afore he's ill at gyaun, 
ye^ ken, an' eeswally rides upon a bit timmer kin' o' a saiddlie 
wi' an aul' saick in aneth 't. But aul' an' crazy though the beastre 
be, I 'se asseer ye it was aweers o' foalin' Sarnie i' the gutters,, 
pipes an' a', fan a chap fires his pistill crack ! roon' the nyeuk 
o' the hoose a gryte, blunt shot, fair afore the shaltie's niz I 
Sarnie hed jist begun to blaw, an' ye cud 'a heard the drones 
gruntm' awa', fan the shaltie gya a swarve to the tae side, the 
'blower' skytit oot o' Sarnie's mou', an' he hed muckle adee to 
keep fae coupin owre 'imsel'." 

'Na; but that wusna canny!" exclaimed both Hairry's 
auditors simultaneously. 



READER 327 

"n , wil, ji si:, pAklz o Sa JArj fAuks 'wAdna kent seir fu: ta 
mak is o Sam, 60 Se bed had 5am. 'sam^ mi'sel 'kAtat 'feklj, b^t 
'sftar fyt, on 9 mAkl 'a Jet, wi:z f^r 'q&\\, at a pat an ed^ on t{l mi 
far Sa 'vsra 'pArpas; 'iSarz o:z x hant j.t run; an Se kam a bra: 
spid, 'vvila'wat, 'twaOri o Sam failz at Sa sem plst, an fmt a fli: 
b^t Saf 'fmarz a 'ta:t{ i Sa te: 1 han, an 'sAmSirj ta 'k{tj{ rt w{ \ Sa 
'tiSar." 

" e:, 'w^zmnt a 'piti Sat Sa 'braidgrimz 'miSar ans 's^star 'wAzna 

Se:r ta si: Sa sntar'tinmant, wil, ji wAd start far Sa brox 

sain?" 

" 'sftar wi bed gatn a dram ; an wAst Sam Uk. b^t d3^st az 
wi WAZ setn ta Sa rod, s^k a r ri:ri gat Ap ji x herd 'nivar ( jir born 
de:z ! am si:r an Sar w^z en Jitn Sar w\z a sko:r wj; p^stlz n gAnz 

a: km kain. Sa JATJ men bed bin ut r gian draps o dramz; an 
Se: bed Sar pjstlz, an 'ssvralz far'bai ; an Sa te: said wiz Jitn, an 
Sa 'tiSar Jitn bak a'po Sam, til {t w^z far a: Sa er6 laik a 'vsra 
batl ; an sain Se bi'gud "fAnan an 'Sroan a:l Jin, drrj dan, laik a 
'Juar o 'helstenz." 

" na:, s^rz ; b^t ji bed bin 'merj:. sjk a r piti Sat ji 'hedna 'mi.'zik. 
grn ji had bed 'paipar 'hAldjats at Sa hid o ji, ji WAd a bin x ferl{ 
in 'ordar." 

" hut, msg ; fat ar ji 'spaikan a'but? ^zna "sann 'p^kjul ^m'ssl 
cl5tst a 'prsnsipl x han at Sa paips 2 fan i laiks? a'wil, ^t waz 
a'rindgt Sat 'samj: sAd raid a'ponz b^t gre: 'Jalti, an pie: Sa paips 
a: Sa rod, a wi: 'b^ a'fo:r hiz il at 3 gja:n, ji ken, an 'i:zwal{ 
raidz a'pon a bit 't^mar kain o a 'sedlj: wj an a:l ssk m a'neSt. b^t 
a:l n 'kre:zi 0o Sa 'bisti bi:, az a'si:r ji ^t wiz a x wi:rz o 'folan 'sarnj 

1 Sa 'gAtarz, paips an a:, 2 fan a tjap fairz \z p^stl krak ! run Sa 
njuk o Sa bus a grait, bUnt Jot, fe:r a'fo:r Sa 'Jaltiz n^z ! 'sami 
hsd dgjBt bfgAn ta bla:, an ji 'kAd a 1 herd Sa dronz 'grAntan a'wa:, 
2 fan Sa 'Jalti gja: a swarv ta Sa te: said, Sa 'bloar 'skaitat ut o 

nm:, an i hsd mAkl a'di: ta kip fe 'kAupan Aiir 
i^ b^t Sat 7 wAzna ' 



j-a:n 



328 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



" Sarnie was fell ill-pleas' t, I can tell ye," continued Hairry 
Muggart. " ' Seelence that shottin this moment ! ' says he, ' or 
I'll not play anoder stroke for no man livinV " 

" Eh, but it wusna mowse," said Mrs Muggart. 

" Awat Sarnie was on 's maijesty. ' Ye seerly don't know the 
danger o' fat ye're aboot,' says he. " It's the merest chance i' the 
wordle that that shot didna rive my chanter wi' the reboon o' 't.' 
An' wi' that he thooms the chanter a' up an' doon, an' luiks at 
it wi' 's heid to the tae side. ' Ye dinna seem to be awaar o' fat 
ye're aboot. I once got as gweed a stan' o' pipes as ony man 
ever tyeuk in 's oxter clean connacht the vera same gate,' says 
Sarnie." 

" Weel ? " queried Meg. 

" Hoot ! Fa sud hin'er Sarnie to hae -the pipes a' fine muntit 
wi' red an' blue ribbons. An' ov coorse it was naitral that he sud 
like to be ta'en some notice o'. Nae fear o' rivin the chanter. 
Weel, awa' we gaes wi' Sarnie o' the shaltie, noddle-noddlin aneth 
'im, 's feet naar doon at the grun, an' the pipes scraichin like 
ony thing. For a wee filie the chaps keepit fell weel in order ; 
jist gi'ein a bit ' hooch/ an' a caper o' a dance ahin Sarnie 's they 
cud win at it for their pairtners ; for ye see the muckle feck o' 
the young chaps hed lasses, an' wus gyaun airm-in-airm. But 
aw b'lieve ere we wan to the fit o' the Kirktoon rigs they war 
brakin' oot an' at the sheetin again. Mains's chiels wus lowst 
gin that time, an' we wus nae seener clear o' the Kir'ton nor 
they war at it bleezin awa' ; an' forbye guns, fat hed the nickums 
deen but pitten naar a pun' o' blastin' pooder in'o the bush o' 
an aul' cairt wheel, syne culft it, an' laid it doon aneth the 
briggie at the fit o' the Clinkstyle road, wi' a match at it. Owre 
the briggie we gaes wi' Sarnie's pipes skirlin' at the heid o' 's, 
an' pistills crackin' awa' hyne back ahin, fan the terriblest pla- 
toon gaes aff, garrin the vera road shak' aneth oor feet ! " 

" Keep 's an' guide 's ! " said Meg. " Aw houp there wasna 
naebody hurtit." 

" Ou, feint ane : only Sarnie's shaltie snappert an' pat 'im in 
a byous ill teen again. But I'm seer ye mitha heard the noise 
o' 's sheetin an' pipin', lat aleen the blast, naar three mile 



READER 329 

"'sanq: w^.z fsl {1 plist, e ken tsl ji "silens Sat Jotn 

Sj;s 'moment ! ' sez hi, ' or ol not pie: e'noder strok fer no: man 
'liven.' " 

" e:, brt rt 'wAzne m AUZ," 

" a'wat 'sami wj:z onz 'medgasti. ' ji 'si:rl^ dont no: Sa 'dendger 
o fat jir e'but,' sez hi:. ' {t-s Se 'mi:rest tjans i Se wordl Sat Sat 
Jot 'djxlne raiv ma 'tjanter \vi Se n'bun ot.' an wj; Sat hi 0umz 
Sa 'i Jan tar a: Ap an dun, an ljuks at ft wiz hid ta Sa te: said. ' ji 
'dma sim ta bi e'war o fat jir a'but. ai wAns got az gwid a stan 
o paips az 'onj: man 'iver tjuk mz 'okstar klin 'konext Sa 'vsra sem 
get,' sez 'samj:." 

"wil?" 

" hut ! fa: sAd 'hmar 'sam^ ta he: Sa paips a: fain 'mAntat wj 
rid an blu: 'r^banz. an av kurs ft w^z 'netral Sat hi SAd laik ta 
bi te:n sAm 'notis o. ne: fi:r o 'rarvan Sa t/antar. wil, a'wa: wi 
ge:z w\ 'sam^ o Sa 'Jalti, 'nodl'nodlan a'nsS pn, \z fit na:r dun at 
Sa grAn, an Sa paips 'skrexan laik 'on^m. far a wi 'faili Sa t/aps 
'kipat fsl wil ^n 'ordar; d3^st 'gian a b{t hux, an a 'kepar o a dans 
'ahm 'samj z Se kAd wm at ft far Sar 'pertnarz; far ji si: Sa mAkl 
fsk o Sa JATJ t/aps hed 'lasaz, an w^z 1 gja:n srm jn erm. b^t a 
bli:v e:r wi wan ta Sa frt o Sa 'kirtan r^gz Se war 'brakan ut an 
at Sa Jitn a'gen. menz t/ilz WAZ Uust gp Sat taim, an wi WAZ 
ne: 'sinar kli:r o Sa 'k^rtan nor Se war at rt x bli:zan a'wa: ; an 
for'bai gAnz, fat hsd Sa 'n^kamz din b^t p^tn na:r a pAn o 'blastan 
'pudar ni o Sa bA/ o an a:l ksrt Mil, sain kAlft {t, an le:d {t dun 
a'ns9 Sa 'br^gi at Se f[t o Sa klmk'steil rod, wj; e mat/ et {t. Aur 
Se 'br^gi wi ge:z w{ 'samiz peips 'skjrlen et Se hid oz, en pj.stlz 
'kraken a'wa: hein bak e'hm, 2 fen Se 'teriblest ple'tun ge:z af, 
'garen Se x vsre rod Jak e'nsS. wir fit ! " 

" kips en geidz ! a hAup Sar 'wizne 'ne:bAdi 'hArtet." 

" u:, fmt en : 'onl{ 'sam^z 'Jalti x snapert en pat ^.m m e 'baies 
il tin e'gen. b{t em si:r ji mi0 e 3 hsrd Se noiz oz Jitn en 'peipen, 
lat e'lin Se blast, na:r Sri: meil e'wa:." 



2 i, 



330 MANUAL OF MQDERN SCOTS 

" Weel, aw was jist comin' up i' the early gloanrin, fae lockin' 
my bits o' doories, an' seein' that neen o' the creaturs wasna 
reestin the furth, fan aw heard a feerious lood rum'le an't had 
been Whitsunday as it 's Mairti'mas aw wud 'a raelly said it was 
thunner. But wi' that there comes up o' the win' a squallachin 
o' fowk by ordinar', an' the skirl o' the pipes abeen a'. That was 
the mairriage Heard you ! Aw wat, aw heard ye ! " 

" Oh, but fan they wan geylies oot o' kent boun's they war 
vera quate only it disna dee nae to be cheery at a mairriage, 
ye ken." 

" An' fat time wan ye there ? " 

" Weel, it was gyaun upo' seyven o'clock." 

" An' ye wud a' be yap eneuch gin than ! " 

"Nyod, I was freely hungry, ony wye. But aw wat there 
was a gran' tae wytin 's. An aunt o' the bride's was there to wel- 
come the fowk ; a richt jellie wife in a close mutch, but unco 
braid spoken ; aw 'm thinkin' she maun be fae the coast side, i' 
the Collieston wan, or some wye. The tables wus jist heapit at 
ony rate ; an' as mony yalla fish set doon as wud 'a full't a box 
barrow, onlee't." 

" An' was Peter 'imsel' ony hearty, noo ? " 

"Wusnin 'e jist! Aw wuss ye hed seen 'im; an' Rob his 
breeder tee, fan the dancin' begood. It wudna dee to say 't ye 
ken, but Robbie hed been tastin' draps, as weel 's some o' the 
lave, an' nae doot the gless o' punch 't they gat o' the back o' 
their tae hed ta'en o' the loon ; but an he didna tak' it oot o' twa 
three o' the lasses, forbye the aul' fishwife, 't was bobbin awa' 
anent 'im b' wye o' pairtner, wi' 'er ban's in 'er sides an' the 
strings o' 'er mutch fleein lowse. It's but a little placie, a kin' 
o' a but an' a ben, an' it wusna lang till it grew feerious het. I'se 
asseer ye, dancin' wasna jeestie to them that try't it." 

" Weel, Mistress Muggart, isna yer man a feel aul' breet to 
be cairryin on that gate amon' a puckle daft young fowk ? " 

" Deed is 'e, Hennie ; but as the sayin' is, ' there's nae feel 
like an aul' feel.' " 

" Ou, but ye wud 'a baith been blythe to be there, noo," said 
Hairry, " an' wud 'a danc't brawly gin ye hed been bidden." 

" An' Sarnie ga'e ye the meesic ? " 



READER 331 

" wil, a wiz dgist 'kAtnan Ap 1 Sa 'erli 'gloman, fe 'lokan me bits 
o 'doirjz, en 'sian Sat nin o Sa 'kretarz 'wizna 'ristan Sa fAr0, 1 fen a 
3 herd a 'fi:nas lud rAml ant had bin 'Aqtsndi az its 'mertrmas a 
'wAd a 're:li sed it wjz '0Anar. bit wj Sat Sar kAmz Ap o Sa wpi 
a 'skwalaxan o fAuk bai 'orcktar, an Sa skirl o Sa paips a'bin a:. 
Sat wiz Sa 'meridg 3 herd jui ! a wat, a 3 herd ji ! " 

" o:, bit 1 fan Se wan 'gailiz ut o kent bunz Se war 'vera kweit 
'onli jt 'dizna di: ne: ta bi 'tjiiri at a r mrid3, ji ksn." 

" an fat taim wan ji Seir ? " 

" wil, {t wiz 2 gja:n a'po x saivan o'klok." 

" an ji wAd a: bi jap a'njux gpi San ! " 

" jiod, a w{z 'friil^ 'hAnq, 'on^ wai. b^t a'wat Sar w^z a gran te: 
'waitanz. an ant o Sa braidz w^z Seir ta 'welkAm Sa fAuk ; a r^xt 
'dgsli waif in a klos mAt/, brt 'Anka bred spokr) ; am 'Sinkan Ji 
man bi fe Sa kost said, i Sa 'kolistan wan, or sAm wai. Sa teblz 
WAZ dg^st 'hipat at 'on^ ret ; an az 'monj "jala f^J set dun az WAd 
a f Alt a boks 'bara, onliit." 

" an wiz 'pitar ^m'sel r on{ 'hert[, nu: ? " 

"'wAzmn i dgjst ! a WAS ji bed sin mi ; an rob ln_z 'bridar ti:, 
x fan Sa 'dansan bfgud. jt 'wAdna di: ta seit ji ken, bit 'robi hed 
bin "testan draps, az wilz SAm o Sa leiv ; an ne: dut Sa gles o pAnJ 
at Se gat o Sa bak o Sar te: hed te:n o Sa lun ; bit an hi: 'd^dna 
tak it ut o 7 twa 0ri o Sa 'lasaz, for'bai Sa a:l 'fi/waif, at wiz 'boban 
a'wa: a'nent ^m ba wai o 'pertnar, w{ ar 3 hanz ^n ar saidz an Sa 
strirjz o ar rnAtJ 'flian IAUS. its brt a l^tl 'ples^, a kein o a bAt an 
.a ben, an rt x wAzna larj til it gru: 'fhrias het. az a'si:r ji/dansan 
'w^zna 'dgisti ta Sem Sat trait it." 

" wil, 'm^stras 'mAgart, ^zna jir man a fil a:l brit ta bi 'kenan 
on Sat get a'mon a pAkl daft JArj fAuk? " 

"did rz i, 'hem; bit az Sa 'sean iz, 'Sarz ne: fil laik an a:l 
fil.' " 

" u:, bit ji wAd a be0 bin blaiS ta bi Se:r, nu:, an WAd 

a danst 'bra:li gin ji hed bin bidn." 

" an 'sami ge: ji Sa 'mi:zik? " 



2 j-a:n 3 a: 



332 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



" Maist pairt. They got a hand o' a fiddle there was a cheelie 
there 't cud play some but the treble string brak, so that \vudna 
dee. An* files, fan they war takin' a kin' o' breathin', he wud 
sowff a spring to twa three o' them ; or bess till 'imsel' singin', 
wi' the fiddle, siclike as it was. Only Sarnie eeswally sat i' the 
tither en' to be oot o' their road, an' mak' mair room for the 
dancers, an' dirl't up the pipes, wi' a fyou o' 's that wusna carein' 
aboot the steer takin' a smoke aside 'im." 

"Na, but ye hed been makin' yersel's richt comfortable. 
Hedna ye the sweetie wives ? " 

" Hoot ay ; hoot ay ; till they war forc't to gi'e them maet 
an' drink an' get them packit awa' that was aboot ten o'clock. 
An' gin than," continued Hairry, " I was beginnin' to min' 't I 
hed a bit traivel afore me. Aw kent there was nae eese o' wytin 
for the young fowk to be company till 's, for they wud be seer 
to dance on for a file, an' than there wud lickly be a ploy i' the 
hin'eren' at the beddin' o' the new-marriet fowk ; so Tarn Meeri- 
son an' me forgathered an' crap awa' oot, siri'ry like, aifter sayin' 
good nicht to the bride in a quate wye Peter was gey noisy gin 
that time, so we loot him be. We made 's gin we hed been 
wuntin a gluff o' the caller air ; but wi' that, fan ance we wus 
thereoot, we tyeuk the road hame thegither like gweed billies." 



READER 333 

" mest pert. Se got a haid o a fjxil Sar wj;z 9 't/ili Seir at kAd 
pie: SAm b^t Sa trsbl strjrj brak, so Sat 'wAdna di:. an failz, x fan 
Se war 'takan a kain o 'bre:San, hi wAd SAuf a spr^rj ta 'twa8ri o 
Sam ; or bss t^l im'ssl 'sman, w{ Sa fjdl, sjk'laik az rt w^z. 'onl^. 
'samj 'iizwal^ sat i Sa 'tiSar en ta bi ut o Sar rod, an mak meir 
rum far Sa 'dansarz, an djrlt Ap Sa paips, wj: a fjAu oz Sat 'wAzna 
'kerran a'but Sa stiir x takan a smok a'said jrn." 

"na:, bjt ji hsd bin 'makan jir'sslz r^xt "komfartabl. 'hedha 
ji Sa 'switi' waifs?" 

" hut ai ; hut ai ; fyl Se war forst ta gi: Sam met an drmk an 
get Sam 'pakat a x wa: Sat wiz a'but ten o'klok. an gin San, 

a w{z bi'gman ta main at a hsd a bjt treivl a'foir mi. a 

kent Sar w^.z ne: i:s o 'waitan far Sa JATJ fAuk ta bi 'kAmpani t^lz, 
far Se WAd bi si:r ta dans on far a fail, on San Sar WAd 'l^kl^ bi a 
ploi i Sa 'hmar'en at Sa 'bedan o Sa njui'msr^t fAuk; so tarn 
'miinsan an mi far'geSart an krap a'wa: ut, x smr{ laik, 'sftar'sean 
gud n\xi ta Sa braid m a kwet wai 'pi tar w^z gai 'noizj gm Sat 
taim, so wi lut hmi bi:. wi medz gm wi hsd bin 'wAntan a gUf 
o Sa 'kalar e:r ; b^t wj Sat, a fan ens wi WAZ Se'rut, wi tjuk Sa rod 
hem Sa'giSar laik gwid 



334 

XV A. TO A MOUSE 

ROBERT BURNS. 

Wee, sleekit, cowrin, tim'rous beastie, 
O, what a panic's in thy breastie ! 
Thou needna start awa' sae hasty, 

Wi' bickering brattle ! 
I wad be laith to rin and chase thee, 

Wi' murdering pattle ! 

I'm truly sorry man's dominion 
Has broken nature's social union, 
An' justifies that ill opinion 

Which makes thee startle 
At. me, thy poor earth-born companion, 

And fellow-mortal ! 

I doubt na, whyles, but thou may thieve; 
What then? poor beastie, thou maun live ! 
A daimen icker in a thrave 

's a sma' request : 
I'll get a blessin wi' the lave, 

An' never miss't ! 

Thy wee bit housie, too, in ruin ! 
Its silly wa's the win's are strewin' ! 
An' naething now to big a new ane 

O' foggage green ! 
An' bleak December's winds ensuin', 

Baith snell an' keen ! 

Thou saw the fields laid bare an' waste, 
An' weary winter comin' fast, 
An' cozie here, beneath the blast, 

Thou thought to dwell, 
Till crash ! the cruel coulter past 

Out thro' thy cell. 






335 

XV A. TO A MOUSE 

ROBERT BURNS. 

wi:, 'slikat, 'ku:ren, 'tjmras 'best{, 
o:, A\at 9 'panj.ks m Sai 'brestj. ! 
Su: 'nidna stert x a'wa: se 'hestj, 

w| 'bjkran bratl ! 
a: 2 wad bi Ie0 ta rm en t/es 8 ti, 

w\ 'mArdran patl ! 
em 'trul{ 'soq manz de'minjen 
hez 'broken 'neterz 'so/al 4 jmJ8n, 
an 'd3Astifi:z Sat ^.1 a'pmjan 

Av^tJ maks Si startl 
at mi:, Sai p0:r sr6 5 born kam'penjan,. 

an 'felo'mortl ! 

a 7 dutna, A\ailz, bat 5u: me 0i:v; 
A\at San? p0:r 6/ best{, Su man li:v ! 
a 'deman 'tkar m a 7 6re:v 

za 1 sma: rfkwsst: 
al get a 'bljsan w^ Sa le:v, 

an 'mvar m^st ! 
Sai wi: b^.t 'husi, tj2Tr, m 'rum ! 
^ts 'si\i 1 wa:z Sa 8 wAnz ar 'strum ! 
an 'neS^r) nu: ta bjg a nju: jpi 

o 'foojids grin ! 
an blik dfsembarz 8 wAnz m'Juin, 

be0 snel n kin ! 

Su x sa: Sa fildz le:d be:r an west, 
an 'wi:ri 8 'wAntar 'kAman 9 fest, 
an 'ko:zi hi:r, 10 bi'ni9 Sa blast, 

Su U 0oxt ta dwsl, 
til kraj! Sa krual 'kutar past 

ut Bru: 5ai ssl. 



I Q: 2 A, i 3 See Ph. 217 (d) 4 See Ph. 151 



7 ; 



a 



336 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

That wee bit heap o' leaves and stibble 
Has cost thee monie a weary nibble ! 
Now thou's turned out for a' thy trouble, 

But house or hauld, 
To thole the winter's sleety dribble, 

And cranreuch cauld ! 

But, Mousie, thou art no thy lane 
In proving foresight may be vain ! 
The best-laid schemes o' mice an' men 

Gang aft agley, 
An' lea'e us nought but grief an' pain 

For promis'd joy ! 

Still thou art blest, compared wi' me ! 
The present only toucheth thee : 
But och ! I backward cast my e'e 

On prospects drear ! 
An' forward, tho' I canna see, 

I guess an' fear. 



READER 337 



Sat wi b^t hip o lifs en stibl 
haz 1 kost Si 2/ monj: 9 'wi:ri mbl ! 
nu: Suz tArnt ut for 3 a: Sai tnbl } 

bAt bus or 3 hailed, 
t9 0ol Sa 4/ wmtarz 'sliti dnbl, 

en 5 kranjux 3 ka:lc I 

bAt, 'musi, Su art no: Sai len 
lii "pr^ivan 'fors^xt me: bi ven ! 
Se 'bsst'leid skimz o mais an men 

gar) aft Vglai, 
and li: AS 1 noxt bAt grif an pen 

for 'promist 6 dgai ! 

st{l Su art blest, kam'peirt w^ mi: 
Sa 'prszant 'onl^ 'tAt/a8 Si: : 
bAt J ox ! a 'bakward kast ma i: 

on "prospaks dri:r ! 
an 'forward, 0o a 'kanna si:, 

a gss an fi:r. 



o, A, a 3 g- 4 t, A 5 'kranJAx 



22 



338 



XVI A. THE SAYING OF ANNIE 

BESIDE THE BONNIE BRIER BUSH. 
IAN MACLAREN (1850-1907). 

Doctor MacLure did not lead a solemn procession from the 
sick-bed to the dining-room, and give his opinion from the hearth- 
rug with an air of wisdom bordering on the supernatural, because 
neither the Drumtochty houses nor his manners were on that 
large scale. He was accustomed to deliver himself in the yard, 
and to conclude his directions with one foot in the stirrup ; but 
when he left the room where the life of Annie Mitchell was 
ebbing slowly away, our doctor said not one word, and at the sight 
of his face her husband's heart was troubled. 

He was a dull man, Tammas, who could not read the meaning 
of a sign, and laboured under a perpetual disability of speech ; 
but love was eyes to him that day, and a mouth. 

"Is't as bad as yir lookin', doctor? Tell's the truth; wull 
Annie no come through ? " and Tammas looked MacLure straight 
in the face, who never flinched his duty or said smooth things. 

"A' wud gie onything tae say Annie hes a chance, but a' 
daurna ; a' doot yir gaein' tae lose her, Tammas." 

MacLure was in the saddle, and as he gave his judgment, he 
laid his hand on Tammas's shoulder with one of the rare caresses 
that pass between men. 

"It's a sair business, but ye 'ill play the man and no vex 
Annie ; she 'ill dae her best, a'll warrant." 

" An' a'll dae mine " ; and Tammas gave MacLure's hand a 
grip that would have crushed the bones of a weakling. Drum- 
tochty felt in such moments the brotherliness of this rough - 
looking man, and loved him. 

Tammas hid his face in Jess's mane, who looked round with 
sorrow in her beautiful eyes, for she had seen many tragedies, 
and in this silent sympathy the stricken man drank his cup, 
drop by drop. 



339 



XVI A. THE SAVING OF ANNIE 

BESIDE THE BONNIE BRIER BUSH. 

IAN MACLAKEN (1850-1907). 

"{st az bad az jir 'lukan, 'doktar? tslz Sa tryG ; WA! 'anj; no: 
kAin eru:?" 

" a wAd gii 1 oni9{r) ta se: 'am hez a t/ans, bAt a 'da:rna ; a dut 
jir x gean ta bs bar, 'tamas." 



"jts a se:r 'biznas, bat jil pie: Sa man an no: vsks x an^ ; Jil 
de: bar best, al 'waran^." 

' : an a:l de: main." 



22 2 



340 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" A' wesna prepared for this, for a' aye thocht she wud live 
the langest.... She's younger than rne by ten years, and never 
wes ill... We've been mairit twal year laist Martinmas, but it's 
juist like a year the day.... A' was never worthy o' her, the 
bonniest, snoddest, kindliest lass in the Glen.. . .A' never cud mak 
oot hoo she ever lookit at me, 'at hesna hed ae word tae say 
aboot her till it's ower late.... She didna cuist up tae me that a' 
wesna worthy o' her, no her, but aye she said, ' Yir ma ain gude- 
man, and nane cud be kinder tae me.'... An' a' wes minded tae be 
kind, but a' see noo mony little trokes a' micht hae dune for her, 
and noo the time is bye....Naebody kens hoo patient she wes wi' 
me, an' aye made the best o' me, an' never pit me tae shame 
afore the fouk....An' we never hed ae cross word, no ane in twal 
year.... We were mair nor man and wife, we were sweethearts a' 
the time.... Oh, ma bonnie lass, what 'ill the bairnies an' me dae 
withoot ye, Annie ? " 

The winter night was falling fast, the snow lay deep upon the 
ground, and the merciless north wind moaned through the close 
as Tammas wrestled with his sorrow dry- eyed, for tears were 
denied Drumtochty men. Neither the doctor nor Jess moved 
hand or foot, but their hearts were with their fellow-creature, 
and at length the doctor made a sign to Marget Howe, who had 
come out in search of Tammas, and now stood by his side. 

"Dinna mourn tae the brakin' o' yir hert, Tammas," she 
said, " as if Annie an' you hed never luved. Neither death nor 
time can pairt them that luve ; there's naethin' in a' the warld 
sae strong as luve. If Annie gaes frae the sicht o' yir een she 'ill 
come the nearer tae yir hert. She wants tae see ye, and tae hear 
ye say that ye 'ill never forget her nicht nor day till ye meet in 
the land where there's nae pairtin'. Oh, a' ken what a'm saying 
for it's five year noo sin' George gaed awa, an' he's mair wi' me 
noo than when he wes in Edinburgh and I wes in Drumtochty.' 

" Thank ye kindly, Marget ; thae are gude words and true, 
an' ye hev the richt tae say them; but a' canna dae without 
seein' Annie comin' tae meet me in the gloamin', an' gaein' in 
an' oot the hoose, an' hearin' her ca' me by ma name, an' a'll 
no can tell her that a' luve her when there's nae Annie in the 
hoose. 



READER 341 



"9 'wezn9 pn'pe:rt far SJB, far 9 91 1/ 0oxt Ji wAd li:v S9 
'lanast....Jiz 'JAnar San mi: bj: ten i:rz, an 'nivar wez j.l....wiv bin 
2/ merjt twal i:r lest 'mertmmas, bat (ts dgyst laik a iir Sa de:.<.. 
a wez 'mvar 'wArSi o bar, Sa 1/ boniast, 'snodast, 'kaincftiast las {n 
Sa glen.... a 'mvar kAd mak ut hu: Ji 'ivar'lukat at mi:, at 'hezna 
bed e: wArd ta se: 9'but 9r t{l {ts 'Auar let....Ji 'd^dng kyst Ap ta 
mi Sat a 'wezna 'wArSi o ar, no: bar, bat ai Ji sed, 'jir ma e:n 
gyd'man, an nen kAd bi 'kaincfer ta mi.'...an a wez 'maindgt ta 
bi kainc?, bat a si: nu: 3/ mon^ l^tl troks a m^xt he dyn far bar, an 
mi: Sa taim iz boi.../nebAdi kenz hu: 'pe/ant Ji wez w^ mi, an ai 
med Sa best o mi, an r mvar pft mi ta Jem 9'fo:r $9 fAuk....en wi 
'nivar bed e: 4 kros WArd, no: en m twal i:r....wi war me:r nor 
man an waif, wi war 'switherts a: Sa taim....o, ma 1/ bon^ las, 
Sa 2 bern^z an mi: de: wr*0ut ji, 'anj?" 



mArn ta Sa 'brakan o jir hert, 'tames, ............ 9z if 

'an^ 9n ju: bed 'mvgr 8 Uvd. 5/ neS9r de0 nor teim kgn 2 pert Sem 
8et S !AV ; Serz 'neSm m a: S9 warlc^ se: stror) 9z S !AV. {f 'anj ge:z 
fre Sa s^xt o jir in Jil kAm Sa 'ni:rar ta jir hert. Ji 6 wants ta si: 
ji, an ta hi:r ji se: Sat jil 'nivar far'get bar n^xt nor de: til ji mit 
in Sa 7 land Avar Sarz ne: 2/ pertan. o:, a ken Mat am 'sean, far ^ts 
faiv i:r nu: sm dgord3 ge:d a'wa:, an hiz me:r wj; mi nu: San Man 
hi: wez m 'ednbAra an ai wez ^n drAm'toxti." 

" Sank ji 'kaindlt, 'marg^t ; Se: ar gyd wArdz en tru:, an ji hsv 
Sa rp:t ta se: Sam ; bat a 'kanna de: wr'Sut 'sian 'ant 'kAman ta 
mit mi pi Sa 'glom9n, 9n 'ge9n in 9n ut S9 bus, 9n 'hi:r9n 9r ka: 
mi b[ mg nem, 9n 9! no: kgn tel hgr S9t 9 S !AV h9r A\9n S9rz ne: 
'am m S9 bus. 



o 2 e 3 -a, A, o 4 o 5 e: 6 A, 



342 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Can naethin' be dune, doctor? Ye savit Flora Cammil, and 
young Burnbrae, an' yon shepherd's wife Dunleith wy, an' we 
were a' sae prood o' ye, an' pleased tae think that ye hed keepit 
dfeith frae anither hame. Can ye no think o' somethin' tae help 
Annie, and gie her back tae her man and bairnies? " and Tammas 
searched the doctor's face in the cold, weird light. 

" There's nae pooer in heaven or airth like luve," Marget said 
to toe afterwards ; " it maks the weak strong and the dumb tae 
speak. Oor herts were as water afore Tammas's words, an' a' saw 
the doctor shake in his saddle. A' never kent till that meenut 
hoo he hed a share in a'body's grief, an' carried the heaviest 
wecht o' a' the Glen. A' peetied him wi' Tammas lookin' at him 
sae wistfully, as if he hed the keys o' life an' deith in his hands. 
But he wes honest, and wudna hold oot a false houp tae deceive 
a sore hert or win escape for himsel'." 

" Ye needna plead wi' me, Tammas, to dae the best a' can 
for yir wife. Man, a' kent her lang afore ye ever luved her ; a' 
brocht her intae the warld, and a' saw her through the fever 
when she wes a bit lassikie ; a' closed her mither's een, and it 
wes me hed tae tell her she wes an orphan, an' nae man wes 
better pleased when she got a gude husband, and a' helpit her 
wi' her fower bairns. A've naither wife nor bairns o' ma own, 
an' a' coont a' the fouk o' the Glen ma family. Div ye think a* 
wudna save Annie if I cud? If there wes a man in Muirtown 
'at cud dae mair for her, a'd have him this verra nicht, but a' the 
doctors in Perthshire are helpless for this tribble. 

" Tammas, ma puir fallow, if it could avail, a' tell ye a' wud 
lay doon this auld worn-oot ruckle o' a body o' mine juist tae see 
ye baith sittin' at the fireside, an' the bairns roond ye, couthy 
an' canty again ; but it's no tae be, Tammas ; it's no tae be." 

" When a' lookit at the doctor's face," Marget said, " a' thocht 
him the winsomest man a' ever saw. He wes transfigured that 
nicht, for a'm judging there's nae transfiguration like luve." 

"It's God's wull an 1 maun be borne, but it's a sair wull for 
me, an' a'm no ungratefu' tae you, doctor, for a' ye've dune and 
what ye said the nicht"; and Tammas went back to sit with 
Annie for the last time. 

Jess picked her way through the deep snow to the main road 



READER 343 

"ken 'ne0pi bi dyn, 'dokter? ji 'seiv^t 'flo:re kctml, en JATJ 
bArn'bre:, en jon 'Jsperdz waif dAn'H0 wei, an wi war a: se: prud 
o ji, an pliizd ta 0ir)k Sat ji hsd 'kipet 1 di0 fre e'mSer hem. kan 
ji no: 0jrjk o 'sAm0pi ta help 'an^, an gi: bar bak ta har man an 
2 bern t z?" 

"Serz nei 'puar pi hsvn or er0 laik S !AV, j.t maks Sa 

wek stroT) an Sa dAm ta spik. ur hsrts war az 'water e'fo:r 
'tamasaz wArdz, an a sa: Se 'dokter x jak pi \z 2 sedl. a 'mvar ksnt 
til Sat 'minat hu: hi hsd a Jeir pi 'a:bAdiz grif, an 2 'kerj:t Sa 
'heviast wsxt o a: Sa glsn. a 'pitid hj.m wi 'tamas 'lukan at pn 
se: 'w^stfalj, az if hi hsd Sa 3 ki:z o laif an 1 di0 \r\ \z 4 hanefe. bat 
hi wsz 'onast, an 'wAdna 4 had ut a fa:s hAup ta di'siiv a soir hsrt 
or wjn r*skep for nn'ssl." 

"ji 'nidna plid w{ mi:, 'tamas, ta de: Sa best a kan far jir 
waif, man, a kent ar larj a'fo:r ji: 'ivar 8 lAvd ar ; a 5 broxt ar 'inta 
Sa ^warld, an a sa: ar 9ru: Sa 'fiver Man Ji wsz a b{t 'lasik^; a 
klo:zd ar 'miSarz in, an ^t wsz mi: hsd ta tsl ar Ji wsz an 'orfen, 
an ne: man wsz 'bstar pli:zd A\an Ji got a gyd 'hAzband, an a 
'hslpat ar w^ ar fAur 2 bernz. ev 6/ neSer weif nor 2 bernz o me 7 on, 
en e kunt a: Se fAuk o Se glsn me 'femli. d\v ji G^nk a 'wAdna 
se:v/an^ jf e kAd? if Ser wsz e man in 'marten et kAd de: me:r 
for er, ed hev pn Sis x vsre n^xt, bet a: Se 'dokterz pi 'psr6 3 Jair er 
'hslples fer S^s tnbl. 

" 'tames, me p0:r 'fala, ^f it kAd a'vel, a tsl ji a wAd le: dun 
Sis o,:\d 'worn'ut rAkl o e 5/ bodi o mein dgyst te si: ji be0 's^ten 
et Se 3 'fairseid, en Se 2 bernz rune? ji, 'ku0i en 'kanti e'gen ; bet 
^ts no: te bi:, 'tames ; {ts no: te bi:." 

a A\en e 'luket at Se 'dokterz fes e 5 0oxt him Sa 

'wmsemest man e 'iver sa:. hi wsz trans'figart Sat nixt, for em 
^Adgen Serz ne: transf^ger'ejn leik 8 lAv." 

" ^ts godz WA! en ma:n bi born, bet ^ts e se:r WA! fer mi:, en 
em no: An'gretfe te ju:, 'dokter, for a: ji:v dyn en A\at ji ssd Se 
mxt." 



ei ct: o e: AU 



344 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

with a skill that came of long experience, and the doctor held 
converse with her according to his wont. 

"Eh, Jess wumman, yon wes the hardest wark a' hae tae 
face, and a' wud raither hae ta'en ma chance o' anither row in a 
Glen Urtach drift than tell Tammas Mitchell his wife wes deein'. 

" A' said she cudna be cured, and it wes true, for there's juist 
ae man in the land for't, and they micht as weel try tae get the 
mune oot o' heaven. Sae a' said naethin' tae vex Tammas's hert, 
for it's heavy eneuch withoot regrets. 

" But it's hard, Jess, that money wull buy life after a', an' if 
Annie wes a duchess her man wudna lose her ; but bein' only a 
puir cottar's wife, she maun dee afore the week's oot. 

" Gin we hed him the morn there's little doot she wud be 
saved, for he hesna lost mair than five per cent, o' his. cases, and 
they'll be puir toon's craturs, no strappin' women like Annie. 

" It's oot o' the question, Jess, sae hurry up, lass, for we've 
hed a heavy day. But it wud be the grandest thing that was 
ever dune in the Glen in oor time if it cud be managed by hook 
or crook. 

" We 'ill gang and see Drumsheugh, Jess ; he's anither man 
sin' Geordie Hoo's deith, and he wes aye kinder than fouk kent " ; 
and the doctor passed at a gallop through the village, whose 
lights shone across the white, frost-bound road. 

"Come in by, doctor; a' heard ye on the road. Ye'll hae 
been at Tammas Mitchell's ; hoo's the gudewife ? A doot she's 
sober." 

" Annie's deein', Drumsheugh, an' Tammas is like tae brak 
his hert." 

" That's no lichtsome, doctor, no lichtsome ava, for a' dinna 
ken ony man in Drumtochty sae bund up in his wife as Tammas, 
an' there's no a bonnier wumrnan o' her age crosses oor kirk door 
than Annie, nor a cleverer at her wark. Man, ye 'ill need tae pit 
yir brains in steep. Is she clean beyond ye ? " 

" Beyond me and every ither in the land but ane, and it wud 
cost a hundred guineas tae bring him tae Drumtochty." 

" Certes, he's no blate ; it's a fell chairge for a short day's 
work ; but hundred or no hundred we 'ill hae him, an' no let 
Annie gang, and her no half her years." 



READER 345 

" e:, d3es 'wAman, jon wez Sa 'hardest wark a he: ta fes, an a 
lr reSar he tem ma t/ans o 9'mSar TAU in a glen 'Artax drift 
San tel 'tamas 'mitjal hiz waif wez 'dian." 

" a sed Ji 'kAdna bi kj^ird, an it wez tru:, far, Sarz dgyst e: 
man in Sa 2 lanc? fort, an Se mjxt az wil trai ta get Sa myn ut o 
hevn. se a sed 'ne0m ta veks 'tamas^z hert, far its 'hevi 3 a'njux 
wr'Sut n'grets. 

" bat its hard, dges, Sat 'niAni WA! bai laif x sftar a:, an if 'ani 
wez a 'dAt/ss har man 'wAdna 4 lu:z ar; bat 'bian 5 'on\\ a p^ir 
'kotarz waif, Ji man di: a'foir Sa wiks ut. 

"gin wi hsd him 5a 5 morn Sarz lrtl dut Ji wAd bi seivt, for 
hi 'hszna lost me:r San faiv par sent o h^z 'kesaz, an Sell bi p0:r 
tunz 'kretarz, no: 'strapan 'wiman laik 'oni. 

"its ut o Sa 'kwestan, dges, se 'liAri Ap, las, far wiv hed 9 
'hevi de:. bat it wAd bi Sa 'grandast 0irj Sat wez 'ivar dyn in Sa 
glen in u:r taim if it kAd bi 'man^d ba huk or kruk. 

" wil garj an si: drAmz 3 'hjux, dges ; hiz a'mSar man sin 'dgordi 
hu:z 6 di6, an hi wez ai 'kaincfer San fAuk kent." 

"kAm in bai, 'doktar; a 7 herd ji on Sa rod. jil he bin at 
'tamas 'mitjalz; hu:z Sa gyd'waif ? 9 dut Jiz 'sobar." 

"'aniz 'dian, drAmz 3/ hjux, an 'tamas iz laik ta brak iz hert." 

"Sats no: 'lixtsam, 'doktar, no: 'lixtsam a'va:, for 9 'dinn9 
ken 5/ oni man in drAm'toxti se: bAnd Ap in iz W9if az x tamaz, an 
Sarz no: a 5/ bomar 'wAman o har ed3 5/ krosaz u:r k^k do:r San 
'ani, nor a 'klivarar at ar wark. man, jil nid ta pit jar bremz in 
stip. iz Ji klin bi'jond ji? " 

"brjond mi: 9n 'ivri 'iSar in Sa 2 lanc bat en, an it WAd 5 kost 
a hAnc?ar r giniz ta brir) him ta drAm'toxti." 

"'sertiz, hiz no: blet; its a fel tjerdg far a 5 Jort de:z wark; 
bat 'hAnc^ar or no: 'hAncfor wil he: him, an no: 8 let 'ani gar), an 
har no: ha:f har i:rz." 



e: 2 a: 3 A 4 los 5 o 6 e 7 a 8 a, a 



346 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"Are ye meanin' it, Drumsheugh ? " and MacLure turned 
white below the tan. 

"William MacLure," said Drumsheugh, in one of the few 
confidences that ever broke the Drumtochty reserve, "a'm a 
lonely man, wi' naebody o' ma ain blude tae care for me livin', 
or tae lift me intae ma coffin when a'm deid. 

" A J fecht awa at Muirtown market for an extra pund on a 
beast, or a shillin' on the quarter o' barley, an' what's the gude 
o't? Burnbrae gaes afF tae get a goon for his wife or a buke for 
his college laddie, an' Lachlan Campbell '11 no leave the place 
noo withoot a ribbon for Flora. 

" Ilka man in the Kildrummie train has some bit fairin' in his 
pooch for the fouk at hame that he's bocht wi' the siller he won. 

" But there's naebody tae be lookin' oot for me, an' comin' 
doon the road tae meet me, and daflfin' wi' me aboot their fairing, 
or feeling ma pockets. Ou ay, a've seen it a' at ither hooses, 
though they tried tae hide it frae me for fear a' wud lauch at 
them. Me- lauch, wi' my cauld, empty hame ! 

"Yir the only man kens, Weelum, that I aince luved the 
noblest wumman in the Glen or onywhere, an' a' luve her still, 
but wi' anither luve noo. 

"She hed given her hert tae anither, or a've thocht a' micht 
hae won her, though nae man be worthy o' sic a gift. Ma hert 
turned tae bitterness, but that passed awa beside the brier bush 
whar George Hoo lay yon sad simmer-time. Some day a'll tell 
ye ma story, Weelum, for you an' me are auld freerids, and will 
be till we dee." 

MacLure felt beneath the table for Drumsheugh's hand, but 
neither man looked at the other. 

"Weel, a' we can dae noo, Weelum, gin we haena mickle 
brichtness in oor ain hames, is tae keep the licht frae gaein' oot 
in anither hoose. Write the telegram, man, and Sandy 'ill send 
it aff frae Kildrummie this verra nicht, and ye 'ill hae yir man 
the morn." 

" Yir the man a' coonted ye, Drumsheugh, but ye '11 grant 
me ae favour. Ye 'ill lat me pay the half, bit by bit a' ken yir 
wullin' tae dae't a' but a' haena mony pleesures, an' a' wud like 
tae hae ma ain share in savin' Annie's life." 



READER 347 

" or ji 'minan it, dr Amz 4 'hj ux ? " 

" wilm ma'klu:r, am 9 'loiili man, wi 'nebAdi o ma e:n 

blyd ta ke:r far mi 'li:van, or ta lift mi 'mta ma 'kofan A\an am 
did. 

" a fext a'wa: at 'm0:rtan 'msrkat far an 'ekstra pAunrf on a 
bist, or a '/{Ian on a 'kwcirtar o 'barlj, an Avats Sa gyd ot ? 
bArn'bre: ge:z af ta get a gun far \z waif or a byk for j:z 'kolad3 
'ladi, an 'laxlan 'kamal 1 no: li:v Sa pies nu: wj'Sut a 'qban far 
'flo:ra. 

" 'ilka man jn Sa kil'drAmi tre:n hez SAHI bit 'fe:ran in \z put/ 
far Sa fAuk at hem Sat hiz 1 boxt wi Sa 'silar hi wAn. 

"bat Sarz 'neibAdi ta bi 'lukan ut far mi:, an 'kAman dun Sa 
rod ta mit mi:, an 'dafan wj mi: a'but tSar 'fe:ran, or 'filan ma 
'pokats. u: ai, av sin it a: at 'iftar 'husaz, 0o Se trait ta haid jt 
fre mi: far fi:r a wAd 2 lax at Sam. mi: 2 lax, wi ma ka:lc?, 'smti 
hem ! 

" jir Sa 1/ onlj man ksnz, wilm, Sat a ens 7 Uvd Sa 'noblast 'wAman 
jn Sa glen or lr oniAvar, an a 7 Uv ar stil, bat wi a'n^Sar 7 Uv nu:. 

" Ji hed gin bar hsrt ta a'niSar, or av a 6oxt a mjxt he wAn ar, 
9o ne: man bi 'wArSi o sik a gift, ma hsrt tArnt ta 'b^tarnas, bat 
Sat past a'wa: bi'said Sa 'briar bAs Avar d3ord3 hu: le: jon sad 
'simartaim. SAHI de: al tel ji ma 'storj, wilm, far ju an mi ar 
a:lc frmdz, an wil bi til wi di:." 



" wil, a: wi kan de: nu:, wilm, gin wi 'hena mikl 'brixtnas in 
3 ur e:n hemz, iz ta kip Sa Ijxt fre x gean ut in a'mSar hus. rait 
Sa "tslagram, man, an 'sandi 1 ssncZ it af fre ki?drAmi SIB 'vsra 
nixt, an jil he jar man Sa 1 morn." 

"jir Sa man a x kuntat ji, drAmz 4/ hjux, bat jil grant mi e: 
'fevar. jil lat mi: pai Sa ha:f, bit bi bit a ken jir 'wAlan ta de:t 
a: bat a 'hena 5 moni 6 pli:zarz, an a WAd laik ta he ma e:n Je:r 
in 'se:van 'aniz laif. 



, wAr, war 4 A 5 a, o, A 



348 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Next morning a figure received Sir George on the Kildrum- 
mie platform whom that famous surgeon took for a gillie, but 
who introduced himself as " MacLure of Drumtochty." It seemed 
as if the East had come to meet the West when these two stood 
together, the one in travelling furs, handsome and distinguished, 
with his strong, cultured face and carriage of authority, a charac- 
teristic type of his profession ; and the other more marvellously 
dressed than ever, for Drumsheugh's topcoat had been forced 
upon him for the occasion, his face and neck one redness with the 
bitter cold ; rough and ungainly, yet not without some signs of 
power in his eye and voice, the most heroic type of his noble 
profession. MacLure compassed the precious arrival with obser- 
vances till he was securely seated in Drumsheugh's dogcart a 
vehicle that lent itself to history with two full-sized plaids 
added to his equipment Drumsheugh and Hillocks had both 
been requisitioned and MacLure wrapped another plaid round 
a leather case, which was placed below the seat with such rever- 
ence as might be given to the Queen's regalia. Peter attended 
their departure full of interest, and as soon as they were in the 
fir-woods MacLure explained that it would be an eventful journey. 

" It's a' richt in here, for the wind disna get at the snaw, but 
the drifts are deep in the Glen, and th'ill be some engineerin' 
afore we get tae oor destination." 

Four times they left the road, and took their way over fields ; 
twice they forced a passage through a slap in a dyke ; thrice they 
used gaps in the paling which MacLure had made on his down- 
ward journey. 

" A' seleckit the road this mornin', an' a' ken the depth tae 
an inch ; we 'ill get through this steadin' here tae the main road, 
but oor worst job 'ill be crossin' the Tochty. 

" Ye see the bridge hes been shakin' wi' this winter's flood, 
and we daurna venture on it, sae we hev tae ford, and the snaw's 
been melting upUrtach way. There's nae doot the water's gey big, 
an' it's threatenin' tae rise, but we'll win through wi' a warstle. 

" It micht be safer tae lift the instruments oot o' reach o' the 
water; wud ye mind haddin' them on yir knee till we're ower? 
An' keep firm in yir seat in case we come on a stane in the bed 
o' the river." 



READER 349 



"its a: rixt pi hi:r, far Sa w^ncZ 'dizna get at So snai, bet Sa 
drifts ar dip pi $a glen, an $il bi: sAm pid3i'niiran a'foir wi get ta 
ur destr'ne/n." 

" a si'kkat 5a rod S^s 1/ mornan, an a ken Sa dep0 ta an jnj; wil 
get 6ru: S^s 'stsdan hiir ta Sa men rod, bat ur wArst dgob 1 bi 
1/ krosan 5a 'toxt^. 

" ji si: Sa bqg hsz bin x /akan wj 5^.s V^ntarz flAd, an wi 'dairna 
ventar ont, se: wi hsv ta fjZ^ird, an Sa snaiz bin 'msltan Ap 'Artax 
wai. Sarz ne: dut Sa 'watarz gai b^g, an its '9ritnan ta 2 raiz, bat 
wil wpi 0ru: wj a warsl. 

11 it mjxt bi 'sefar ta lift Sa '^nstrumants ut o ritj o 5a Vatar; 
wAd ji mainc? 'hadan Sam on jir ni: til wir Aur ? an kip f^rm in 
jir set in kes wi kAm on a sten in Sa bed o Sa 'nvar." 



raiz 



350 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

By this time they had come to the edge, and it was not a 
cheering sight. The Tochty had spread out over the meadows, 
and while they waited they could see it cover another two inches 
on the trunk of a tree. There are summer floods, when the water 
is brown and flecked with foam, but this was a winter flood, 
which is black and sullen, and runs in the centre with a strong, 
fierce, silent current. Upon the opposite side Hillocks stood to 
give directions by word and hand, as the ford was on his land, 
and none knew the Tochty better in all its ways. 

They passed through the shallow water without mishap, save 
when the wheel struck a hidden stone or fell suddenly into a 
rut ; but when they neared the body of the river MacLure halted, 
to give Jess a minute's breathing. 

"It'll tak ye a' yir time, lass, an' a' wud raither be on yir 
back ; but ye never failed me yet, and a wumman's life is hangin' 
on the crossin'." 

With the first plunge into the bed of the stream the water 
rose to the axles, and then it crept up to the shafts, so that the 
surgeon could feel it lapping in about his feet, while the dogcart 
began to quiver, and it seemed as if it were to be carried away. 
Sir George was as brave as most men, but he had never forded 
a Highland river in flood, and the mass of black water racing 
past beneath, before, behind him, affected his imagination and 
shook his nerves. He rose from his seat and ordered MacLure 
to turn back, declaring that he would be condemned utterly and 
eternally if he allowed himself to be drowned for any person. 

"Sit doon," thundered MacLure; "condemned ye will be 
suner or later gin ye shirk yir duty, but through the water ye 
gang the day." 

Both men spoke much more strongly and shortly, but this is 
what they intended to say, and it was MacLure that prevailed. 

Jess trailed her feet along the ground with cunning art, and 
held her shoulder against the stream ; MacLure leant forward in 
his seat, a rein in each hand, and his eyes fixed on Hillocks, who 
was now standing up to the waist in the water, shouting direc- 
tions and cheering on horse and driver. 

" Haud tae the richt, doctor ; there's a hole yonder. Keep oot 
o't for ony sake. That's it ; yir daein' fine. Steady, man, steady. 



READER 351 



"{tl tak ji a: jir taim, las, an a wAd 1 reSar bi on jir bak; 
bat ji 'mvar felt mi jet, an a 'wAmanz laif \z 'harjan on $a 
2/ krosan." 



" sjt dun," 'tUndard ma'kluir ; " kon'demt ji wjl bi 'synar or 
'letar gin ji J^rk jir 'djut^, bat 9ru: Sa 'wcitar ji gar) Sa de:." 



a3 had ta tte r^xt, 'doktar; Sarz a hoi 'joncfor. kip ut ot 
for 2/ on^ sek. Sats jt ; jir 'dean fain. r stsdi, man, 'stsdi. jir at Sa 



352 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Yir at the deepest ; sit heavy in yir seats. Up the channel noo, 
an' ye'll be oot o' the swirl. Weel dune, Jess, weel dune, auld 
mare ! Mak straicht for me, doctor, an' a'll gie ye the road oot. 
Ma word, ye've dune yir best, baith o' ye, this mornin'," cried 
Hillocks, splashing up to the dogcart, now in the shallows. 

"Sail, it wes titch an' go for a meenut in the middle; a 
Hielan' ford is a kittle road in the snaw time, but ye're safe noo. 

" Gude luck tae ye up at Westerton, sir ; nane but a richt- 
hearted man wud hae riskit the Tochty in flood. Ye're boond 
tae succeed aifter sic a graund beginnin' " ; for it had spread 
already that a famous surgeon had come to do his best for Annie, 
Tammas Mitchell's wife. 

Two hours later MacLure came out from Annie's room and 
laid hold of Tammas, a heap of speechless misery by the kitchen 
fire, and carried him off to the barn, and spread some corn on the 
threshing-floor and thrust a flail into his hands. 

" Noo we've tae begin, an' we 'ill no be dune for an' oor, and 
ye've tae lay on withoot stoppin' till a ; come for ye ; an' a'll shut 
the door tae haud in the noise, an' keep yir dog beside ye, for 
there maunna be a cheep aboot the hoose for Annie's sake." 

"A'll dae ony thing ye want me, but if if"- 

" A'll come for ye, Tammas, gin there be danger ; but what 
are ye feared for wi' the Queen's ain surgeon here ? " 

Fifty minutes did the flail rise and fall, save twice, when 
Tammas crept to the door and listened, the dog lifting his head 
and whining. 

It seemed twelve hours instead of one when the door swung 
back, and MacLure filled the doorway, preceded by a great burst 
of light, for the sun had arisen on the snow. 

His face was as tidings of great joy, and Elspeth told me that 
there was nothing like it to be seen that afternoon for glory, 
save the sun itself in the heavens. 

" A' never saw the marrow o't, Tammas, an' a'll never see the 
like again ; it's a' ower, man, withoot a hitch frae beginnin' tae 
end, and she's fa'in' asleep as fine as ye like." 

"Dis he think Annie... 'ill live?" 

" Of coorse he dis, and be aboot the hoose inside a month ; 
that's the gude o' bein' a clean-bluided, weel-livin' 



HEADER 353 

'dipest ; sit 'hevi m jir sets. Ap Se t/anl nu:, en jil bi ut o $e 
1 swirl, wil dyn, dgss, wil dyn, a,:\d mi:r ! mak strext fer mi, 
'dokter, en al gi: ji Se rod ut. ma wArd, jiv dyn jir best, be0 o 
ji, Sis 2 'mornen," 

"sal, it wez tit/ en go: fer e 'minet in Se rajdl; e 'hilend 
f0:rd iz e kjtl rod in Se 'sna:teim, bet jir sef nui. 

"gyd lAk te ji Ap et 'wasterten, 1 s^r; nen bet e 'qxt'hsrtet 
man wAd he 'r^sket Se 'toxti. m flyd. jir bAnc? te SAk'sid 'efter 
s^k e 3 granc? bfgmen." 



"nui wiv te bfgm, en wil no: bi dyn fer en u:r, en jiv te le: 
on wr*9ut 'stopen t{l e kAm for ji ; en el /At Se do:r te 3 had jn Se 
nolz, en kip jir 4 dog bi'seid ji, fer Ser 'manwe bi e t/ip e'but Se 
bus fer x anjz sek." 

a el de: 5/ oni0ir) ji 6 want mi, bet if if " 



"el kAm for ji, 'tames, gin Ser bi 'dend3er; bet Avat er ji 
fe:rt for w Se kwinz e:n 'sArden hi:r?" 



" e 'mver sa: Se 'mare ot, 'tames, en el 'niver si: Se leik 
e'gen ; its a: Aur, men, wr'Gut e h^J fre bfginen te end, en Jiz 
'faen e'slip ez fein ez ji leik." 

"diz hi0ink'ani...l liiv?" 

" ev kurs hi diz, en bi e'but Se hus in'seid e mAn6 ; Sats Se 
gyd o 'bien e 'klin'blydet, 'williiven 



1 A 2 o 3 a: 4 A, AU 5 o 6 A, i 
G. 23 



354 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

"Preserve ye, man, what's wrang wi' ye? It's a mercy a' 
keppit ye, or we wud hev bed anither job for Sir George. 

" Ye're a' richt noo ; sit doon on the strae. A'll come back 
in a whilie, an' ye 'ill see Annie juist for a meenut, but ye maunna 
say a word." 

Marget took him in and let him kneel by Annie's bedside. 

He said nothing then or afterwards, for speech came only 
once in his lifetime to Tammas, but Annie whispered, " Ma ain 
dear man." 

When the doctor placed the precious bag beside Sir George 
in our solitary first next morning, he laid a cheque beside it and 
was about to leave. 

" No, no," said the great man. " Mrs Macfadyen and I were 
on the gossip last night, and I know the whole story about you 
and your friend. 

" You have some right to call me a coward, but I'll never let 
you count me a mean, miserly rascal"; and the cheque with 
Drumsheugh's painful writing fell in fifty pieces on the floor. 

As the train began to move, a voice from the first called so 
that all in the station heard. 

" Give's another shake of your hand, MacLure ; I'm proud to 
have met you ; you are an honour to our profession. Mind the 
antiseptic dressings." 

It was market-day, but only Jamie Sou tar and Hillocks had 
ventured down. 

" Did ye hear yon, Hillocks ? Hoo dae ye feel ? A'll no deny 
a'm lifted." 

Half-way to the Junction Hillocks had recovered, and began 
to grasp the situation. 

" Tell's what he said. A' wud like to hae it exact for Drum- 
sheugh." 

" Thae's the eedentical words, an' they're true ; there's no a 
man in Drumtochty disna ken that, except ane." 

" An' wha's that, Jamie ? " 

" It's Weelum MacLure himsel'. Man, a've often girned that 
he sud fecht awa for us a', and maybe dee before he kent that 
he hed githered mair luve than ony man in the glen. 

" ' A'm prood tae hae met ye,' says Sir George, an' him the 
greatest doctor in the land. ' Yir an honour tae oor profession.' 

"Hillocks, a' wudna hae missed it for twenty notes," said 
James Soutar, cynic-in-ordinary to the parish of Drumtochty. 



READER 355 



" prrzerv ji, man, Avats wrar) wi ji? its 9 'msrsi 9 'kepat ji, or 
wi wAd 9v hsd 9'niSgr dgob for 'sp: dgordg. 

" jir a: r^xt nui ; sit dun on S9 stre:. 9! kAm bak in 9 
9n jil si: r an{ d3yst far 9 'minat, bat ji 'moiiwa se: 9 wArd. 



m9 e:n diir man." 



"d{d ji hiir jon, 'h{laks? hu: de: ji: fil? 9! no: d/nai a:m 



"telz Avat i sed. 9 wAd laik ta he jt ig'zak for drAmz 1 hjux." 

" Se:z $9 i'dsntikl wArdz, 9n Ser tru: ; S9rz no: a man p. 
drAm'toxtt 'd^zng ken Sat, ik'ssp en." 

" 9n Ava:z Sat, 'dgimi ? " 

"{ts wilm m9'klu:r hjm'ssl. man, 9v ofn g^rnt Sat hi sAd fsxt 
a'wa: far AS a:, an 'm{b{ di: bffo:r i ksnt Sat hi hed 'gjSart me:r 
IAV San 2/ on^ man pi Sa glen. 

"'am prud ta he met ji/ ssz ^^r dgordg, an him Sa 'gretast 
'doktar jn S9 3 land. ' jir an 'onar ta ur pro'fe/n.' 

u/ hjl9ks, 9 'wAdn9 he m^st it far ^twpti nots," ssd dgemz 
7 sut9r. 



232 



356 



XVII A. THE NEW BUITS 

MY MAN SANDY. 

J. B. SALMOND. 

The scene of Mr Salmond's sketches is the town of Arbroath 
in E. Forfar. The author writes generally in Mid Sc. but he 
introduces a good many local words and pronunciations. 

The Arbroath dialect exhibits at least two features found in 
N.E. Sc. ; 

(1) tJA. mostly in pronominal words, e.g. fa: = Mid Sc. 
AMI:, Aio,: = "who" (interrogative); in our extract "what" and 
"when" are written with ordinary English spelling. 

(2) O.E. d + n turns up as i ; thus O.E. stdn, an, ban, nan 
become steen, een, been, neen phonetically stin, in, bin, nin ; 



There's twa things Sandy Bowden's haen sin' ever I got 
acquant wi' him an' that's no' the day nor yesterday that's 
fairntickles an' cheepin' buits. I never kent Sandy bein' withoot 
a pair o' 'lastic- sided buits that gaed squakin' to the kirk like 
twa croakin' hens. I've seen the fowk sometimes turn roond- 
aboot in their seats, when Sandy cam' creakin' up the passage, 
as gin they thocht it was a brass-band comin' in. But Sandy 
appears to think there's something reverint an' Sabbath-like in 
cheepin' buits, an' he sticks to them, rissen be't or neen. I can 
tell ye, it's a blissin' there's no' mony mair like him, or we'd hae 
gey streets on Sabbath. The noise the maitter o' twenty chields 
like Sandy cud mak' wi' their buit soles wud fair deave a hale 
neeperhude. 

Hooever, it wasna Sandy's buits I was to tell you aboot ; it 
was my nain. But afore I say onything aboot them, I maun tell 
you aboot the fairntickles. As 'I was sayin', Sandy's temple 
fairntickled aboot the neck an' the sides o' the nose, an' oor lest 
holiday made him a hankie waur than uswal. He's a gey prood 
mannie too, mind ye, although he winna haud wi't. But I can 
tell you it's no a bawbee-wirth o' hair oil that sairs Sandy i' the 
week. But that's nether here nor there. 



357 



XVII A. THE NEW BUITS 

MY MAN SANDY. 

J. B. SALMOND. 

Mid Sc. stane, ane, bane, nane. neen is the only example of this 
localism in our text. 

On the other hand, the Arbroath dialect agrees with Mid 
Sc. in rendering O.E. o or Fr. u by y or 0, the ordinary spelling 
being u + consonant as in gude, or ui as in buits. 

It rejects 9 as a substitute for a: as in a.ild = old. The 
glottal catch is rare. 

A curious unvoicing is heard in the suffixes age, ble, e.g. 
manish, 'manif = " manage," terriple, 'teripl = terrible. 

Lastly kn becomes tn (see Ph. 21) as in our text tnet, 
tnet = " knit," knock, tnok = clock (timepiece). 



S9rz twci: 0mz 'sandi 'bAudgnz hem s^n 'ivar a: got a'kwant 
w{ {m 9n Sats no: Sa de: nor 'jjstardj Setts 'ferntiklz en 't/ipan 
byts. a 'nivar kent 'sandi 'bian wi'6ut 9 pe:r o 'lastik'saidat byts 
Sat ge:d 'skwa:kan t9 Sa k^rk laik twa: 'krokan henz. 9v sin Sa 
fAuk 'sAmtaimz tArn 'rund'a'but ^n Sar sets, Avan 'sandi kam 
'krikan Ap 5a 'pasad^, az gjn Se a 0oxt jt waz a / brss 2/ banc? 'kAman 
^n. bat 'sandi a'piirz ta Sjrjk Sarz 'sAme^r) 'revnnt n 'sciibaS laik 
jn 'tfipan byts, an hi st^ks ta Sam, r^zn biit or nin. a ksn tel ji, 
its a 'bl^san Sarz no: 3/ monj: me:r laik hjm,or wid he: gai strits on 
'scLibaQ. Sa 4 noiz Sa 'meter o 'twrnti t/ilz laik 'scindi kAd mak w^ 
Sar byt solz wAd fe:r di:v a hel 'niparhyd. 

hu'ivar, ^t 'wazna 'sandiz byts a waz ta tel ji a'but ; it waz 
ma 5 ne:n. bat a'fo:r a se: ^onjGjr) a'but Sam, a man tel ji a'but Sa 
'fernt^klz. 9z 9 W9z 'segn, 'sandiz 'tsripl 'fernt^klt 9'but Sa nek 9n 
S9 sgidz o S9 no:z, 9n 6 ur lest 'holidj: med jm a hankl wa:r San 
"j0:zwal. hiz a gai prud 'man^ t^:, mainc? ji, al r 0o: hi 'wtiiTza ha,:d 
wit. bat a kgn tsl ji jts no: 9 'baibi'wirS o he.'r'gil S9t se:rz 
'sandi i S9 wik. b9t Sats 7/ neSar hi:r nar Se:r. 



o, a, A 4 01 5 See Ph. 217 (e) 6 w^r, W9r, wAr 7 e: 



358 . MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Weel, Sandy had been speak in' aboot his fairntickles to 
Saunders Robb. Saunders, in my opinion, is juist a haiverin' 
auld ass. He's a hoddel-dochlin', hungert-lookin' wisgan o' a 
cratur ; an', I'm shure, he has a mind to match his body. There's 
naethin' he disna ken aboot an', the fac' is, he kens naething. 
He's aye i' the wey o' improvin' ither fowk's wark. There's 
naethin' Saunders disna think he could improve, excep' himseF 
mibby. I canna be bathered wi' the chatterin', fykie, kyowowin* 
little wratch. He's aye throwin' oot suggestions an' hints aboot 
this and that. He's naething but a suggestion hirnsel', an' I'm 
shure I cud of en throw him oot, wi' richt gude will. 

Weel, he'd gien Sandy some cure for his fairntickles, an' 
Sandy, unbekent to me, had gotten something frae the druggie 
an' mixed it up wi' a guid three-bawbee's wirth o' cream that I 
had in the upstairs press. He had rubbit it on his face an' neck 
afore he gaed till his bed ; but he wasna an 'oor beddit when he 
had to rise. An' sik a sicht as he was ! His face an' neck were 
as yellow's mairyguilds, an' yallower; an' though I've taen 
washin' soda, an' pooder, an' the very scrubbin' brush till't, 
Sandy's gaen aboot yet juist like's he was noo oot o' the yallow 
fivver an' the jaundice thegither. 

" Ye'll better speer at Saunders what'll tak' it aff," says I till 
him the ither mornin'. 

" If I had a grip o' Saunders, I'll tak' mair than the fairn- 
tickles aff him," says he ; an' faigs, mind you, there's nae sayin' 
but he may do't ; he's a spunky carlie Sandy, when he's raised. 

But, as far as that's concerned, I'm no' sorry at it, for it'll 
keep the cratur awa' frae the place. Sin' Sandy put that sofa 
into the washin'-hoose, him an' twa-three mair's never lain oot 
o't. Lyin' smokin' an' spittin' an' crackin' aboot life bein' a 
trauchle, an' so on ! I tell you, if it had lested muckle langer, 
I'd gien them a bucket o' water sweesh aboot their lugs some 
day; that's juist as fac's ocht. 

But I maun tell you aboot my mischanter wi' my noo buits. 
I'm sure it has fair delighted Sandy. He thinks he's gotten a hair 
i' my neck noo that'll haud him gaen a while. He was needin't, 
I can tell you. If ilky mairter he's made had been a hair in his 
neck, I'll swag, there wudna been room for mony fairntickles. 



READER 359 

wil, 'sandi had bin 'spikan a'but hjz 'ferntjMz ta 'sandarz 
rob. 'sandarz, pi mai o'pirjan, \z dgyst a 'he:vran Guild as. hiz 9 
'hodl'doxlan, 'biArjart 'lukan 'wj:zgan o a 'kretar ; an, am J0:r, hi haz 
a rnaincZ ta mat/ jz 1/ bodi. Sarz 'ne9pi hi 'dj;zha ksn a'but an, 
Sa fak iz, hi ksns 'ne9rn. hiz ai i Sa wai o {m'pr0:van 'iSar fAuks 
wark. Sarz 'neGpi 'sandarz 'd:j:zna 0irjk hi kAd jm'pr0v, ik'ssp 
im'ssl 'm^bj:. a 'kanr?a bi 'baSart w^ Sa 't/atran, 'faiki, 'kJAu'wAuan 
litl ^ratj. hiz ai 'Groan ut sAd'gist/anz n h^nts a'but S^s 1,1 Sat. 
hiz 'neOrrj bat a sAd^ist/an h^m'ssl, an am J0:r a kAd ofn 6ro: h^m 
ut, w{ rj[xt gyd 2 wjl. 

wil, hid gin 'sandi sAm kj0:r far jz 'fernt^klz, an 'sandi, An- 
bfksnt ta mi:, had gotn 'sAme^rj fre Sa 'drAgi an m^kst jt Ap w{ 
a gyd Sri 'ba:biz wjr0 o krim Sat a had pi Sa 'Apsteirz prss. hi 
had 'rAbat ^t on h^z fes n nek a r fo:r hi ge:d t^l {z bed ; bat i 'wazna 
an u:r 'bedat Man hi had ta 3 raiz. an sjk a sjxt az i waz ! hjz 
fes n nsk war az "Jala z 'merjgyldz, an "jaloar; an 60 av tem 
'wa/an 'soda, an 'pudar, an Sa 'vera 'skrAban brA/ t^lt, 'sandiz 
'gean a'but jet dgyst laiks i waz nu: ut o Sa 'jala 'fivar an Sa 
'dgandiz Sa'giSar. 

" jil 'betar spi:r at 'sandarz Avat 1 tak j:t af," ssz ai t^l h^m Sa 
'iSar ^^'mornan. 

" jf a had a grjp o 'sandarz, al tak me:r San Sa 'fernt^klz af 
pn," ssz hi; an fegz, mainc? ji, Sarz ne: 'sean bat i me d0:t; hiz 
a 'spArjk^ 'karl{ 'sandi, Aian iz re:zd. 

bat, az fa:r az Sats kan'seirnt, am no: 'son at jt, far jtl kip Sa 
'kretar a'wa: fre Sa pies, sp 'sandi pAt Sat 'sofa 'jnta Sa 'wa/an- 
'hus, hjm an 'twa6ri me:rz 'nivar le:n ut ot. 'laian 'smokan an 
'spjtan an 'krakan a'but laif 'bian a tra:xl, an so on ! a tsl ji, ^f 
it had 'lestat niAkl 'lanar, ad gin Sam a 'bAkat o 'watar swij a'but 
Sar Ugz SAm de:; Sats dgyst az faks 1 oxt. 

bat a man tsl ji a'but ma mi'/antar wj; ma nu: byts. am J0:r 
^t haz fe:r di'laitat 'sandi. hi 6mks hiz gotn a he:r i ma nsk nu: 
Sat 1 *had ^m 'gean a Avail, hi waz nidnt, a kan tsl ji. ^f '{lk^ 
'mertar hi:z med had bin a he:r jn h^z nsk, al swag, Sar 'wAdna 
bin rum far 5 'monj 'fernt^klz. 



a: 5 a, o 



360 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



Weel, I gaed awa' to the kirk lest Sabbath Sandy, of coorse, 
cudna get oot wi' his yallow face an' neck. He had a bran 
poultice on't to see if it wud do ony guid. I canna do wi' noo 
buits ava, till I've worn them a while. I pet them on mibby to 
rin an errand or twa, till they get the set o' my fit, an' syne I 
can manish them to the kirk. But I canna sit wi' noo buits ; 
they're that uneasy. I got a noo pair lest Fursday, an' tried 
them on on Sabbath mornin'. But na, na ! Altho' my auld 
anes were gey binkit, an' worn doon at the heels, I juist put 
them on gey hurried, an' aff I set to the kirk, leavin' Sandy to 
look efter the denner. 

I was feelin' akinda queerish when I startit ; but I thocht 
it was juist the hurry, an' that a breath o' the caller air wud 
mak' me a' richt. But faigs, mind ye, instead o' better I grew 
waur. My legs were like to double up aneth me, an' my knees 
knokit up again' ane anither like's they'd haen a pley aboot 
something. I fand a sweit brakin' oot a' ower me, an' I had to 
stop on the brae an' grip the railin's, or, it's juist as fac's ocht, 
I wudda been doon i' the road on the braid o' my back. I thocht 
I was in for a roraborialis, or some o' thae temple diseases. Eh, 
I was feard I wud dee on the open street ; I was that ! Mysie 
Meldrum noticed me, an' she cam' rinnin' to speer what was ado. 
"I've taen an awfu' dwam, Mysie," says I. "I think I'm 
genna dee. Ye micht juist sit doon on the railin's aside's till 
the fowk be by." 

"I think we're aboot the henmost, Bawbie," says she. " We're 
gey late ; but I'll bide aside you, lassie." 

We sat for the maitter o' ten meenits, an' I got akinda 
roond, an' thocht I wud try an' get hame. Mistress Kenawee 
had putten on her tatties an' come oot for a dander a bittie, an' 
noticed the twa o's; so she cam' up, an' I got her airm an' 
Mysie's, an', though it was a gey job, we rnanished to get hame. 
An' gled I was when I saw Sandy's yallow nose again, I can tell 
ye, for I was shure syne I wud dee at hame amon' my nain 
bed-claes. 

" The Lord preserve's a' ! " says Mysie when she saw Sandy. 
" What i' the name o' peace has come ower you ? I'll need to 
go ! I've Leeb's bairns at hame, you see, an' this is the collery 



READER 361 

wil, 9 ge:d a'wa: ta Sa k^rk lest 'sa:ba0 'sandi, ev kurs, 
'kAdna get ut w{ hjz 'jala fes en nek. hi had 9 bran 'polt^s ont 
ta si: (f {t wAd d0: l 'oi\i gyd. a 'kanrca d0: w{ nu: byts a'va:, t{l 
av ^orn Sam a'A\ail. 9 p^t Sam on 'mfci t9 rin 9n 2 'e:rand or 
twa:, tjl Se get Sa set o ma fjt, an sain a kan 'mamj Sam ta Sa 
k^rk. b9t 9 'kanrza sjt wj; nu: byts ; Se:r Sat 3 An / i:zi. 9 got 9 nu: 
pe:r lest 'f0:rzd{, 9n trait S9m on 9n 'sa:ba0 ^mornan. b9t na:, 
na: ! al'0o ni9 a:lc enz W9r gai 'bmkat, u 1 worn dun 9t Sa hilz, 9 
dgyst p^t S9in on gai 'liAr^t, 9n af 9 set to S9 k^rk, 'Ii:v9n 'sandi 
t9 luk 'eft9r S9 'dengr. 

9 W9z 'filan 9'kjnc?9 'kwi:rif A\9n 9 'startet; bgt 9 1 0oxt jt 
W9z dgyst Sg 'hAr{, 9n Sat 9 4 bre9 o S9 'kalgr e:r WAd mak mi a: 
r^xt. b9t fegz, n\Qmd ji, 5 p / sted o 'bet9r 9 gru: wa:r. ni9 legz 
W9r bik t9 dubl Ap 4 9'ne0 mi, 9n m9 ni:z 'nokgt Ap 9 r gen en 
9'mS9r Igiks Sed he:n 9 plai 9'but 'sAmGm. 9 6 fanc? 9 swgit 
'brakgn ut a: Aur mi, 911 9 hgd t9 stop on S9 bre: 9n grAp S9 
'relgnz, or, {ts dgyst 9z faks 1 oxt, 9 WAd 9 bin dun { S9 rod on S9 
bred o m9 bak. 9 ^oxt 9 W9z \n for 9 roraborr'aliz, or sAm o Se: 
'terrpl 3 di / zi:z9z. e:, 9 W9z 7 fi:rd 9 wAd di: on S9 'op9n strit ; 9 
WAZ Sat! 'mgizi 'meldrAm 'notist mi, 9n Ji kam 7 nn9n t9 spi:r 
Avat W9z 9'd0:. 

" 9v te:n 9n 'a:f9 dwa:m, 'maizi," sez ai. " 9 0mk 9m 'gpm9 di :. 
ji mjxt dgyst s^t dun on Sg 'rebnz 9's9idz t^l S9 fAuk bi bai." 

" 9 0mk wi:r 9'but S9 'h^nmgst, 'ba:bi," sez Ji. " wi:r ggi let ; 
b9t al bgid x 9S9id ji, 'lasj." 

wi sat fgr S9 'met9r o ten 'mingts, 9n 9 got 9 r knic?9 rune?, 9n 
1 0oxt 9 wAd trai 9n get hem. 'm^strgs 'ken9wi hgd pAtn on 9r 
'tat^s n kAm ut f9r 9 6/ danc?9r 9 'b^tj;, 9n 'notist S9 twa: o:z ; so Ji 
kam Ap, gn 9 got h9r 4 erm 9n 'mgiziz, 9n, Co jt W9z 9 ggi dgob, 
wi 'mamjt t9 get hem. 9n gled a W9z M9n 9 sa: 'sandiz 'jab 
no:z 9 r gen, 9 kgn tel ji, fgr 9 wgz J0:r sgin 9 WAd di: at hem 
9'mon mg ne:n 'bed'kle.-z. 

"S9 lo:rd prfzervz a: !" sez 'maizi A\an Ji sa: 'sandi. "A\.at 
^n Sa nem o pis haz kAm Aur ji? al nid t9 go: ! 9v libz 4 bernz 
9t hem, ji si:, 9n S^s \z S9 'kobri or Sa 'qndarpest or ' 



5i 



a: 



362 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



or the renderpest or something come ower you twa, an' I'm 
feard o' smittin' the bairns, or I wudda bidden. As share's I 
live, I'll need to go ! " an' she vanisht oot at the door wi' a face 
as white's kauk. 

" I think I'll rin for the docter, Bawbie," said Mistress Kena- 
wee. She kent aboot Sandy's fairntickles afore, of coorse, an' 
Sandy's yallow fizog didna pet her aboot. 

"Juist hover a blink," says I, "till I see if I come to rnyseP." 

I sat doon in the easy-chair, an' Sandy was in a terriple 
wey aboot me. He cudna speak a wird, but juist keepit say in', 
" O dinna dee, Bawbie, dinna dee ; your denner's ready ! " He 
lookit me up an' doon, an' then booin' doon till he was for a' the 
world juist like a half-steekit knife he roars oot, " What's ado wi' 
your feet, Bawbie ? Look at them ! Your taes are turned oot 
juist like the hands o' the tnock, at twenty meenits past echt. 
You're shurely no genna tak' a parrylattick stroke." 

I lookit doon, an' shure eneuch my taes were turned oot an' 
curled roond like's they were gaen awa' back ahent my heels. 
Mistress Kenawee got doon on her knees aside me. 

" Preserve's a', Bawbie," says she ; " you have your buits on 
the wrang feet ! Nae winder than your knees were knokin' 
thegither wi' thae auld worn-doon heels turned inside, an' your 
taes turned oot." 

But I'll better no' say nae mair aboot it. I was that angry ; 
and Mistress Kenawee, the bissam, was like to tnet hersel' 
lauchin' ; but, I ashure ye, I never got sik a fleg in my life 
an' sik simple dune too, mind ye. 



READER 363 

kAm Aur jui two,:, en 9m 1 fi:rd o smjtn Sa 2 bernz, or a wAd a b:j:dn. 
az J0:rz 9 liiv, 9! nid t9 go: ! " 9n Ji 'vamjt ut at Sa do:r wj: 9 fes 
9z Avaits ka:k. 

" 9 Orrjk 9! nn fgr Sa 'doktar, 'ba:bi," sed 'metres 'kenawi. Ji 
ksnt a'but 'sandiz 'ferntiklz a'fo:r, 9v kurs, an 'sandiz 'Jala fr'zog 
'd^dna pit h9r 9'but. 

" d3yst 'ho:var 9 blmk," ssz ai, " til 9 si: j:f 9 kAm t9 ma'sel." 

9 sat dun p. Sa 3/ i:zi't/e:r, 9n r sandi waz p a 'tsripl wai a'but 
mi. hi 'kAdna spik a wjrd, b9t dsyst 'kipgt 'se9n, " o:, 'dpircg di:, 
'ba:bi, 'dmwg di:; jar 'denarz 'redi ! " hi 'lukat mi Ap an dun, an 
San 7 buan dun tjl hi waz far a: Sa 4 warlcZ dgyst laik a "haifstikat 
naif hi ro:rz ut, " Avats a r d0: w^ jar fit, x ba:bi ? luk at Sam ! jar 
te:z ar tArnt ut dgyst laik Sa 4 hancz o Sa 5 tnok, at 'twmti 'minits 
past ext. jir 'fyiT\i no: 'c^mia tak a parr'latik strok." 

a 'lukat dun, an J0:r 6 a / njux ma te:z war tArnt ut an kArlt 
rune? laiks Se war 'gean a'wa: bak a'hjnt ma hilz. 'm^stras 'kenawi 
got dun on ar ni:z a'said mi. 

"pn'zsrvz a:, r ba:bi," ssz Ji; "ji hav jar byts on Sa wYdty fit ! 
ne: 'wmdbr San jar ni:z war 5/ nokan Sa'giSar wj: Se: Gbild 5/ worn- 
x dun hilz tArnt p'said, an jar te:z tArnt ut." 

bat al 'betar no: se: ne: me:r a'but it. a waz Sat "arjr^; an 
'm^stras 'ksnawi, Sa bpsm, waz laik ta 7 tnst har'sel 4/ laxan; bat, 
a a x /^:r ji, a 'mvar got sjk a fleg jn ma laif an s^k s^mpl dyn t0:, 
mainc? ji. 



e: 4 a: 5 o 6 A 7 See Ph. 21 



364 



XVIII A. HUGHIE'S INDIGNATION AT THE 
CONDUCT OF THE ABSCONDING ELDER 

J. LOGIE ROBERTSON. 

He's aff the kintra at a spang ! 

He's on the sea they've tint him ! 
The warst o' weather wi' him gang ! 

Gude weather bide ahint him ! 
O for a rattlin' bauld Scots blast 

To follow an' owretak' him 
To screed his sails, an' brak' his mast, 

An' grup his ship, an' shak' him. 

Yet wha was less possessed wi' guile, 

Or prayed wi' readier unction ? 
He brocht the sweetness o' a smile 

To every public function. 
There wasna ane had half the grace 

Or graciousness o' Peter ; 
There wasna ane in a' the place 

For the millennium meeter. 

He's fairly aff, he's stown awa', 

A wolf that wore a fleece, man ! 
He's cheated justice, jinkit law, 

An' lauch'd at the policeman. 
The mission fund, the parish rate, 

He had the haill control o't ; 
The very pennies i' the plate 

He's skirtit wi' the whole o't ! 

It's juist a year it's no' a year, 

I'm no' a hair the belder, 
Since in the Session Chaumer here 

We made him rulin' elder. 



365 



XVIII A. HUGHIE'S INDIGNATION AT THE 
CONDUCT OF THE ABSCONDING ELDEE 

J. LOGIE ROBEKTSON. 

hiz af Sa 'kintra at 9 spar) ! 

hiz on 5a si: 5ev tjnt ^m ! 
Sa wctrst o 'wsSar wj hpn garj ! 

gyd 'wsSar baid a'hpit jin ! 
o: far a 'ratlan 1 ba:lc? skots blast 

ta 'fola an Aur'tak im 
ta skrid {z selz, an brak jz mast, 

an grAp jz J^p, an Jak ^m. 

jet 1 A\.a: waz Iss pa'zsst wj gail, 

or preid w{ 'rediar 'AFJ Jan ? 
hi 2 broxt Sa 'switnas o a smail 

ta 'ivq 'pAblik 'fArj/an. 
Sar 'wazna 3 en had 1 ha:f Sa gres 

or 'gre/asnas o 'pitar ; 
Sar 'wazna 3 en jn 1 a: Sa pies 

far Sa mi'lsnjam 'mi tar. 

hiz fe:rl{ af, hiz stAun 1 a / war, 

a wulf Sat wo:r a flis, man ! 
hiz r t/itat "dgAstis, / d3^nkat 1 la:, 

an 4 laxt at Sa pa'lisman. 
Sa mi/n fAnc?, Sa 'peri/ ret, 

hi: had Sa hel kan'trol ot; 
Sa r vsra 'psnjz \ 5a plet 

hiz 'sk^rtat w^ Sa hoi ot ! 

its dgyst a i:r its no: a i:r, 

am no: a he:r Sa 'beldar, 
sms in Sa ss/n 1/ t/a:mar hi:r 

wi med m 'ru:lan 'eldar. 



l n 



366 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

An' juist a month as Feursday fell 

He gat the gold repeater, 
That in a speech I made mysel 

We handit owre to Peter. 

A bonnie lever, capp'd an' jew'ld, 

Perth never saw the mak' o't, 
An' wi' his character in goold 

Engraven on the back o't. 
He's aff ! He's aff wi' a' the spoil, 

Baith law and justice jinkit ! 
O for a wind o' winds the wale 

To chase his ship an' sink it ! 

To lift the watter like a fleece 

An' gie him sic a drookin', 
Whaur on his growf he groans for grace 

But canna pray for pukin'. 
Then wash'd owre seas upon a spar, 

Wi' seaweeds roun' the head o'm, 
Let neither licht o' sun nor star 

Shine down upon the greed o'm ! 

But let a shark fra oonderneath, 

It's jaws wi' hunger tichtenin', 
Soom round him, shawin' izzet teeth 

At every flash o' lichtnin' ! 
Till in the end the angry waves 

Transport him to a distance 
To herd wi' wolves an' sterve in caves 

An' fecht for an existence ! 



READER 367 

9 mAn9 9z 'f0:rzd}: fel 
hi gat $9 gold n'pit9r, 
S9t pa 9 spitj 9 med m9'sel 
wi X hand9t Aur t9 'pit9r. 

9 2 'bon{ 'Ii:v9r, kapt 9n d3u:ld, 

per0 'nivgr 3 sa: $9 mak ot, 
9n wj hjz 'karekt9r m 4 gu:ld 

pi'greivn on S9 bak ot. 
hiz af ! hiz af w^ 3 a: S9 

be0 3 la: 911 x d3 
o: fgr 9 5 wAnc o 5 wAnc?z S9 

t9 t/es \z J^p 9n s{T)k {t ! 

t9 l{ft S9 'wat9r bik 9 flis 

9n gi: him s^k 9 'druk9n, 
AV9r on iz grAuf hi gromz f9r gres 

b9t 'kan??9 pre: f9r 'pjukgn. 
San wa/t Aur si:z 9'pon 9 spair, 

wi 'snwidz rune? 89 hid om, 
6 lst 7 neS9r l^xt o sAn nor stair 

/9in dun 9'pon S9 grid om ! 

b9t 6 let 9 Jark fre uncfor'niS, 

{ts 3 dga:z wj 'hAr)9r 't^x^ngn, 
sum ruiid im, X ja9n ^Z9t ti9 

9t x ivrt flaj o 'Ip:n9n ! 
t{l jn 89 snd S9 'cinrj we:vz 

trans'port jm t9 9 'd{st9ns 
t9 herd wj: wulfs 9n stsrv m keivz 

9n fsxt fgr 9n 



ai 2 o 3 9: 4 an 18th century pronunciation 5 1 6 a, 9 



368 



XIX A. THE WOOER 



ROBBIE DOO. 
JOSEPH LAING WAUGH. 

I dinna ken hoo Davie got word ower to the lassies, but 
whenever we landed I saw at aince that I was expected. Marget 
left Davie staunin' at the ootside' door and took me richt ben 
to the kitchen, and there, sittin' on the settle was the biggest, 
fattest lass I had ever seen, wi' a face like a full harvest moon 
and a crap o' hair like the mane o' a chestnut pownie. Man, 
she was a stoot yin. Her claes seemed to be juist at the burst 
and the expectant kind o' wey she was sittin' on the edge o' the 
settle made her stootness a' the mair pronounced. I couldna 
help lookin' at her, and stood sayin' nocht, but gey dumb- 
foondered like. Then I heard the ooter door steek, and when I 
lookit roon Marget was off, and I was my leave-a-lane wi' the 
fat fremit lassie. 

Efter a wee, when the tickin' o' the clock had got awfu' lood> 
I remarked that it was a nice nicht for the time o' year, and 
she said at aince that it was. Mind ye, we had never shaken 
hauns, or ocht o' that kind, and we micht easily hae dune sae, 
withoot pittin' oorsel's to muckle trouble, for mine were in my 
pooch, and hers were lyin' on her lap as if she never intended 
usin' them again in this warld. You see, I had never been to 
see the lassies before. I was a novice at the usual formalities, 
and wasna juist very sure o' what was expected o' me, so I 
made some ither remark aboot the tattie crap, and sat doon at 
the ither end o' the settle, and twirled my bonnet roon my 
finger. 

Man, the nearer I was to her, the bigger she was, and the 
redder her face, and hair, and hauns seemed to be. Dod, my 
lass, thinks I to mysel', I've seen something like you made in a 
brickwark. I gied a bit lauch to mysel', as the thocht struck 
me, and lookit at her oot o' the tail o' my e'e. In a moment 



369 



XIX A. THE WOOER 

ROBBIE DOO. 
JOSEPH LAING WAUGH. 

8 'dmrca ksn hu: 'de:v{ got wArd Aur ta Sa 'lasjz, bat Avan'ivar 
wi x 'landat 8 2 sa: at 5 ens Sat a waz ik'spskat. 'margat left 'deivj 
2/ sta:nan at Sa 'utsaid do:r an tuk mi rjxt bsn ta Sa 'k^tjan, an 
Se:r, 's^tan on Sa sstl waz Sa 'bj;gast, 'fatast las a had 'ivar sin, wj: 
a fes laik a fAl 'hsrvast myn an a krap o heir laik Sa men o a 
'tJssfaiAt 'pAum. man, Ji WAZ a stilt jm. har kleiz simt ta bi 
d3yst at Sa bArst an Sa ik'spsktant kain o wai Ji waz 's^tan on Sa 
edg o Sa sstl med ar 'stutnas 2 a: Sa meir pra'nunst. a r kAdna 
help lukan at ar, an styd 'sean 3 noxt, bat gai dAm x funart laik. 
San a 4 hsrd Sa 'utar do:r stik, an Avan a 'lukat run r margat waz 
of, an a waz ma liiva'len w{ Sa fat 'frem^t 'las^. 

'sftar a wi:, Man Sa 'tjkan o Sa klok had got 2/ a:fa lud, a 
n'markt Sat jt waz a nais njxt far Sa taim o i:r, an Ji ssd at 5 ens 
Sat it waz. main ji, wi had 'mvar 'Jakan 2 hamz-, or 3 oxt o Sat 
kain, an wi mj:xt 6 i:zlj he dyn se, wr'Sut pjtn ur'selz ta mAkl 
trAbl, far main war m ma put/, an harz war 'laian on ar lap az ^f 
Ji 'mvar m'tsndat 'j^izan Sam a'gen m S^s 1 warlc?. ji si:, a had 
'nivar bin ta si: Sa 'las^z bi'foir. 9 waz a 'novis at Sa 'j^.'zwal 
for'malitiz, an 'wazna dgyst 'vera J0:r o Avat waz jk'spekat o mi, 
so a med SAHI 'iSar rfmark a'but Sa 'tat{ krap, an sat dun at Sa 
'iSar enc? o Sa setl, an 7 tw^rlt ma 'bonat run ma r f{r)ar. 

man, Sa ni:rar a waz ta har, Sa 'fygar Ji waz-, an Sa 8/ redar 
har fes, an he:r, an 2 ha:nz simt ta bi:. dod, ma las, 6mks a ta 
ma'ssl, av sin 'sAmO^T) laik ju: med m a 'bqkwark. a gi:d a b^t 
la:x ta ma'ssl, az Sa 3 0oxt strAk mi, an 'lukat at ar ut o Sa tel o 



x a: 2 o.: 3 o 4 a 5 jms 6 e: 7 A 8 a 
G. 24 



370 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



she lookit side-weys at me, and lauched, too, and says she, 
" There ye go noo. Ye've sterted." 

" Sterted," says I, " what to dae ? " 

" H'm ! what to dae as if ye didna ken. My word, but you 
toon chiels are great boys," and she gaed a wee bit loll in the 
settle and giggled and jippled. 

Dod, thinks I, she's gien me credit for bein' a bit o' a blade, 
and, to tell ye the truth, I admit it flattered my vanity, so I 
thocht it juist as weel to act up to the character, as yin micht 
say. 

" Aye, you're richt," says I, " Thornhill chiels ken a thing or 
twae, I tell ye/' 

" Yes," says she, " but if you're a sample o' them, there's ae 
thing they dinna ken." 

" What's that ? " I asked, raither ta'en aback. 

" Hoo to sit on a settle beside a lass," said she, and she 
lookit up to a side o' bacon hingin' on the ceilin' and giggled 
again. 

Man, that took the stairch oot o' me, as it were, and I didna 
very weel ken what to say. I lookit at the lang length o' settle 
that was between us, and muttered something aboot meetin' 
her hauf-road. Govanenty ! she cam' her hauf glibly, and I 
sidel'd ower mine, and there we sat cheek-for-jowl ; but I keepit 
my bonnet in my haun. 

Man, d'ye ken this, when I was close beside her she seemed 
sae big, and me sae wee, that I felt like a wee sparra cooryin' 
aside a corn stook. 

Just for something to say, I asked her where she belanged 
to and she said, " Crawfordjohn." Then I spiert if she had ever 
been in Thornhill, and she said "Yes," that she had gaen 
through it aince in a cairt. 

"Where were they cairtin' ye to?" I asked withoot lauchin'. 

" Oh," says she, " they werena cairtin' me onywhere. I was 
gaun to Scaurbrig Kirk." 

" Oh, then," says I, "ye'll be a Cameronian." 

" Not at all," says she, " I'm a dairywoman." 

So I let it staun at that, and put my bonnet doon on the 
flaer. 



READER 371 

ma i:. jn a 'rnomant Ji 'lukat 'saidwaiz at mi, an la:xt, t0:, an ssz 
Ji, " Se:r ji go: nu:. jiv 'stsrtat." 

" stsrtat," ssz a, " Avat ta de: ? " 

" m ! Avat ta de: az jf ji 'djdna ken. mai wArd, bat ju: tun 
t/ilz ar gret ^oiz," an Ji ge:d a wi: bit lol in Sa sstl an giglt n 
dgiplt. 

dod, 6mks ai, Jiz 'gian mi 'kredit for 'bian a b{t o a bled, an, 
ta tsl ji Sa try0, a a'dmrt {t 'flatart ma 'vanity so a 2 0oxt it d3yst 
az wil ta ak Ap ta Sa 'karaktar, az jm mjxt se:. 

"ai, jir r^xt," ssz ai, "0orn'h}:l tjilz ksn a 0m, or twe:, a 



"jes," ssz Ji, " bat {f ju:r a sampl o Sam, Sarz JQ: Q\y Se ' 
ksn." 

" Avats Sat? " a ast, 3/ reSar te:n a'bak. 

" hu: ta srt on a sstl bfsaid a las," ssd Ji, an Ji 'lukat Ap ta 
a said o 'bekari 'hman on Sa 'selan an g^glt a'gen. 

man, Sat tuk Sa stertj ut o mi, az jt war, an a 'didna 'vsra 
wil ksn Avat ta se:. a 'lukat at Sa larj Isn0 o sstl Sat waz brtwin 
AS, an 'mAtart 'sAmS^rj a'but mitn ar 4/ ha:frod. govan'snt^ ! Ji: 
kam bar 4 ha:f 'gljblk an a: saidlt Aur main, an Se:r wi sat tjik 
far dgAul; bat a: 'kipat ma 'bonat ^n ma 4 ha:n. 

man, dji ksn S^s, Avan a waz klos bfsaid ar Ji: simt se: bjg, 
an mi: se: wi:, Sat a fslt laik a wi: 'spara 'kuirian a'said a 2 korn 
stuk. 

d3yst far 'sAiiiS^r) ta se:, a ast ar 4 Ava:r Ji bi'lant ta an Ji ssd, 
U4 kra:f0r / d3on." San a spi:rt {f Ji had "ivar bin in 0orn'hil, an Ji 
ssd "jes," Sat Ji had gem 6ru {t 5 ens p a 6 kert. 

" 4 A\a:r war Se 6/ kertan ji ta? " a ast w{'0ut r la:xan. 

" o:," ssz.Ji, "Se 'warna 6/ kertan mi 2/ onjAvar. a waz 4 ga:n ta 
skar'bqg kirk." 

"o:, San," ssz ai, "jil bi a kamar'onjan." 

"not at 4 a:l," ssz Ji, "am a 'deinwAman." 

so: a 7 lst rt 4 sta:n at Sat, an pit ma 'bonat dun on Sa fle:r. 



1 oi 2 o 3 e: 4 o,: 5 j{ns 6 s 7 a, a 

242 



372 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" That's the thing," says she, and she notched hersel' up ; 
" ye're the better o' baith hauns free when ye come to see the 
lassies." 

Man, I kenned then that I was in a tichtish place, and I 
began to wonder hoo in the name o' guidness I was to get oot 
o't. I saw at aince that it was policy to keep sweet wi' her, so, 
to appear mair at name and taen wi' my quarters, I put my 
airm on the back o' the settle. Dod, she was quick o' the 
uptak', for she sune leaned back till her shooder touched my 
airm, and then she turned her face to mine, and, in the firelicht, 
man, d'ye ken it was juist like a sunset. 

Hoo I did curse Davie Gracie, and hoo I wished he wad 
come in, or that the ceilin' wad fa', or the hoose tak' on fire, or 
something desperate wad tak' place to save me. Nocht hap- 
pened tho', and I juist sat quate, but a' the time I felt she was 
gettin' mair and mair cooriet into me, and my airm, wi' her 
great wecht on't, was beginnin' to sleep, and to feel terribly 
jaggy weys and prickly. Mair than that, I had the uncomfort- 
able feelin' that she was makin' things gang, what yin micht 
ca', " swift a wee." 

At last, efter a lang silence, she spiert at me if I kenned a 
nice piece o' poetry ca'd " The Pangs o' Love." 

" No," says I, " I never heard o't, but the fact is love's no 
muckle in my line." 

" Hoo's that ? " she asked quite surprised. 
I didna very weel ken what to say. Then a happy thocht 
struck me. It cam' like an inspiration a' in a flash, as it were 
and I saw my wey oot o't. Efter hurridly thinkin' ower 
maitters, says I, " Weel, I daursay I needna say that love's no* 
in my line, for it is. Nocht wad gie me greater pleesure than 
to hae a nice lassie like you for a sweethert, and the prospect 
before me o' a happy mairrit life, but that can never be," and I 
pou'd my hair doon aboot my een and shook my heid frae side 
to side. " Of coorse, you, bein' a stranger in this locality, will- 
no' ken that a' my family's peculiar not only peculiar but 
dangerous." 

" In what wey ? " she asked. 

" Oh, weel," says I, " when we turn twenty-yin we've a' to- 



HEADER 373 

"Sats Sa Gig," sez./i, an Ji hotjt ar'ssl Ap; "jir Sa 'bstar o 
be9 1 hamz fri: wan ji kAm ta si: Sa 'lasiz." 

man, a ksnt San Sat a waz in a 'tixtij pies, an a bfgan ta 
'wAncfor hu: in Sa nem o 'gydnas a waz ta get ut ot. a 1 sa: at 
^ens Sat it waz 'polisi ta kip swit wi bar, so:, ta a'pi:r me:r at 
hem an te:n wj ma 'kwartarz, a pit ma 3 erm on Sa bak o Sa sstl. 
dod, Ji waz kw^k o Sa 'Aptak, far Ji syn lent bak tn 1 ar 'Judar 
tAt/t ma 3 erm, an San Ji tArnt bar fes ta main, an, in Sa 4 'fair- 
lixt, man, dji ken it waz dgyst laik a 'sAnsst. 

hui a did kArs 'deivj 'gresj, an hu: a 5 wj:Jt hi wad kAm m, or 
Sat Sa 6 'selan wad 1 fa:, or Sa bus tak on 4 fair, or 'sAmSjr) 'dsspqt 
wad tak pies ta seiv mi. 7 noxt hapnt 0o:, an a dgyst sat kweit, 
bat 1 a: Sa taim a fslt Ji waz gstn me:r an meir 'kuirit ^nta mi, 
an ma 3 erm, w{ bar gret wsxt ont, waz bfgman ta slip, an ta fil 
'teribli ^agi waiz an 'pqkli. me:r San Sat, a had Sa An'kAm- 
fartabl 'filari Sat Ji waz 'makan 6irjz gan, A\.at jm mjxt 1 kai, 
" swjft a wi:." 

at last, 'eftar a lar) 'silans, Ji spiirt at mi jf a ksnt a nais pis 
o 'potri x ka:d "Sa parjz o IAV." 

"no:," ssz ai, "a 'nivar 8 herd ot, bat Sa fak iz IAVZ no: mAkl 
in ma: lain." 

"hu:z Sat?" Ji ast kwait 9 sAi / praizd. 

a 'd^dna 'vera wil ken Avat ta se:. San a 'hapi 7 0oxt strAk 
mi. jt kam laik an mspir'ejan 1 a: pi a naj, az it war an a 
1 sa: ma wai ut ot. 'sftar 'hAridli 'Sinkan Aur 'metarz, ssz ai, 
"wil, a 'darse a 'nidna se: Sat IAVZ no: in mai lain, for it iz. 
7 noxt wad gi: mi: 'gretar 10 pli:zar San ta he a nais 'lasi leik ju: 
far a 'swithsrt, an Sa 'prospsk bffo:r mi o a r hapi 3 'merit laif, bat 
Sat kan 'nivar bi:," an a pu:d ma he:r dun a'but ma in an Jyk ma 
hid fre said ta said, "av kurs, ju:, bian a 4/ strend3ar in Sis 
la'kaliti, wil no: ksn Sat 1 a: ina 'femliz pfkjuljar not 'onli 
pfkjuljar bat 4/ dend3aras." 

" in Mat wai ? " Ji ast. 

" o:, wil," ssz ai, " Avan wi tArn 'twmti'jm wiv x a: ta bi te:n 



2 jms 3 s 4 ai 5 A 6 i 7 o 8 a 9 sAr'prajst 



374 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



be taen to an asylum for a wee in fact, I doot I'll hae to gang 
before I'm that age, for I feel terribly queer at times. For 
instance, the day noo, I've been daein' the daftest things 
imaginable, and my heid's been bizzin' like a bum bee's bike." 

She lookit at me for a meenit, but I juist put on a kistin' 
face and my b'lo' jaw was doon. 

" It's very hard lines on a young chap like me," I gaed on, 
" wi' a* the warld before me, but it's in the bluid, and the warst 
o't is, it's bluid we seek. If it was a hairmless kind o' daftness 
it wad be naething, but Weel, isn't it a peety ? " 

She made nae answer, but, mair to hersel' than to me, she 
says, " I think that fire needs a wee bit coal. I'll juist gang oot 
and get a bit." 

For a stoot lass she raise quick, and her step was licht. She 
gaed oot, but she never cam' back, and I sat at the fire warm in' 
my taes till Marget and Davie returned. Man, it was a mercifu' 
deliverance. When we were aince ootside, quat o' the ferm 
toon and tacklin' the Burn brae, I told Davie a' aboot my ploy, 
and he lauched a' the road hame. 



READER 375 

ta an a'sailam far 9 wi: m fak, a dut a:l he ta gar) bi'foir em 
Sat edg, for 9 fil 'tsribl^ kwi:r at taimz. far 'mstans, Sa de: nu, 
av bin 'dean Sa 'daftast Gjrjz {'medgmabl, an ma hidz bin 'bj:zan 
laik a 'bAmbi:z baik." 

Ji 'lukat at mi far a 'min^t, bat a dgyst p^t on a 'k^stan fes an 
ma bloi X d3a: waz dun. 

"its 'vera hard lainz an a JATJ t/ap laik mi:," a geid on, " w^ 
l Qji Sa 2 warlc? a'foir mi, bat its m Sa blyd, an Sa warst ot \z, its 
blyd wi sik. {f \t waz a 3/ hermlas kain o 'daftnas ^t wad bi 'neGirj, 
bAt wil, jznt it a 'piti? " 

Ji med ne: r ansar, bAt, me:r ta har'ssl San ta mi:, Ji ssz, "a 
6mk Sat 4 fan- nidz a wi: b^t kol. al djyst garj ut an get a b^t." 

far a stut las Ji re:z kw^k, an har step waz l^xt. Ji ge:d ut, 
bat Ji 'mvar kam bak, an a sat at Sa 4 fair warman ma te:z t^l 
'margat an 'deivj ri'tArnt. man, ^t waz a 'msrsifa dfl^vrans. 
Avan wi war 5 ens ut'said, kwat o Sa 3 ferm tun an 'taklan Sa bArn 
bre:, a told 'de:vi l o,i a'but ma 6 ploi, an hi la:xt x a: Sa rod hem. 



a: 3 s 4 ai 5 ims 6 01 



376 



XX A. TAIBLET 

WEE MAGQREEOOR. 

J. J. BELL. 

The dialect of Wee Macgreegor is the Scotch of the Glasgow 
working man. Its most marked phonetic feature is the use of 
the glottal catch (see Ph. 44) before the consonants t, p, k, and 
sometimes n. In rapid speech, these consonants are frequently 
replaced by the glottal catch whether in medial or final position, 
the only limit to the use of the substitute being intelligibility. 



" When I'm a man," observed Macgregor, leaning against 
the knees of his father, who was enjoying an evening pipe before 
the kitchen fire, " when I'm a man, I'm gaun to be a penter " 

"A penter," echoed John. "D'ye hear whit Macgreegor's 
sayinV Lizzie ? " he inquired of his wife. 

Lizzie moistened her finger and thumb, twirled the end of a 
thread, and inserted it into the eye of a needle ere she replied. 
"Whit kin' o' a penter? Is't pictur's ye're wantin' to pent, 
Macgreegor ? " 

" Naw ! " said her son with great scorn. " I'm gaun to ha'e a 
big pot o' pent an' a big brush, an' I'm gaun to staun' on a ladder, 
an' pent wi' white pent, an' rid pent, an' bew pent, an' 

" Aw, ye're gaun to be a hoose-penter, Macgreegor," said his 
father. 

"Ay. But I'm gaun to pent shopes tae. An' I'm gaun to 
ha'e big dauds of potty fur stickin' in holes. I like potty. Here 
a bit ! " And Macgregor produced from his trouser pocket a 
lump of the greyish, plastic substance. 

" Feech ! " exclaimed Lizzie in disgust. " Whaur got ye that ? 
Ye 11 jist file yer claes wi' the nesty stuff." 

" Wullie Thomson whiles gets potty frae his Paw. Wullie's 
Paw's a jiner." 

" I thocht you an' Wullie had cast oot," said John. " Ha'e 
ye been makin' freens wi' him again ? " 



377 
XX A. TAIBLET 

WEE MAGGREEGOR. 

J. J. BELL. 

In the text, the symbol for the glottal catch, viz. ?, is used only 
when the consonant is omitted. 

Note also in this dialect (1) 9: for a: as h<?:f = " half," 
(2) bew, bjui, " blue," (3) the unrounding of and y to e and i 
as in dae, del, "do," jist, d3ist, "just," and of u before a back 
consonant to A as tuk, tAk, "took." 



"A\an am a man, Avan am a man, am gg:n ta bi a 

'pentar." 

" a 'pentar, dji hi:r Avit ma'grigarz 'sean, 'liizi ? " 

"AVI? km o a pentar? jst 'piktarz jar 'wantan ta pent, 
ma'grigar?" 

" no,? ! am ggm ta he a b^g pot o pent an a bj:g brA/, 

an am gg:n ta stgin on a 'leSar, an pent wj A\ai? psnt, an rad 
pent, an bjui pent, an 

" o.:, jar ggm ta bi a 'hus'pentar, ma'grigar," 

" ai. bA? am ggin ta pent Jops te:. an am go.:n ta he bjg 
dgidz o po?{ fAr st^?an m holz. a lai? po?{. hiir a bjt ! " 

" fix ! Avgir go? ji Sa? ? jil dgist fail jar kleiz wj Sa 

'nesti stAf." 

u/ wAlj aomsan Aiailz gets po?{ fre h^z pg:. 'WA^Z pg:z a 
'dgainar." 

a a 6oxt ju an 'wAlj had kast ut he ji bin ma?an 

frinz w^ hjm a'gen? " 



378 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Navv. But I seen him wi' the potty, an' I askit him for a 
daud." 

" It wis rale nice o' the laddie to gi'e ye a bit," remarked 
Lizzie, looking up from her seam. 

" He didna gi'e it, Maw. I tuk it frae him." 

" Aw, Macgreegor ! " said Lizzie, shaking her head reproach- 
fully. 

" Wullie's bigger nor me, Maw." 

" Ay ; but he's gey wake i' the legs." 

"I hut him, an' he tummilt; an' I jis,t tuk hauf his potty," 
said Macgregor unconcernedly. 

John was about to laugh, when he caught his wife's eye. 

" An' hoo wud ye like," she said addressing her son, " if yer 
Paw gi'ed ye potty, an' anither laddie cam' an' " 

" Paw hasna ony potty," 

John sniggered behind his hand. 

" Weel," said Lizzie, casting her husband a severe look, and 
turning again to her son, " hoo wud ye like if yer Paw gi'ed ye 
taiblet, an' anither laddie cam' an' tuk hauf o' 't awa' ? " 

" I wud gi'e him yin on the neb twicet ! " said Macgregor 
boldly, going over to the window to see the lamps being lighted. 

" But if he hut ye an' knocked ye doon ? " 

" I wudna let him. Paw hasna gi'ed me taiblet fur a lang 
while," said the boy over his shoulder. 

" Macgreegor/' said his mother solemnly, "I'm thinkin' ye're 
gettin' waur every day."' 

" Aw, the wean's fine, Lizzie," interposed John, softly. 

"Haud yer tongue, John," retorted Lizzie quietly. "The 
wean's no fine ! An' instead o' lauchin' at him an' makin' a pet 
o' him, ye ocht to be gi'ein' him a guid skelpin'." 

"I've never skelpit a wean yet, an' " 

" It's easy seen ye've never skelpit Macgregor, John. Ye jist 
let him get his ain wey, an' he dis'na ken when he's misbehavin' 
hissel'. Weans needs to be checkit whiles." 

" Aweel, whit dae ye want me to dae, Lizzie ? " 

"I want ye to punish Macgreegor for hittin' that puir 
speldron o' a laddie, Wullie Thomson, an' stealing hi& potty," 
said Lizzie in an undertone. 



EEADER 379 

"ng:. bA? a sin jm w{ Sa poPj, an a 'askat ^m fAr a dg:d." 
" jt wjz reil nais o Sa 'Igdi ta gi: ji a b{t," ............ 

" hi d{dn{ gi jt, mg:. a tAk {? fre hmi." 
"g:, ma'grigar !" ............ 

"'WA!J:Z 'b^gar nar mi:, mg:." 

" CLI ; bA? iz gai wek i Sa legz." 

" a hAt mi, an i tAmlt ; an a d3ist tAk hg:f iz 'po?{." 

"an hu: wAd jilai? ............ ^f jar pg: gi:d ji: r po?j, an a'mSar 

'Igdi kam an - " 

" pg: 'h^zn{ 'onj: 'po?^" 



"wil, ............ hu: wAd ji lai? if jar pg: gi:d ji: 'teblat, an 

a'mSar 'Igdi kam an tAk hg:f o {t a'wg:?" 

" a WAd gi: h^m jp on Sa neb twaist ! " ............ 

" bA? if hi hAt ji an 'no?at ji dun? " 

"a 'wAdna le? ^m. pg: 'hazna gi:n mi 'teblat fAr a larj 
Avail" ............ 

" ma'grigar, ............ am 'S^rjkan jar 'ge^en wg:r 'ivn de:." 

"g:, Sa wemz fain, 'liizi." ............ 

"hgd jar tAn, d3on, ............ Sa wemz no: fain! an nYsted o 

'la:xan a? mi an ma?an a pet o mi, ji oxt ta bi 'gian mi a gid 
'skelpan." 

"av 'mvar 'skelpat a we:n je?, an - " 

" its 'i:zi sin jiv 'mvar 'skelpat ma'grigar, dgon. ji dgist le? 
mi geP \z e:n wai, an i 'd^zm ken Men hiz m^sbfhevan h^sel. 
wemz nidz ta bi 'tfe?at Availz." 

"awil, AV{? de ji want mi ta de:, 'lizzi?" 

"a want ji ta 'pAmJ ma'grigar far 'hj?an Sat pe:r 'speldran o 
a Igdi, 'WA^ 'tomsan, an stiln \z 'pot^" ............ 



380 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Macgregor came back from the window with the putty 
plastered over his nose. 

" Paw, see ma neb ! " he said gaily, unaware of the conversa- 
tion which had just passed concerning him. 

John laughed loudly. " Dod, but ye've a braw neb the nicht, 
Macgreegor ! " 

" Tak' it aff this meenit ! " cried Lizzie. " John, ye micht 
think shame o' yersel' to sit there lauchin' at his nesty tricks ! 
D'ye no' mind hoo Mrs. Cochrane's man tell't us his neb wis 
aye bew wi' him pittin' potty on't when he wis a wean?... Tak' 
it aff, Macgreegor, or I'll sort ye ! " 

Macgregor, but little abashed, returned to the window, 
removed the offending plaster, rolled it into a ball, and pro- 
ceeded to squeeze it through his ringers with undisguised relish. 

"John," whispered Lizzie, "dae whit I tell't ye." 

" I canna," returned John miserably. " It micht wauken wee 
Jeannie," he added a little hopefully. 

"I didna exac'ly say ye wis to to wheep the laddie," said 
his wife, "but ye maun gi'e him a lesson he'll no' furget. I'm 
no' gaun to ha'e him boastin' an' ill-usin' ither weans. D'ye 
see ? " 

" But whit am I to dae, Lizzie ? " 

" I'll tell ye, John. Ye'll gang ower to the dresser an' open 
the wee drawer, an' ye'll tak' oot the taiblet ye brocht hame fur 
Macgreegor the morn Are ye listenin' ? " 

" Ay, wumman." 

"An' ye'll tell Macgreegor ye bocht the taiblet fur his 
Setterday treat, thinkin' he deservit it, but ye've fun' oot he 
disna deserve it, an' ye canna gi'e him ony." 

" Aw, Lizzie ! " 

" An' ye'll tie up the paircel, an' gar him tak' it roon the 
corner to Wullie Thomson, an' gi'e it to Wullie Thomson, an' 
gi'e him back his potty furbye." 

" Aw, Lizzie ! " 

"An' it'll be a lesson to Macgreegor no' to strike laddies 
waker nor hissel'. Ye wud be gey sair pit aboot, John, if a 
muckle laddie wis strikin' Macgreegor." 

" Deed, wud I ! But but Macgreegor 's that fond o' taiblet." 



READER 381 

" pgi, si m9 nsb ! " 

"dod, bA? jiv 8 brg: nsb Se njxt, mg'griggr S" 

" tci? it af S^s 'minst ! dgon, ji mixt 0mk Jem o jar'sel 

t9 s^t 5e:r 'Ia:x9n 9t {z 'nest{ trjks ! dji 110: mgind hu: 'm^straz 
'koxrgnz man telt AS h^z neb wez ei bju: w{ h^m 'pt?8n 'po?^ ont 
i wjz 9 we:n?. . .ta? ^t af, ni9 / grig9r, or a:l sort ji ! " 



de: Aqt 9 telt ji." 

"9 'kani, ............ it mpt 'wgkgn wi: 'dgini," ............ 

"9 'd^dm ig'zakl^ se: ji w^z t9 19 Avip S9 'l^di, 
ji m9n gi: jm 8 lesn hil no: fAr'gs?. 9m no: go,:n t9 he nn r bost9n 
9n il'jeizsn 'iS9r we:nz. dji si: ? " 

"bA? A\I? 9m 9 t9 de:, "liizi?" 

" 9! tsl ji, dgon. jil garj Aur t9 S9 'drssgr 9n opm S9 wi: 
'drggr, 9n jil ta? ut S9 'tebb? ji broxt hem fAr mg'griggr S9 
morn - 9r ji 'Ij:sn9n?" 

" ai, r wAm9n." 

U 9n jil tsl m9 / grig9r ji boxt S9 X tebl9? fAr \z 7 s?9rd{ tret, 
'Sirjkgn hi di'zsrv9t ^t, bA? jiv fAn ut hi 'd^zm dfzerv ^t, 9n ji 
'kani gi ^m 'onj." 

"QI, 'liizi!" 

" 9n jil tai Ap S9 'persl, 9n gAr \m ta? ^t run S9 X korn9r t9 
'WA!J 'toms9n, 9n gi? t9 7 wAh 'tomsgn, 9n gi: mi ba? jz ' 
fAr'bai." 



" 



9n iil bi 9 'ksn t9 mg'griggr no: t9 str9ik 'Igdiz 'wekgr nor 
hr'sel. ji wAd bi ggi se:r x p^? 9'but, d3on, if 9 mA?l 'Igdi w^z 

m9'grig9r." 
" did, wAd 9 ! bA? bA? m9'grig9rz Sat fond o 'tebb?." 



382 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



" Man, man, can ye no' think o' whit's guid fur Macgreegor ? 
That's the wey ye spile him, John. Ye wud gi'e him the cock 
aff the steeple if he cried fur't ! " 

" Maybe ye're richt, Lizzie. But it's a hard thing ye're askin'. 
Wud it no' dae to gi'e him hauf the taiblet to tak' to Wullie 
Thomson ? " 

" Na, na," said Lizzie firmly. " Here, Macgreegor," she called 
to her son. " Yer Paw wants to speak to ye....Noo, John !" 

With a huge sigh, John rose, went to the wee drawer in the 
dresser, and returned with the poke of " taiblet.''* 

" Paw," said Macgreegor absently, " I like taiblet better nor 
potty." 

The father glanced appealingly at the mother, but she was 
adamant. She had resumed her needle, but was keeping an eye 
on the twain. 

"Macgreegor," said John with a painful effort, "whit wey 
did ye strike puir Wullie Thomson ? " 

" I wan tit a wee daud o' potty." 

" Ay," murmured John, and paused for a moment. " Are ye 
sorry ye hut him ? " 

" Naw. I got the potty, Paw." 

" But ye sud be sorry, Macgreegor." 

" Whit wey, Paw ? " 

" Wis he greetin' ? " 

" Ay ; wis he ! " 

John looked across at Lizzie for aid, but she was sewing 
diligently. 

"Weel," he said, haltingly, "yer Maw an' me's no' vera 
pleased wi' whit ye done to Wullie Thomson. It wisna fair to 
strike the likes o' him." 

Macgregor's visage began to assume an anxious expression. 

" Yer Maw," continued John, " yer Maw says ye canna " 

" John ! " murmured Lizzie, warningly. 

" Yer Maw and me thinks ye canna get ony taiblet the morn." 

Macgregor's under lip shot out quivering. 

" An' ye've got to gi'e the taiblet to Wullie Thomson, an' 
gi'e him back his potty, furbye, an' an' oh, Lizzie, I canna say 
ony mair ! " 



READER 383 



"man, man, kan ji no: 0mk o M{?S gid fAr ma'grigar? $a?s 
3a wei ji spail im, dgon. ji wAd gi ^m Sa kok af 5a stipl jf i 
krait fArt ! " 

"'mebi jir r^xt, 'li:zi. bA? jts a hard 0irj jir 'askan. wAd {? 
no: de: to gi {m hg:f Sa 'tebla? t9 ta? ta 'WA!{ 'tomsan? " 

"na:, na:, ............ hi:r, ma'grigar ............ jar pg: wants ta 

spi? ta ji. . .nu:, dgon ! " 

"pg:, ............ a laik 'tebla? 'bs^ar nor 'poP^." 



/'ma'grigar, ............ Av t ? wai d^d ji straik pe:r 'w\\i 'tom- 

san?" 

" a 'wantat a wi: dg:d o 'po?{." 

" CLI, ............ ar ji 'soq ji hAt pri ? " 

" ng:. a go? Sa 'po?i, pg:." 

" bA? x ji sAd bi 'sor{, ma'grigar." 

" AVJ? wai, pg: ? " 

a w^z i'gritan?" 

" ai ; w t z i ! " 

"wil, ............ jar mg: an mi:z no: 'vsra plist w^ A\{? ji dm ta 

'WA!{ / toms9n. it 'w^zm fe:r ta str9ik Sa laiPs o 



u jsr mg: ............ jar mg: sez ji'kani - " 

a d 3 on!" ............ 

" jar mg: 9n mi: t nks ji 'kani gs? 'on^ x tebla? Sa morn." 



"an jiv go? ta gi: Sa 'teblaP ta VA^ 'tomsan, an gi: mi ba? 
t z 'P^^t, r fArbai, 9n an o, 'li:zi, a x kam se: 'onj me:r!'' 



384 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

It took a few seconds for the dire truth to dawn upon 
Macgregor, but when it did, a low wail issued from him, and the 
tears began to flow. 

John was about to lift him on to his knee, but Lizzie 
interposed. 

" Pit on yer bunnet, Macgregor," she said quietly, " an' tak' 
the taiblet an' potty roon' to Wullie Thomson. It's no' dark yet," 
she added, glancing out of the window. 

"I'm no' wantin' to gi'e the taiblet to Wullie Thomson," 
sobbed the luckless youngster. 

"Ye've jist to dae'whit ye're tell't," returned his mother 
calmly, but not unkindly. " Ye're no' to be a tawpy noo," she went 
on, endeavouring to dry his eyes. " Ye're to be a man. Whit wud 
Wullie Thomson think if he seen ye greetin' ? Eh, Macgreegor ? " 

Lizzie had struck the right note. The sobs ceased, though 
the breath still came gustily. He mopped the tears with his 
cap, and replaced it on his head. 

" Am I to gi'e him a' the taiblet an' the potty furbye ? " he 
inquired plaintively. 

" Ay. An ye're to say ye're sorry fur hurtin' him. He's no' a 
fine, strong laddie like yersel', Macgreegor mind that ! Yer Paw 
an' me wudna like if ye wis wake i' the legs like puir Wullie. 
Noo, jist gang roon' an' gi'e him the taiblet an' his potty, an' see 
if ye canna mak' freen's wi' him again." 

" I'm no' wantin' to be freen's," said Macgregor, rebelliously. 
" I'm no' wantin' to gang." 

" Are ye feart fur Wullie Thomson ? " asked Lizzie. Another 
clever stroke ! 

" I'm no' feart ! I'll gang ! " 

" Fine, man ! " cried John, who had been listening in gloomy 
silence. " I kent ye wisna feart." 

Macgregor began, to feel himself rather a hero. In dignified 
silence he took the poke of " taiblet," which his mother had tied 
securely with a piece of tape from her work-bag, and departed 
on his errand, 

John looked anxiously to Lizzie. 

She sat down to her seam again, but her fingers were less 
deft than usual. They both eyed the clock frequently. 



READER 385 



"p? on jar 'bAnat, ma'grigar, en ta? Sa 'tebla? an 

'poPj; run ta 'WA.\I 'tomsan. its no: dark jet," 

am no: 'wantan ta gi: Sa 'tebla? ta 'WA!I 'tomsan." 

"jiv dgist ta de: M{? jir telt, jir no: ta bi a 'to,:pi 

nu:, .jir ta bi a man. AVL? wAd 'WA!{ 'tomsan 0mk ^f i sin 

ji gritn? e:, ma'grigar? " 



"am a ta gi mi g: Sa 'tebla? an Sa 'poP^ fAr'bai? "... 

" ai. an jn- ta se: jir 'sor^ fAr 'hArtan ^m. hiz no: a fain, strot) 
'Igdi laik jar'sel, ma'grigar maincZ Sa? ! jar po,: an mi: 'wAdni 
laik if ji w{z wek i Sa legz lai? pe:r '\VA!{. nu:, d5ist garj run an 
gi mi Sa 'tebla? an \z 'po?i, an si: {f ji 'kani ma? frinz w{ ^m 
a'gen." 

"am no: 'wantan ta bi frinz, am no: 'wantan ta 

9*9." 

" ar ji fi:rt fAr 'WA!J 'tomsan ? " 

" am no: fi:rt ! al gar) ! " 

" fain, man ! " a kent ji 'wpmi fi:rt." 



G. 25 



386 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" He sudna be mair nor five meenits," remarked John. " I 
doot we wis ower hard on the wean, wumman." 

Lizzie made no response, and ten minutes dragged slowly 
past. 

" Did ye expec' he wild dae't ? " asked John presently. 

" Och, ay ! " she answered with affected carelessness. 

" I wisht I had went wi' him," said John. 

Lizzie put in half-a-dozen stitches in silence. Then she 
said "Ye micht gang roon an' see whit's keepin' him, John." 

"I'll dae that, Lizzie.... Dae ye think I micht buy him a bit 
taiblet when I'm ootbye ? " He asked the question diffidently. 

His wife looked up from her seam. 

" If ye like, John," she said, gently. " I'm thinkin' the laddie's 
had his lesson noo. He's unco prood fur to be a wean, is he no' ? " 

" Ay," said John. " There's no mony like Macgreegor." He 
nodded to his wife, and went out. 

About twenty minutes later father and son re-entered the 
house together. Both were beaming. 

" I cudna get Macgreegor awa' frae Wullie Thomson, Lizzie," 
said John, smiling. 

" Weel, weel," said his wife, looking pleased. " An' did ye gi'e 
Wullie the taiblet an' the potty, Macgreegor ? " 

" Ay, Maw." 

Whereupon his mother caught and cuddled him. " Gi'e him 
a bit taiblet, John," she said. 

John did so right gladly and generously, and Macgregor 
crumped away to his heart's content. 

" An' whit kep' ye waitin' at Wullie's a' this time ? " inquired 
Lizzie, pleasantly. 

"He gi'ed me a big daud o' potty, Maw," said the boy, 
producing a lump the size of an orange. 

" Oh ! " exclaimed Lizzie, trying not to look annoyed. 

" An' him an' me ett the taiblet," added Macgregor. 



READER 387 

" hi 'sAdm bi me:r nor faiv 'minats, a dut wi w^z Aur 

hard on 5a wem, 'wArnan." 



"d{d ji jk'spsk hi wAd de:t? ". 

"ox, or!" 

" a w^ft a h{d went wj pn." 



" ji mjxt gar) run an si: Aq?s 'kipan jm, 
"al de: 8a?, 1i:zi...de ji 0trjk a mtxt bai im a bp 'teblaP Man 
am ut'bai?" 

" if ji laik, dgon, ............ am '6{rjkan Sa 'Igdiz had \z Issn nu: 

hiz 'Arjka prud fAr ta bi a we:n, \z i no: ? " 

"ai,. ........... Sarz no: 'monj lai? ma'grigar." 



"a 'kAdni gs? ma'grigar a'wg: fre 'WA!{ 'tomsan, 'liizi.".. 
"wil, wil, ............ an d{d ji gi: 'WA!{ Sa .'tebla? an Sa 

ma'grigar?" 
" 01, mo.:." 

" gi mi a bp 'tebla?, dgon." 



"an Aq? ksp ji r we?an at 'WA!IZ g: S^s taim? ". 

"hi gi:d mi a b^g dg:d o 'po?{. mg:," 

"o:!" 

"an hmi an mi: e? 5a 'tebla?," 



252 



388 



XXI A. CUDDLE DOON 

ALEXANDER ANDERSON (Surfaceman) (1845-1909). 

The bairnies cuddle doon at nicht 

Wi' muckle faucht an' din; 
" Oh try and sleep, ye waukrife rogues, 

Your faither's comin' in 
They never heed a word I speak; 

I try to gi'e a froon, 
But aye I hap them up an' cry, 

" O, bairnies, cuddle doon." 

Wee Jamie wi' the curly heid 

He aye sleeps next the wa', 
Bangs up an' cries, " I want a piece " 

The rascal starts them a'. 
I rin an' fetch them pieces, drinks, 

They stop awee the soun', 
Then draw the blankets up an' cry, 

" Noo, weanies, cuddle doon." 

But ere five minutes gang, wee Rab 

Cries out, frae 'neath the claes, 
" Mither, mak' Tarn gi'e ower at ance, 

He's kittlin' wi' his taes." 
The mischiefs in that Tarn for tricks, 

He'd bother half the toon; 
But aye I hap them up and cry, 

" O, bairnies, cuddle doon." 

At length they hear their faither's fit, 

An, as he steeks the door, 
They turn their faces to the wa', 

While Tarn pretends to snore. 



389 



XXI A. CUDDLE DOON 

ALEXANDER ANDERSON (Surfaceman) (1845-1909). 

Sa ^bern^z kAdl dun at n^xt 

wj: mAkl faixt en dpi ; 
" o: trai en slip, ji 2 'wa:krjf rogz, 

jar 3 'feSarz 'kAman m " 
Se: 'nivar hid a wArd a spik ; 

a trai ta gi a frun, 
bat ai a hap Sam Ap an krcti, 

" o:, ^berniz, kAdl dun." 



wi: 'dgimi wj: Sa 'kArlj: 4 hid 

hi ai slips nekst Sa 2 wa:, 
banz Ap an kraiz, "a 5 wmt a pis" 

Sa raskl stsrts Sam 2 a:. 
a nn an fetj Sam 'pisaz, dr^rjks, 

Se stop a'wi: Sa sun, 
San 2 dra: Sa 'blankats Ap an krai, 

"nu:, Vemjz, kAdl dun." 

bat e:r faiv 'minats gan, wi: rab 

kraiz ut, fre 4 ni6 Sa kleiz, 
"'miSar, mok tarn gi Aur at 6 ens, 

hiz 'kitlan w{ h^z te:z." 
Sa 'mistjifs ^n Sat tarn far trjks, 

hid 'boSar 2 ha:f Sa tun ; 
bat ai a hap Sam Ap an krai, 

" o:, 1/ bern{z, kAdl dun." 

at kn9 Se hi:r Sar 3/ feSarz f^t, 

an, az i stiks Sa doir, 
Se tArn Sar 'fesaz ta Sa 2 wa:, 

Avail tarn prftsnc^z ta sno:r. 



5 a, A 6 j t ns 



390 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Ha'e a' the weans been gude ? " he asks, 

As he pits aff his shoon; 
" The bairnies, John, are in their beds, 

An' lang since cuddled doon." 

An' just afore we bed oorsel's, 

We look at our wee lambs, 
Tarn has his airm roun' wee Rab's neck, 

And Rab his airm roun' Tarn's. 
I lift wee Jamie up the bed, 

An' as I straik each croon, 
I whisper, till my heart fills up, 

" 0, bairnies, cuddle doon." 

The bairnies cuddle doon at nicht 

Wi' mirth that's dear to me; 
But sune the big warl's cark an' care 

Will quaten doon their glee. 
Yet, come what will to ilka ane, 

May He who rules aboon 
Aye whisper, though their pows be bald, 

" 0, bairnies, cuddle doon." 



HEADER 391 

" he l o,i Sa wemz bin gyd? " hi asks, 

az hi pjts of iz Jan ; 
" Sa 2/ bern^z, dgon, ar m Sar bsdz, 

an lar) sms kAdlt dun." 

an dgyst a'fo:r wi bed 3 ur'sslz, 

wi luk at- u:r wi: lamz, 
tarn haz hjz 2 erm run wi: rabz nsk, 

an rab h^z 2 erm run tamz. 
a l{ft wi: 'dgimi Ap Sa bed, 

an az a strek it/ krun, 
a 4 'A\.Aspar, t^l ma hert f[lz Ap, 

" o:, 2/ bern^z, kAdl dun." 

Sa 2/ bern^z kAdl dun at n^xt 

w; m{r9 5ats di:r ta mi: ; 
bat 5 syn Sa b^g 6 warlc?z kark an ke:r 

4 wAl kwe:tn dun Sar gli:. 
jet, kAm Avat 4 wAl ta ^Ika 7 en, 

me: hi: hu ru:lz a'bun 
ai 4/ A\Aspar, 0o Sar pAuz bi 1 ba:lc?, 

" o:, 2/ bern^z, kAdl dun." 



2 s 3 w^r, wAr, war 4 t 5 J 6 a: 7 jm 



392 
XXII A. FAUE WAUR 

GALLOWAY GOSSIP. 

R. DE BRUCE TKOTTER. 

This extract is an example of Galloway and Nithsdale speech 
which is sharply distinguished from that of East Dumfries. 
Gaelic lingered up till the beginning of the 18th century in 
Sth. Ayrshire and Galloway, but at a very early date " Inglis " 
was no doubt spoken in the boroughs like Kirkcudbright and 
Dumfries. Galloway Scots is distinctly of the Lothian type. 
Among middle-aged speakers in the country y and $ are still 
rounded vowels, though with younger people and in the towns 
they are tending towards i and e. j occurs very commonly after 
a back consonant such as k or g followed by a front vowel, e.g. 
kjen, gjed, ken, gaed" know," " went." When d is dropped after 

Weel-ye-ken ! in coorse o' . time A gaed wrang i' head like 
ither folk, an' took a man, an' we set up hoose in The Ferry ; 
for yer faither ken't a lot o' folk there, an' try't tae get a practice 
in't, for there wus nae doctor there at the time, but an aul' buddy 
yt had been in the airmy, an' didna care whether he gaed oot 
or no for the half o' the natives wus Eerish, an gied him nae thing 
but thanks, an' the lave o' them wus gentilities yt keepit him 
rinnin' efter them nicht an' day, an' gied him naething but an 
ill name whun he crave't them for siller. Ye see, whun they 
wudna pey he wudna gang back, an' they had tae invent some 
kin' o' a story for an excuse for leavin' him, an' gettiii' a Newton- 
Stewart doctor yt didna ken them, in his place. Of coorse my 
man didna ken ocht aboot this, an' had tae buy his experience 
like ither doctors. 

Sae ye see, he gat plenty 'a do, but unco little tae eat ; lots 
o' promises but little pey, an' whiles a deal o' grumblin. 

The warst grumbler o' them a' wus an aul' buddy frae Barfad, 
they ca't Bella Gibson, yt wus aye badly, an' naething he could 
gie her wud do her ony gude. She was an " aul' lass " aboot 95 
or 96, an' wus cross an' cantankerous acause she hadna a man 



393 



XXII A. FAUR WAUR 

GALLOWAY GOSSIP. 

R. DE BRUCE TROTTER. 

a nasal, there is a distinct lengthening of the nasal as in kain: = 
kind. 9: never takes the place of a: as in so many districts of 
Mid Sc. unless among incomers from Ayrshire and their children. 
The glottal catch (see Ph. 44) so common in N. Ayr is also 
unknown among genuine Galloway speakers. A is very common 
as a substitute for i or j. 

Dr Trotter's sketches are very racy and real specimens of 
Scottish Vernacular. Those who know the Galloway of last 
century can testify that they are also true to the old world life 
of the ancient province. 



wil i kjen ! m kurs o taim a gjed rarj i hid leik r'Ser fok, en 
tuk 8 man, en wi set Ap hus pi Se 'feq ; far jar 'feSer kjent e lot 
o fok Seir, en trait te gjst e 'praktjs pit, fer ?5er WAZ ne: 'dokter 
$e:r et Se teim, bet en a:l 'bAdi.it hed bin pi Se 'erini, en 'djxlne 
kje:r 'MASer hi gjed ut or no: fer Se haif o Se 'net^vz WAZ 'iirij", 
en gjid pn 'neSirj bet 0anks, en Se le:v o Sem WAZ dgen'tilit^z {t 
'kipet pn "rmen 'efter Sem n^xt n dei, en gjid mi 'neO^rj bet en {1 
nem AVAU i kreivt Sem fer 'siler. ji si:, AiAn Se: 'wAdne pei hi: 
'wAdne gjar) bak, en 5e hed te m'vsnt sAm km o e 'sto:q fer en 
jk'skjys fer 'li:ven jm, en 'gjsten e 'njuten 'stjuart 'dokter ^t 
'didne kjsn Sem, m iz pies, ev kurs me man 'd^dne kjsn oxt 
e'but 5{s, en hed te bai hjz ik'sperjens leik ^5er 'dokterz. 

se ji si:, hi gat 'plsnti e'd0:, bet 'Anke htl te it ; lots o 'pro- 
misez bet l^tl pei, en Aveilz e del o 'grAmlen. 

Se warst 'grAmler o Sem a: WAZ en ail x bAdi fre bar'fad, Se 
ka:t 'bsle 'gibsen, {t WAZ ei 'badlj, en 'ne9m. i kAd gji er wAd 
d0: er 'on{ gjyd. Ji WAZ en "a:l las" e'but 'naint{ faiv or 
'neintj; sjks, en WAZ kros en ken'tankeres e'koz Ji 'hedne e man 



394 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



tae rage on ; an' she had a brither they ca't Alick, yt leev't next 
door, an' was twa or three year younger nor her, an he wus a 
wabster, an' wrocht plaids an' blankets an' things o' that kin'. 
A see the dictionary says it should be pronounce't " plad," but 
thats joost nonsense, for its pronounce't joost like the English 
" played." But that's naething. 

Weel ! Bella an Alick belang't tae the Glenkenns, an' they 
ca't their faither Sauners M^ubb, him yt use't tae leeve across 
the water frae Dairy ; but they cheinge't their name tae Gibson 
whun they turn't genteel. A'll no say but it was an improve- 
ment, though. 

Every twa-three days Alick use't tae come doon tae The 
Ferry, an gie a furious chap at the door. 

" Eh ! Doctor ! " says he, " ye'll hae tae c'wa up tae Barfad 
an' see Bella, she's far waur the day ; yon med'cine didna do her 
a bit o' gude ; she's joost dune wi' hosstia, an fair chokit wi' the 
clocher an' the floam." He use't the same words every time he 
cam, an' whun he had restit a bit, he resume't " ! Doctor ! 
she's aboot bye wi't ! could ye no gie's a pair o' aul' black 
trousers tae wear at the burial ? " As, we had nae black trousers 
tae spare in thae days, he gat nane; so he finish't aff wi' 
" Heest ye ! Doctor ! heest ye ! she'll be deid or ye wun half-way. 
She gat aff the Session, ye ken." 

Aff gaed the Doctor, four weary miles an' nae mile-stanes, 
an' as sune as he wun in ye door an' could be seen through the 
reek, he was salutit wi' " Eh ! Doctor ! whut keepit ye ? A'm 
far waur ! A'm fit tae be chokit wi' the clocher an' the floam ! 
yon drogg was nae use. A micht as weel 'a' suppit saep-sapples 
A'm clocherin' and hosstin' frae morning tae nicht, an' frae nicht 
tae morning." 

It wus verra heartless tae be tell't every time he gaed yt 
she wus far waur, an' the Doctor wus fair provokit aboot it, an' 
thocht folk wud notice the man comin' day efter day to the door, 
an' think he was makin' a puir han' o' her. 

Hooever, a big blue letter cam' frae Edinburgh yae day, an' 
this wus a Insurance Company wantin' him tae gang tae Palnure 
tae examine aul' Doctor Agnew tae see if he wus aye leevin ? 
He wus 99, an' there wus an annuity on his life, an' they thocht 



HEADER 395 

ta reds on ; an Ji had a 'briSar Se ka:t 'alik, it liivt nskst do:r, 
an WAZ 'twarGri i:r 'JArjar nor bar, an i WAZ a 'wabstar, an wroxt 
pledz an 'blarjkats an Omz o Sat kain. a si: Sa 'dikjnq sez it Jud 
bi pra'nunst "plad," bat Sats djyst 'nonsans, far its pra'nunst 
dgyst laik Sa 'mlij " pled." bat Sats 'neGro. 

wil! 'bela an 'alik bi'lant ta Sa 'glenkmz, an Se ka:t Sar 
'feSar 'samarz ma'gAb, him it j0st ta liiv a'kros Sa 'watar fre 
da'rai; bat Se 1 t/aind3t Sar nem ta 'gibsan AYAn Se tArnt d3in / til. 
al no: se: bat it WAZ an im'pr0:vmant, 60:. 

'twciGri de:z 'cilik j0st ta kAm dun ta Sa 'feri, an gji: a 
t/ap at Sa do:r. 

" e: ! 'doktar ! " ssz i, " jil he: ta kwa: Ap ta bar'fad an si: 
'bsla, Jiz fa:r wa:r Sa de: ; jon 'medsp 'didna d0: ar a bit o gjyd ; 
Jiz dgyst dyn wi 'hostan, an fe:r 't/okat wi Sa 'kloxar an Sa flom." 
hi j0st Sa sem wArdz x ivri taim i kam, an AVAn i had 'rsstat a bit, 
hi rfzumt " o: ! 'doktar ! Jiz a'but bai wi:t ! kAd i no: 2 gjis a 
pe:r o a:l blak 'tru:zarz ta wi:r at Sa 'b^inal?" az wi had ne: 
blak 'tru.'zarz ta spe:r in Se: de:z, hi gat nen ; so i 'fini/t af wi 
"'histi ! 'doktar ! 'histi ! Jil bi did or i wAn 'haifwai. Ji gat af Sa 
'ssjan, i kjsn." 

af gjed Sa 'doktar, 'fAuar 'wi:ri mailz an ne: 'mailstenz, an az 
syn az i wAn pi ji do:r an kAd bi sin 6ru: Sa rik, hi WAZ sa'lutat 
wi "e:! 'doktar! AVAt 'kipat i? am fa:r wa:r! am fit ta bi 
'tjokat wi Sa 'kloxar an Sa flom ! jon drog WAZ ne: jys. a mpct 
az wil a 'sApat 'sep'saplz ! am "kloxaran an 'hostan fre 'mornan 
ta nixt, an fre nixt ta 'mornan." 

it WAZ 'vsra 'hertlas ta bi telt 'ivri taim hi gjed it Ji WAZ 
fa:r wa:r, an Sa 'doktar WAZ fe:r pre'vokat a'but it, an 6oxt fok 
wAd 'notis Sa man 'kAmari de: 'eftar de: ta Sa do:r, an Sink i WAZ 
x makan a p0:r han o ar. 

hu'ivar, a big blju: 'letar kam fre 'sdnbAra je: de:, an Sis WAZ 
a in'Jurans 'kAmpam 'wantan im ta gar) ta parnju:r ta ig'zamm 
ail 'doktar r agnju ta si: if i WAZ ai 'liivan ? hi WAZ r nainti nain, 
an Sar WAZ an a'njuiti on iz laif, an Se Goxt i Jud a bin did larj 



HJainJt 2 gji:z 



396 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



he should 'a' been deid lang afore ; an' they jalouse't yt some- 
buddy else wus signing his name an' gettin' the siller. 

Weel ! the Doctor gaed his wa's ower an' saw him ; an' he 
wus oot in the yaird settin' kail, an' they gaed awa-ye-hoose an' 
had a dram thegither. 

" Eh ! man ! " says Doctor Agnew, " an' ye'r i' Ferry, ir ye ? 
d'ye ken Sanny M'Kie, is he aye leevin' yet; an' hoo's John 
M'Clurg an' Peter M'Quhae ? " An' he speer't an' better speer't, 
whiles aboot folk yt wus leevin' an' whiles aboot folk yt wus deid 
mony a year afore, an' at last he said " An' hae ye been ca't 
tae Barfad yet tae see Bella Gibson ? " 

" Aye ! " says my man, " yt hae A." 

" Is she far waur ? " says the Doctor. 

" Aye ! she's far waur," wus the answer. 

" Weel ! " says Doctor Agnew, " she haes been ' far waur ' tae 
my knowledge for fifty-seven year, sae ye'll no' be dishearten't 
if she keeps ' far waur ' for a dizzen year tae come. A suppose 
she's as badly as ever wi' the clocher an' the floam." 

It wus an awfu' relief; an' he cam hame as pleas't as if he 
had fun a groat ; an' the next time aul' Alick cam for him, he 
speer't if she wusna " far waur " ; an' whun he begood aboot the 
aul' black trousers, he tell't him it wudna be lang or she wus 
gaun aboot the Ferry, an' beggin' for an aul' black goon tae mak 
her decent for Alick's burial. It wus months efter afore Alick 
cam back for him again. 

Yae nicht aboot fowr year efter this, Alick wus in maskin' 
some tea for her, an' quo she " Dinna lea' me the nicht, Alick ! 
A'm far waur nor ever A wus; A'm horridly chokit wi' the 
clocher an' the floam." " Deevil choke ye ! " quo Alick, " ye can 
choke awa' there ; ye'e been far waur this fifty year ; maybe ye 
think A'm as big a fule as the doctor " ; an' he gaed aff tae his 
bed an' left her. 

In the mornin' she wus fun stark deid. 

" Confoond her ! " says Alick, " could she no V tell't folk ! she 
wus aye cryin' * far waur ! ' but wha ever thocht o' heedin' her ? " 

In coorse o' time Alick dee't too, an' there wus twunty-three 
coats fun in the hoose, an' seeventy-nine black trousers, a' etten 
useless wi' the moths; an' the queer pairt o't wus yt whun 
Bella dee't he had a new black suit made for the burial, an' made 
nae use o' a' he had beggit for't. 



HEADER 397 

e'fo:r; en Se c^a'lust j:t 'sAmbAdi sis WAZ 'seinen jz nem en 'gsten 
Se 's^ler. 

wil ! Se 'dokter gjed \z wa:z 'Auer en set: hpn ; en i WAZ ut i 
Se jsrd 'ssten kel, en Se gjed e'waji'hus en bed e dram Se'giSer. 

a e: ! men!" ssz 'dokter 'agnju, "en jer i 'fsr{, ir (j)i? dji 
kjsn 'sani me'ki:, \z i ei 'liiven jet; en hu:z d3on me'klArg en 
'piter me'kxAve: ? " en i spiirt en 'bster spiirt, Aveilz e'but fqk {t 
WAZ 'li:ven en Aveilz e'but fok {t WAZ did 'monj: e i:r e'fo:r, en et 
last i ssd " en he ji bin ka:t te bar'fad jst te si: 'bsle 'gj:bsen ? " 

" ai ! " sez me man, " jt he e." 

" \z Ji fa:r wa:r ? " ssz Se 'dokter. 

" ai ! Jiz fa:r wa:r," WAZ Se 'anser. 

"wil!" ssz 'dokter 'agnju, "Ji bez bin 'fa:r wa:r' te mai 
'noledg fer 'f^fbt'sivn i:r, se il no: bi d^s'hsrtent {f Ji kips 'fa:r 
wa:r ' fer e djzn i:r te kAm. e sA'poiz Jiz ez 'badlj: ez 'iver wj Se 
'kloxer en Se flom." 

it WAZ en 'a:fe rflif ; en hi kam hem ez pli:st ez ^f i bed fAn 
e grot ; en Se nskst teim a:l 'aljk kam for jm, hi spi:rt jf Ji 
'wAzne ' fa:r wa:r ' ; en A\An i bi'gud e'but Se a:l blak 'triKzerz, hi 
tslt im it 'wAdne bi lai) or Ji WAZ gam e'but Se 'fsrj, en 'bsgen 
fer en a:l blak gun te mak er 'desent fer 'aljks 'b0:nel. jt WAZ 
mAn0s 'sfter e'fo:r 'al^k kam bak for pn e'gen. 

je: n^xt e'but 'fAuer i:r 'efter S^s, 'al{k WAZ pi 'masken sAin ti: 
for er, en kwo Ji: "'dj:nne li: mi Se n^xt, 'aljk ! em fa:r wa:r nor 
'iver e WAZ ; em 'horedl{ 'tjoket w^ Se 'kloxer en Se flom." " di:vl 
tjok ji\'- kwo 'aljk, "ji ken tjok e'wa: Se:r; ji e bin fa:r wa:r 
S^s 'fift^ i:r ; 'mebi ji 6mk em ez b^g e fyl ez Se 'dokter"; en i 
gjed af te {z bsd en Isft er. 

jn Se 'mornen Ji WAZ fAn stark did. 

"ken'fun er!" ssz 'al{k, a kAd Ji no: e tslt fok! Ji WAZ ei 
'kraien ' fa:r wa:r ! ' bAt Ava: 'iver 0oxt o 'hiden er ? " 

pi kurs o teim 'al^k di:b t0:, en Ser WAZ 'twAntr'Sri: kots fAn 
in. Se bus, en 'sivnt^'nein blak 'tru:zerz, a: stn 'jysles w{ Se 
mo6s ; en Se kwi:r psrt ot WAZ {t iWAn 'bsle di:t hi bed e nju: 
blak syt msd fer Se 'b0:nel, en msd ne: jys o a: hi ed 'bsget 
fort. 



398 



XXIII A. WINTER 



ECHOES FROM KLINGRAHOOL. 



JUNDA (J. S. ANGUS). 

These verses are written in the Shetland dialect which is 
Mid Scots grafted upon an original Scandinavian stock. The 
Orkney and Shetland Islands came under the Scottish Crown 
in 1469 in pledge for the dowry of Margaret of Denmark on her 
marriage with King James III. The Scottish governors with 
their following of officials, retainers and traders, introduced the 
language of the Lowlands so that the islanders gradually 
abandoned their old Scanic tongue. According to the late 
Dr Jakobsen of Copenhagen University, there are still about 
10,000 words of Scandinavian origin in the modern dialect. 
The pronunciation given in this extract is that of Mr Brown, 
Schoolmaster of John o' Groats, Caithness, who is a native of 
Fetlar and has had a phonetic training. 



JBlaw, blaw, blaw ! 

Eain, rain, rain ! 
I wis tinkin he sho'rely wis gjaain ta faa, 

Bit he's takkin 'im up again. 
Da streen he wis up at da wast 

An noo he's as hard fae da aest, 
If dis wicked wadder be's gjaain ta last 

Hit'll finish baith man an baest. 

Sleet, sleet, sleet ! 

An slush up as hiech as da cots, 
Da mellishan widna had oot ta da feet, 

Hit wid sok trou da best sea-bots. 
An as for a clog or a sho ! 

Hit gengs trou dem da sam as trou socks ; 
An what can a por body do, 

'At haes naethin bit rivleens or smucks. 



399 



XXIII A. WINTER 

ECHOES FROM KL1NORAHOOL. 

JUNDA (J. S. ANGUS). 

Among the phonetic points of interest in this dialect are : 

(1) O.E. o, Scan. 6, Fr. u become y or 0, e.g. shorely, pb'r, 
cots, sho. 

(2) O.E. a + n = i as in part of N.E., e.g. stane, lane = stin, 
lin. 

(3) Diphthong ou in "through, thought, brought," trou, 
tout, brout. 

(4) 9 and "3 are very widely rendered by t and d (generally 
advanced), e.g. da = the, tinkin = thinking. 

For many years now, fishermen from the N.E. have frequented 
these islands and many have even settled there. This will 
account for the occasional appearance of a N.E. pronunciation, 
e.g. fu, fu = " how," in our poem. 



bla:, bla:, bla: ! 

rein, rein, rein ! 
ai waz 'tarjkan hi 'Jyrli waz gjctin ta fa:, 

bat hiz 'taken em Ap a'gin. 
da strin hi waz Ap at da wast 

an nui hiz az hard fe da est, 
af das 'wikid 'wadar biz gjain to ls T st 

hatl finij be8 man an best. 

slit, slit, slit ! 

an S!A/ Ap az haic, az da kyts, 
da 'msli/an 'wadna had ut ta da fit, 

hat wad sok trou da best 'si'byts. 
an az far a klog or a J0i ! 

hat gsnz trou dam da sam as trou soks ; 
an A\.at kan a p0ir "bodi d0i, 

at haz 'neGin bat 'ravlinz or smAks. 



400 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Whan Baabie cam hame fae da gippeen 

I made her a new pair o clogs 
Dey hed aald bain soles for da shoddeen 

An peerie bress pies i da lugs. 
Ta lat wis see fu dey wir wearin, 

I aksed her ta shaw dem dastreen, 
Bit, sae get I belt, an dat's swearin, 

Sho brocht me da upper o ean. 

Dere's da twartree craeturs o sheep 

Der no mony o dem left 
I bol'd a foon o dem up at da Neep 

An da rest o dem doon at da Klift ; 
Wi da ebb dey goed doon i da gjo 

Ta nibble da bleds o waar, 
Da sea hit cam in an hit laid dem i soe 

An carried dem god kens whaar. 

Bit Johnie o Skjotaing's Gibbie 

He wis at da craigs aerdastreen, 
An he says at whan he wis bewast da Knibbie 

He tocht 'at he shorely saw ean ; 
Sho wis lyin i da wash o da shoormal 

As composed lek as ever he saw, 
Da craws wis aboot her most pooerful, 

Bit her een an her tail wis awa. 

I widna a minded sae muckle 

If I'd only been clair wi da rent, 
For if I soud a lived on a wilk or a cockle, 

I'd a tried till a cleared it at lent ; 
Bit wi sikkan a year as he's bon, 

An appearinly still gjaain ta be, 
Der jost as oonleekly a circumstance bon 

As da last leevin craetur ta dee. 
An dan whaar's his rent ta come frae ? 

Fae da clood o da lift, or da stane ? 
So, boy, I mann bid dee god day, 

I left peerie Beenie her lane. 



READER 401 

Avert "barbi kam him fe da "gapin 

ai med bar a nju: pe:r a klogz 
de bed arid be:n solz far da '/odiri 

an 'pi:ri bres paaz a da Ugz. 
ta lat x waz si: fu de wir 'weran, 

ai akst bar ta Ja: dam dastrin, 
bat, se get ai belt, an dctts 'sweran, 

J0: brout mi da 'Apar a in. 

derz da 'twartri 'kretarz a Jip 

der noi 'mom a dam left 
ai byld a fun a dam Ap at da nip 

an da rest a dam dun at da klaft ; 
wi da eb de gyd dun a da cyo: 

ta nabl da bledz o wa:r, 
da si: at kam an an hat led dam a so: 

an 'kjarid dam gyd kinz A\.a:r. 

bat 't/oni a 'skjotenz 'gabi 

hi waz at da kregz erda'strin, 
an hi sez at Aian hi waz bi'wast da 'knabi 

hi tout at hi 'fyrli sa: in ; 
JV waz laian a da waf a da 'Jurmal 

az kAm'pozd lek az avar hi sa:, 
da kra:z waz a'but bar most 'purfel, 

bat bar in an bar te:l waz a'wa:. 
ai 'wadna a 'maindad se mAkl 

af aid 'onli bin kli:r wi da rent, 
fAr af ai sud a lavd on a wailk or a kokl, 

aid a traid tal a kliird at at lent ; 
bat wi 'se x kan a ji:r az hi:z bin, 

an a'pirantli stal gjam ta bi:, 
dar t/yst az unle-'-kli a 'sarkamstans bin 

az da last 'lavan 'kretar ta di:. 
an dan Ava:rz haz rent ta kAm fre: ? 

fe da klud o da laft, or da stin ? 
so, boi, ai man bad di gyd de:, 

ai left 'piri x bini bar lin. 

1 us 

26 



402 



XXIV A. SOUTHERN SCOTTISH 

An extract from the story of Ruth (Ch. i) in the Teviotdale 
dialect of 50 years ago as given by Sir James A. H. Murray in 
The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland (1873), pp. 242, 
244. 

The Extract shows the following points of difference between 
Sth. Sc. and Mid Sc. 



An' thay cryed oot lood, an' grat ageane, an' Orpah kysst 
hyr guid-muther, but Ruith hang bey'er. An' schui said, " Sey, 
(y)eir guid-syster's geane away heame tui her ayn fuok, an' tui 
her g6ds; geae 'way yuw tui, sefter (y)eir guid-syster." An' 
Ruith said, " dynna treit on-us tui leeve-(y)e, or tui gang bak 
frse cumein sefter (y)e, for quhayr-ever (y)ee gang, aa'l gang, 
an'*quhayr (y)ee beyde, aa'l beyde, yoor fuok'll bey maa fuok, 
an' yoor G6d maa God. Quhayr (y)ee dey, aa'l dey, an' bey laid 
i the greave theare aseyde-(y)e : the Loard dui-seae an mayr 
tui mey, yf owcht but death cum atwein yuw an' mey ! " Quhan 
schui saa, &t schui was sset 6nna gangein wui'r, schui gse ower 
speikein tyll 'er. 

Seae the tweaesum geade, tyll thay cam tui Bsethlem. An' 
quha"n thay wan tui Ba3thlem, quhat but the heale toon was yn 
a steir aboot-them ; an' quo' thay, " Ys thys Naaomie, thynk- 
wey ? " An' schui says tui-them, " Dynna caa mey Naaomie, 
caa-meh Maarah, for the Almeychtie hes dealt wui-meh vserra 
bytterlie. Aa geade oot fuw, an' the Loard hes browcht meh 
heame tuim : huw wad-(y)e caa-meh Naaomie, syn the Loard 
hes wutnest ageane-meh, an' the Almeychtie hes gein-meh sayr 
truble?" 

Seae Naaomie cam heame, an Ruith the Moabeytess, hyr 
guid-dowchter, wui'r, hyr &t cam oot o the cuintrie o Moab; 
an' quhan thay cam tui Bsethlem, yt w&s aboot the fuore-end o 
the baarlie hasrst. 



403 



XXIV A. SOUTHERN SCOTTISH 



English 

how, you, full 
grave, name, home 
die, be, me 
very, set, harvest 
fore, folk 

bitterly, barley- 
corning (noun inf.) 

sister, think 
when, where 
daughter 



en Se T kraid ut lud, en grat a'gian, en 'orpg kest er g0d'niASer, 
bAt r09 harj bei sr. en J0 se T d, "sei, ir g0d'sesterz gien 9'we T hjem 
t0 sr e: T n fuek, en t0 er goidz ; gia we: T JAU t0, se'ftsr ir g0d- 
'sester." en r09 se T d, "o: 'dene trit 'ones te li:v i, or te gar) bak 
0rs 'kAmin 'sefter i, for x^e'Vever ii gar), ail gcuj, en x M e: T r i: be T id, 
ail be T id, ju:r fuek 1 bei ma: fu9k, en ju:r goid ma: go:d. x^e: T r 
i: dei, a:l dei, en bei le T d e Se gn:9v Si:er 9 x se T id i : 5e lo:rd d0 sii9 
en me: T r te mei, ef x ox^t bAt di90 kAin 9'twin JAU en mei ! " x M An 
J0 SCLI, 9t J0: WAZ sget on 9 'garjin w0:r, J0 gas our spikin tel er. 

si:9 Se 'twi:9SAm gi9d, t) Se kam ts 'bseQlem. en x M An Se 
wan te 'bae-Slem, x^at bAt Se hjel tun WAZ en e sti:r 9'but Sem ; 
en kw9 Se: T , " ez Ses na r o:mi, 6enk we ?" en J0 sez te Sem, " 'den9 
ka: mei na'o:mi, ka: me / ma:r9, for Se al'megti hez digit w0 me 
'va^re 'beterli. a: gied ut fAu, en Se lo:rd hez brox^t me hjem 
t0m : hAu wAd i ka: me na'oimi, sen Se lo:rd hez 'wAtnest 9'gi9n 
me, en Se al'megti hez gin me se: T r trAbl ? " 

si:9 na'o:mi kam hjem, en r06 Se / mo9be T ites, her 1 g0d'dox M ter, 
w0:r, her et kam ut 9 Se 'k0ntri 9 moiob ; en x M An Se kam te 
"bseGlem, et WAZ 9'but Ss 'fu^r'send 9 Se 'ba.'rli haBrst. 



Mid Sc. 


Sth. Sc. 


u: (final) 


AU 


hu:,ju:, fu: 


hAU, JAU, fAU 


e:, e, he 


1:9, 19, hje 


gre:v, nem, hem 


gn:9v, mgm, hjem 


i: 


ei 


dee, be, me 


dei, bei, mei, 


e 


8B 


vere, set, herst 


vsere, sa3t, hasrst 


0, 


U9 


fo:r, fok and fAuk 


fu9r, fu9k 


I (in suffixes) 


i 


brt9rl{, ba(:)rlj;, bo:rlj 


beterli, ba(:)rli 


'kAmm, or 'kAmon 


'kAmin 


I 


e 


sj:st9r, 9{rjk 


sester, 9erjk 


AY 


X AV 


A\an, Aver 


x M An, x M er 


ox 


OX M 


doxtor 


dox^ter 



1 Might be written ouxt, r douxter 



262 



PART IY 

BALLADS AND SONGS 



406 

I B. SIK PATEICK SPENS 1 

ANONYMOUS. 

j, . 

The king sits in Dunfermline town, 

Drinking the bluid-red wine ; 
" O whare will I get a skeely skipper, 
To sail this new ship of mine ? " 

up and spake an eldern knight, 

Sat on the king's right knee, 
" Sir Patrick Spens is the best sailor 

That ever sailed the sea." 

Our king has written a braid letter 

And sealed it with his hand, 
And sent it to Sir Patrick Spens, 

Was walking on the strand. 

" To Noroway, to Noroway, 

To Noroway o'er the faem ; 
The king's daughter of Noroway, 

'Tis thou maun bring her hame." 

The first word that Sir Patrick read, 

Sae loud loud laughed he ; 
The neist word that Sir Patrick read, 

The tear blinded his e'e. 

" O wha is this has done this deed, 

And tauld the king o' me ; 
To send us out, at this time of the year, 

To sail upon the sea ? 

" Be it wind, be it weet, be it hail, be it sleet, 

Our ship must sail the faem ; 
The king's daughter of Noroway, 

'Tis we must fetch her hame." 



1 The versions of I, II, III, X are taken from George Eyre-Todd's Scottish 
Ballad Poetry and Ancient Scottish Ballads. 



407 

I B. SIR PATRICK SPENS 
ANONYMOUS. 

Sa kit) sits pi cUm'fermlin tun, 

'drinkan Sa blyc^rid wain; 
" o A\a:r 2 w^l a get 8 'skill 'skipar, 

ta sel Sjs nju: Jip o main ? " 

o Ap an spak an 'sldarn kn^xt, 

sat at Sa kinz qxt kni:, 
" 2 sir 3/p atr jk spens iz Sa bsst 'selar 

Sat 'ivar 4 seld Sa si:." 

5 war kit) haz 2 wr^tn a bred Is tar 

an 3 sild ^t w^ h^z 6 hand, 
an sent it ta 2 sjr 3 'patrik spens, 

waz 7/ wa:kan on Sa 6 strand. 

" ta 'norawe, ta 'norawe, 

ta 'norawe Aur Sa fern ; 
Sa kinz 8/ doxtar o 'norawe, 

tz Su: man brr ar hem." 



Sa 2 f{rst 9 wArd Sat 2 str 3/ patrik red, 

se lud lud 6 laxt hi: ; 
Sa nist 9 wArd Sat 2 sp: 3/ patqk red, 

Sa tiir 'bljndat \z i:. 

" o 7 Avai iz Sjs haz dyn Sjs did, 

an 7 ta:lrf Sa kirj o mi: ; 
ta send AS ut, at S^s taim o Sa i:r, 

ta sel a'po Sa si: ? 

" bi it 9 wAud, bi it wit, bi it hel, bi it slit, 

u:r Jip niAst sel Sa fem ; 
Sa kinz 8/ doxtar o 'norawe, 

tiz wi: mAst fss ar hem." 



1 e, a 2 A 3 e 4 t 5 w^r. wAr, ur 6 a: 7 91 



408 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

They hoysed their sails on Monenday morn 

Wi' a' the speed they may ; 
They ha'e landed in Noroway, 

Upon a Wodensday. 

They hadna been a week, a week, 

In Noroway, but twae, 
When that the lords o' Noroway 

Began aloud to say, 

" Ye Scottishmen spend a' our king's gowd, 

And a' our queenis fee." 
" Ye lie, ye lie, ye liars loud ! 

Fu' loud I hear ye lie ; 

" For I brought as much white money 

As gane my men and me, 
And I brought a half-fou of gude red gowd 

Out o'er the sea wi' me. 

" Make ready, make ready, my merry men a', 

Our gude ship sails the morn." 
" Now, ever alake, my master dear, 

I fear a deadly storm. 

" I saw the new moon, late yestreen, 

Wi' the auld moon in her arm ; 
And if we gang to sea, master, 

I fear we'll come to harm." 

They hadna sailed a league, a league, 

A league but barely three, 
When the lift grew dark, and the wind blew loud, 

And gurly grew the sea. 

The anchors brak, and the top-masts lap, 

It was sic a deadly storm ; 
And the waves cam' o'er the broken ship, 

Till a' her sides were torn. 

" where will I get a gude sailor, 

To take my helm in hand, 
Till I get up to the tall top-mast, 

To see if I can spy land ? " 



BALLADS AND SONGS 409 

Se 1 haizd Sar selz on 'mAnandj: morn 

w{ 2 a: Sa spid Se me ; 
Se: he 3/ landat m 'norawe, 

a'pon 9 'wodznde. 
Se 'hadna bin o 4 wik, a 4 wik, 

pi 'norawe, bAt twe:, 
A\an Sat Sa lordz o 'norawe 

brcjan a'lud ta se:, 
"ji 'skotif men spend 2 a: 5 war kirjz gAud, 

an a: 5 war kwiniz fi:." 
" ji H:, ji li:, ji 'liarz lud ! 

fu lud a hiir ji li: ; 
" far a 6 broxt az mAtJ Avait 'mAn^ 

az gen ma men an mi:, 
an a 6 broxt a 2/ haff:u o gyd 7 rid gAud 

ut Aur Sa si: w{ mi:, 
mak 'rsdi, mak 'rsdi, ma 'mer^ msn 2 ai, 

5 war gyd Jrp selz Sa 6 morn." 
u nu:, 'rvar a'lak, ma 'mestar di:r, 

a fi:r a 8/ didl{ 6 storm. 
"a 2 sa: Sa nju: myn, let ja'strin, 

w{ Sa 2 a:\d myn pi bar 8 erm ; 
an {f wi gar) ta si:, 'mestar, 

a fi:r wil kAin ta 8 herm.'' 
Se 'hadna 9 seld a lig, a lig, 

a lig bat 'be:rl{ 6ri:, 
Avan Sa l{ft gru: dark, an Sa wAn blu: lud, 

an r gArl{ gru: Sa si:. 
Sa 'arjkarz brak, an Sa 'tapmasts lap, 

li waz s{k a 8/ didl{ 6 storm ; 
an Sa we:vz kam Aur Sa 'broken J^p, 

t^l 2 a: bar saidz war 6 torn. 
" o 2 Aia:r 10 w^l a get a gyd 'selar, 

ta tak ma helm m 3 hanc/, 
t{l a get Ap ta Sa 2 ta:l 'tapmast, 

ta si: if a kan spai 3 lanc? ? " 



1 ai, 01 2 g: 3 a: 4 uk 5 w^r, ur 6 o 7 e, a 



410 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" here am I, a sailor gude, 

To take the helm in hand, 
Till you go up to the tall top-mast, 

But I fear you'll ne'er spy land." 

He hadna gane a step, a step, 

A step but barely ane, 
When a bout flew out of our goodly ship, 

And the salt sea it cam' in. 

" Gae, fetch a web o' the silken claith, 

Another o' the twine, 
And wap them into our ship's side, 

And let na the sea come in." 

They fetched a web o' the silken claith, 

Another o' the twine, 
And they wapp'd them round that gude ship's side, 

But still the sea cam' in." 

O laith, laith were our gude Scots lords 

To weet their cork-heeled shoon ! 
But lang or a' the play was played, 

They wat their hats aboon. 

And mony was the feather bed 

That flatter'd on the faem ; 
And mony was the gude lord's son 

That nevermair cam' hame. 

The ladies wrang their fingers white, 

The maidens tore their hair, 
A' for the sake of their true loves, 

For them they'll see nae mair. 

O lang, lang may the ladies sit, 

Wi' their fans into their hand, 
Before they see Sir Patrick Spens 

Come sailing to the strand ! 

And lang, lang may the maidens sit, 

With their gowd kaims in their hair, 
A' waiting for their ain dear loves ! 
.. For them they'll see nae mair. 



BALLADS AND SONGS 411 

" o hi:r 8m 01, 9 'sebr gyd, 

to tak 5a helm in 1 hanc?, 
tn 1 ju go Ap te 5a 2 ta:l tapmast, 

bet 9 fi:r jul ne:r spai Mand" 
hi 'hadna ge:n 9 step, 9 step, 

9 stsp b9t 'be:rl{ 3 en, 
Man 9 bAut flu: ut 9v ur 'gydlj: f\p, 

9n 5a 2 sa:t si: {t kam pi. 
"ge:, fes 9 4 wab o $9 'sjlkan kle9, 

a'm5ar o 5a twain, 
an wap 5am 'pita ur J^ps said, 

9n 5 lst n9 59 si: kAm pi." 
5e fest 9 4 wab o S9 's^lkgn kle6, 

9 r mS9r o $9 twgin, 
9n Se wapt S9in runc^ Sat gyd J^ps S9id, 

b9t st^l S9 si: kain p. 
o Ie9, Ie0 wsr ur gyd skots lordz 

to wit S9r X kork 6 hild Jyn ! 
D9t larj or 2 a: S9 pie: W9z ple:d, 

Se wat 69r hats 9'byn. 
9n 7/ mon{ W9z 59 'fetJer bed 

Sat 'flat9rt on S9 fern ; 
911 7/ monj: W9z 59 gyd lordz 8 sm 

59t 'mvar'meir kam hem. 
59 'Isdiz wrar) 59r / f^T)9rz AV9it, 

69 mednz to:r 59r he:r, 
2 a: f9r 59 sek o 6e:r tru: IAVZ, 

f9r 5sm 5e:l si: ne: me:r. 
o Ian, lat) me: 69 'lediz s|t, 

w{ 59r fanz jnt9 69r 1 hanc^, 
bi'fo.'r 6e si 8 s^r 9/ patqk spsns 

kAm 'selgn to 69 l strand ! 
9n Ian, larj me: 59 mednz s^t, 

w^ 59r gAud kemz m 59r he:r, 
2 a: 10/ weton f9r 59r e:n di:r IAVZ ! 

far Ssm 5e:l si: ne: me:r. 



2 Q: 3 jm 4 o 5 9, a 6 t 7 a, o, A 8 A 9 e 10 ei 



412 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

forty miles off Aberdeen 

'Tis fifty fathoms deep, 
And there lies gude Sir Patrick Spens, 

Wi' the Scots lords at his feet. 



BALLADS AND SONGS 413 

o 'fort{ mailz af eber'din 

i\z 'f{ft{ 1 'faSamz dip, 
en Se:r laiz gyd 2 s^r 3/ patqk spsns, 

w{ Sa skots lordz at \z fit. 



1 'fadamz 2 A 3 e 



414 



II B. THE TWA CORBIES 

ANONYMOUS. 

As I was walking all alane, 

I heard twa corbies making a mane ; 

The tane unto the tother say, 

" Where sail we gang and dine the day ? " 

" In behint yon auld fail dyke 

I wat there lies a new-slain knight ; 

And naebody kens that he lies there 

But his hawk, his hound, and his lady fair. 

" His hound is to the hunting gane, 
His hawk to fetch the wild-fowl hame ; 
His lady's ta'en another mate, 
Sae we may mak' our dinner sweet. 

" Ye'll sit on his white hause-bane, 
And I'll pike out his bonnie blue een. 
Wi' ae lock o' his gowden hair 
We'll theek our nest when it grows bare. 

" Mony a ane for him mak's mane, 
But nane sail ken where he is gane. 
O'er his white banes, when they are bare, 
The wind sail blaw for evermair." 



415 



II B. THE TWA CORBIES 

ANONYMOUS. 



9z a W9z 1/ wcLik9n x a: 9'len, 

9 hard 1 twa: 2/ korbiz 'makgn 9 men ; 

$9 ten 'Ant9 tte 'tit?9r se:, 

" x Ava:r sal wi gar) 9n d9in S9 de: ? " 

" pi bfhpit jon l Guild fel d9ik 

9 wat $9r laiz 9 'njui'slein knpt ; 

9n x neibAdi ksnz S9t hi: laiz Seir 

b9t h^z 1 ha:k, hjz hAn, 9n hjz 'kdi fe:r 

" hjz hAn iz t9 S9 'hAntgn gen, 

hiz x ha:k t9 fss S9 'wgilc^fuil hem ; 

hj:z 'lediz te:n 9'niSgr met, 

se wi: rue mak 3 ur -dengr swit. 

"ji:l s^t on hj:z A\9it /'hais'ben, 
9n a:l pgik ut h^z 1 'boni blu in. 
wj^'e: lok o h^z gAudn heir 
wil 6ik 3 ur nest AV9n jt grAuz beir. 



9 5 en f9r h{m maks men, 
b9t nen sal ksn AV9r hi: \z gen. 
Aur hp AV9it benz, M9n Se 9r be:r, 
S9 wAn sal 1 bla: f9r / iv9r / me:r." 



o 3 war, wir 4 a, A, o 



416 

III B. THE DOWIE DENS O' YARKOW 

ANONYMOUS. 

Late at e'en, drinking the wine, 

And ere they paid the lawing, 
They set a combat them between 

To fight it in the dawing. 

" stay at hame, my noble lord ! 

stay at hame, my marrow ! 
My cruel brother will you betray 

On the dowie houms o' Yarrow." 

" O fare ye weel, my lady gay ! 

fare ye weel, my Sarah ! 

For I maun gae, though I ne'er return, 
Frae the dowie banks o' Yarrow." 

She kissed his cheek, she kaimed his hair, 

As oft she had done before, ; 
She belted him wi' his noble brand, 

And he's away to Yarrow. 

As he gaed up the Tennies bank, 

1 wat he gaed wi' sorrow, 

Till down in a den he spied nine armed men, 
On the dowie houms o' Yarrow. 

" O come ye here to part your land, 

The bonnie forest thorough ? 
Or come ye here to wield your brand, 

On the dowie houms o' Yarrow ? " 

" I come not here to part my land, 

And neither to beg nor borrow ; 
I come to wield my noble brand 

On the bonnie banks o' Yarrow. 

" If. I see all, ye're nine to ane, 

And that's an unequal marrow ; 
Yet will I fight while lasts my brand, 

On the bonnie banks o' Yarrow." 



417 

III B. THE DOWIE DENS O' YARROW 
ANONYMOUS. 

let at i:n, 'drjrjkan 5a wain, 

an e:r Se 1 paid $a 2 'laan, 
Se set a 'kombat Sem bi'twin 

ta fext it in Sa 2/ daan. 
" o 3 ste: at hem, ma nobl lord I 

o 3 ste: at hem, ma 'maro ! 
ma kruil 'briSar wjl ju bi'tre: 

on Sa 'dAin hAumz o 'jaro." 
" o fe:r ji wil, ma 'ledi ge: ! 

o fe:r ji wil, ma 'sa:ra ! 
far a man ge:, eo a ne:r n'tArn, 

fre 5a 'dAui banks o 'jara." 
Ji k{st h^z t/ik, Ji 4 kemd h^z heir, 

az oft Ji had dyn brfbir, o ; 
Ji 'be 1 tat hmi w{ h^z nobl 5 branch, 

an hi:z 2 a'wa: ta 'jaro. 
az hi ge:d Ap Sa r ten|.z bank, 

a wot hi geid wj: 'soro, 
t^l dun m a den hi 4 spaid nain 46 ermd men, 

on Sa 'dAui hAumz o 'jaro. 
" o kAm ji hi:r ta 6 pert jar 5 land, 

Sa 7/ bon{ 'forast '0oro*? 
or kAm ji hi:r ta wild jar 5 brand, 

on Sa 'dAui hAumz o "jaro? " 
"a kAm not hiir ta pert ma 5 lanc, 

an 'neiSar ta beg nor 'boro ; 
a kAm fa wild ma nobl 5 brand 

on 5a 7/ boni barjks o "jaro. 
" if a si 2 a:, ji:r nain ta 8 en, 

an Sats an A'nikwal 'maro ; 
jet 9 wjl a fext Mail lasts ma 5 brand, 

on Sa 7/ bon{ barjks o 'jaro." 



l e: 2 g: 3 ai 4 t 5 a: 6 e 7 o 8 jpi 9 A 
e. 27 



418 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

Four has he hurt, and five has slain, 

On the bloody braes o' Yarrow, 
Till that stubborn knight came him behind, 

And ran his body thorough. 

" Gae hame, gae hame, glide-brother John, 

And tell your sister Sarah, 
To come and lift her leafu' lord, 

He's sleeping sound on Yarrow." 

" Yestreen I dreamed a dolefu' dream, 

I fear there will be sorrow 
I dreamed I pu'd the heather green 

Wi' my true love on Yarrow. 
" gentle wind that bloweth south 

From where my love repaireth, 
Convey a kiss from his dear mouth 

And tell me how he fareth. 

" But in the glen strive armed men, 
They've wrought me dule and sorrow ; 

They've slain the comeliest knight they've slain, 
He bleeding lies on Yarrow." 

As she sped down yon high, high hill, 

She gaed wi' dule and sorrow ; 
And in the den spied ten slain men 

On the dowie banks o' Yarrow. 
She kissed his cheek, she kaimed his hair, 

She searched his wounds all thorough ; 
She kissed them till her lips grew red, 

On the dowie houms o' Yarrow. 

" Now baud your tongue, my daughter dear, 

For a' this breeds but sorrow ; 
I'll wed ye to a better lord 

Than 'him ye lost on Yarrow." 

" O baud your tongue, my father dear, 

Ye mind me but of sorrow ; 
A fairer rose did never bloom 

Than now lies cropped on Yarrow." 



BALLADS AND SONGS 419 

fAur haz i hArt, an faiv haz slem, 

on Sa 'blydi bre:z o 'jaro, 
t^l Sat 'stAbran knjxt kam h{m bflim, 

an ran z lx bodi '6oro. 



"ge: hem, ge: hem, gyd'bnSar 

an tsl jar 'sistar 'saira, 
ta kAm n Ijft ar 'li:fa lord, 

hiiz 'slipan snnd on 'jara." 
"ja'strin a 23 drimd a 'dolfa 3 drim, 

a fi:r Sar 4 wil bi 'soro 
a 23 drimd a 2 pu:d Sa 'heSar grin 

w{ ma tru: IAV on 'jaro. 

" o dgentl 4 wp Sat 5 'bloa9 su8 
from Me:r mai IAV rfpeiraS, 

6 kan r ve: a kjs from hjz diir muO 
an tsl rni hu hi X fe:ra9. 

" bAt in Sa glsn straiv 23/ ermad men, 
Sev J wroxt mi dyl an 'soro ; 

Sev slem Sa 'kAmliast kn^xt Sev slem, 
hii 'blidan laiz on "jaro." 

az Ji sped dun jon hix, hix h{l, 

Ji geid w^ dyl an 'soro ; 
an m Sa dsn 2 spaid ten slem men 

on Sa r dAui banks o 'jaro. 

Ji Iqst iz t/ik, Ji 2 kemd \z he:r, 
Ji 3 sertjt iz wunc^z 5 a: 0oro ; 

Ji kpst Ssm ti\ ar lips gru: 3 rid, 
on Sa 'dAui hAumz o 'jaro. 

"nu 75 ha:d jar tArj, ma 7/ doxtar di:r, 

far 5 a: S^s bridz bat 'soro ; 
al wad ji t{ a 'be tar lord 

San hmi ji lost on r jaro." 

" o 75 ha:d jar tAr), ma 'feSar diir, 

ji mainc? mi bAt o r soro ; 
a x fe:rar roiz d{d 'nivar blym 

San nu: laiz kropt on 'jaro." 



2 t 3 s 4 A 5 g: 6 kan'vai 7 a 

272 



420 



IV B. FAIR HELEN OF KIRKCONNEL 

ANONYMOUS. 

I wish I were where Helen lies ! 
Night and day on me she cries. 
O that I were where Helen lies, 
On fair Kirkconnel Lea ! 

Curst be the heart that thought the thought, 
And curst the hand that fired the shot, 
When in my arms burd Helen dropt, 
And died to succour me ! 

think na ye my heart was sair, 

When my love dropt down and spak nae mair ! 
There did she swoon wi' meikle care, 

On fair Kirkconnel Lea. 
As I went down the water-side, 
None but my foe to be my guide, 
None but my foe to be my guide, 

On fair Kirkconnel Lea ; 

1 lighted down my sword to draw, 
I hacket him in pieces sma', 

I hacket him in pieces sma', 

For her sake that died for me. 
Helen fair, beyond compare ! 
I'll make a garland of thy hair, 
Shall bind my heart for evermair, 

Until the day I die. 
O that I were where Helen lies ! 
Night and day on me she cries ; 
Out of my bed she bids me rise, 

Says, " Haste and come to me ! " 
O Helen fair ! O Helen chaste ! 
If I were with thee, I were "blest, 
Where thou lies low, and takes thy rest, 

On fair Kirkconnel Lea. 



421 



IV B. FAIR HELEN OF KIRKCONNEL 

ANONYMOUS. 

a WAS a war 1 Ava:r 'elan laiz ! 
nptt an de: on mi: Ji kraiz.. 
o: Sat a wer 1 Ava:r 'elan laiz, 

on fe:r kjr'konl li: ! 
kArst bi Sa hert Sat 2 0oxt Sa 2 9oxt, 
an kArst Sa^hand Sat 4 faird Sa Jot, 
Avan m ma 5 ermz bArd 'elan dropt, 

an 6 di:t ta 'sAkar mi ! 
o: fynk na ji ma hert waz seir, 
Avan ma IAV drapt dun an spak ne me:r ! 
Seir did /i swun w{ mikl ke:r, 

on fe:r kjr'konl li:. 
az a went dun Sa 'watar'said, 
nen bat ma fe: ta bi ma gaid, 
nen bat ma fe: ta bi ma gaid, 

on fe:r kjr'konl li: ; 
a 'l^xtat dun ma su:rd ta x dra:, 
a 'hakat hmi m 'pisaz 1 sma:, 
a 'hakat h^m m 'pisaz 1 sma:, 

far har sek Sat 6 di:t far mi. 

o 'elan fe:r, bi'jond kam'pe:r ! 
al mak 8 'garland o Sai he:r, 
sal bmd ma hert far 'ivarme:r, 

An't^l Sa de: a di:. 
o: Sat a wer 1 A\.a:r 'elan laiz ! 
n^xt n de: on mi: Ji kraiz ; 
ut o ma bed Ji b{dz mi raiz, 

sez, " hest ^ kAm ta mi ! " 
o 'elan fe:r ! o 'elan tjest ! 
{f a wer wi Si, a wer blest, 
Avar Su laiz lo:, an taks Sai rest, 

on fe:r k^r'konl li:. 



: 2 o 3 a: 4 fairt 5 e 6 di:d 



422 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

I wish my grave were growing green, 
A winding-sheet drawn ower my een, 
And I in Helen's arms lying, 
On fair Kirkconnel Lea. 

I wish I were where Helen lies ! 
Night and day on me she cries ; 
And I am weary of the skies, 
For her sake that died for me. 



BALLADS AND SONGS 423 

8 WAS ma greiv war 'grAuan grin, 
a 'waindan'Jit x dra:n Aur ma in, 
an ai in 'elanz 2 ermz 'laim, 

on fe:r Iqr'konl Hi. 
a WAS a war 1 A\a:r "elan laiz ! 
njxt 11 dei on mi: Ji kraiz ; 
an ai am 'wiiri o Sa skaiz, 

for har sek Sat 3 di:t for mi:. 

!: 2 s 3 di:d 



424 

Y B. MY JO, JANET 

ANONYMOUS. 

" Sweet sir, for your courtesy, 

When ye come by the Bass, then, 
For the love ye bear to me 

Buy me a keekin' glass, then." 
" Keek into the draw-well, 

Janet, Janet ; 
There ye'll see your bonnie sel', 

My jb, Janet." 

" Keekin' in the draw-well clear, 

What if I fa' in then ? 
Syne a my kin will say and swear 

I drowned mysel' for sin, then." 
" Haud the better by the brae, 

Janet, Janet ; 
Haud the better by the brae, 

My jo, Janet." 

" Gude sir, for your courtesy, 

Comin' through Aberdeen, then, 
For the love ye bear to me, 

Buy me a pair o' shoon, then." 
" Clout the auld, the new are dear, 

Janet, Janet ; 
Ae pair may gane ye half a year, 

My jo, Janet." 

" But what if, dancin' on the green, 

And skippin' like a maukin, 
They should see my clouted shoon, 

O' me they will be talkin'." 
" Dance aye laigh, and late at e'en, 

Janet, Janet ; 
Syne a' their faut's will no be seen, 

My jo, Janet." 



425 



V B. MY JO, JANET 

ANONYMOUS. 

"swit 1 s{r, for jar 'kurtasi, 

Aian ji kAm bai Sa bas, San, 
for Sa IAV ji be:r ta mi 

bai mi a 'kikan glas, San." 
" kik 'mta Sa 2/ dra:wsl, 

'dganat, 'dganat ; 
Se:r jil si: jar 3/ bonj: sel, 

ma d3oi, ^anat." 

"'kikan m Sa 2 'dra:wel kliir, 

AY at jf a 2 fa: in San? 
sain 2 a: ma kp 1 w^l se: an swi:r 

a 4 drunt ma'ssl far sm, San." 
" 25 had Sa 'betar bai Sa bre:, 

'dganat, ^anat ; 
25 had Sa 'betar bai Sa bre:, 

ma dgo:, 'dganat." 

"gyd 1 s^r, for jar 'kurtasi, 

kAman 6ru ebar'din, San, 
for Sa IAV ji be:r ta mi, 

bai mi a pe:r o Jin, San." 
"klut Sa 2 a:ld, Sa nju: ar di:r, 

'dganat, 'dganat ; 
je: pe:r me gen ji 2 ha:f a i:r, 

ma djo:, 'djanat." 

" bat Avat ^f, 'dansan on Sa grin, 

an 'skrpan laik a 2/ ma:km, 
Se: sad si: ma 'klutat Jin, 

o mi: Se w{l bi 2/ ta:kan." 
" dans ai lex, an let at i:n, 

'dganat, 'd3anat ; 
sain a: Sar 2 fa:ts 1 w^l bi no: sin, 

ma dgo:, 'dganat." 

U 2 : 3 o 4 d 5 a: 



426 



VI B. ANNIE LAUEIE 

LADY JOHN SCOTT (1810-1900). 

Maxwell ton braes are bonnie, 

Where early fa's the dew, 
And it's there that Annie Laurie 

Gied me her promise true, 
Gied me her promise true, 

Which ne'er forgot will be ; 
And for bonnie Annie Laurie 

I'd lay me doon and dee. 

Her brow is like the snaw-drifb, 

Her neck is like the swan, 
Her face it is the fairest 

That e'er the sun shone on 
That e'er the sun shone on, 

And dark blue is her e'e ; 
And for bonnie Annie Laurie 

I'd lay me doon and dee. 

Like dew on the gowan lying, 

Is the fa' o' her fairy feet : 
And like winds in simmer sighing, 

Her voice is low and sweet 
Her voice is low and sweet, 

And she's a' the world to me, 
And for bonnie Annie Laurie 

I'd lay me doon and dee. 



427 

VI B. ANNIE LAURIE 
LADY JOHN SCOTT (1810-1900). 



'maksweltan bre:z 9r 

Aiar 'erli 2 fa:z Sa dju:, 
an \ts Se:r Sat 'an{ 2 'la:r{ 

gi:d mil bar 'promts trui, 
gild mi: bar 'promts tru:, 

AqtJ neir far'got w^l bi: ; 
an far 1/ bonj 'an{ 2 'la:r{ 

ad le: mi dun an di'i. 

bar bru; jz laik Sa 2/ sna: / dr^ft, 

bar nek \z laik Sa swan, 
bar fes it jz Sa 'feirast 

Sat eir Sa sAn Jon on- 
Sat eir Sa SAn Jon on, 

an dark blu: \z bar i: ; 
an far l7 boDt 'anj 2/ la:r{ 

ad lei mi dun an di:. 

laik dju: on Sa 'gAuan y laien, 

{z Sa 2 fa: o bar 'fe:r{ fit : 
an laik 3 wmdz m 'simar 'saian, 

bar vais \z lo: an swit^ 
bar vais {z lo: an swit, 

an Jiz 2 a: Sa 4 warM ta mi;, 
an far 1/ bon^ 'an^ 2/ la:r{ 

ad le: mi dun an di:. 



a: 



428 

VII B. MAGGIE LAUDEK 

FRANCIS SEMPILL? (died 1682). 

Wha wadna be in love 

Wi' bonnie Maggie Lauder ? 
A piper met her gaun to Fife, 

And spier'd what was't they ca'd her ; 
Right scornfully she answered him, 

" Begone, you hallan shaker, 
Jog on your gate, ye bladder scate, 

My name is Maggie Lauder." 

" Maggie," quo' he, " and by my bags 

I'm fidgin' fain to see thee ; 
Sit down by me, my bonnie bird, 

In troth I winna steer thee : 
For I'm a piper to my trade, 

My name is Rob the Ranter; 
The lasses loup as they were daft, 

When I blaw up my chanter." 

" Piper," quo' Meg, " hae ye your bags, 

Or is your drone in order ? 
If ye be Rob, I've heard of you, 

Live ye upon the border ? 
The lasses a', baith far and near, 

Hae heard o' Rob the Ranter ; 
I'll shake my foot wi' right good-will, 

Gif ye'll blaw up your chanter." 

Then to his bags he flew wi' speed, 
About the drone he twisted ; 

Meg up and walloped o'er the green, 
For brawly could she frisk it. 



429 

VII B. MAGGIE LAUDER 

FRANCIS SEMPILL? (died 1682). 

^a: 'wadna bi m IAV 

wj: 2/ bon{ 'magi 1 la:d9r? 
9 paipar met ar x ga:n ta faif, 

an spiirt Avat wast Se 1 ka:d ar ; 
rptt 'skornfali Ji 'ansart him, 

" bi'gon, ji 'halan 'Jakar, 
d3og on jer get, ji 3/ blsdar sket, 

ma nem \z r rnagi 1/ la:dar." 

" 'magi," kwo hi:, " an bai ma bagz 

am 'f^a'n fe:n ta si: Si ; 
s^t dun bai mi, ma 2/ bon{ b^rd, 

m tro6 a 4/ win??a sti:r Si : 
far am a 'paipar ta ma tred, 

ma nem \z rob Sa 'rantar ; 
Sa x lasaz Uup az Se war daft, 

A^an a: 1 bla: Ap ma t Jan tar." 

" 'paipar," kwo msg, " he: ji jar bagz, 

or \z jar dron m 'ordar? 
t f ji: bi rob, av 5 hard o ju:, 

li:v ji a'pon Sa 'bordar? 
Sa x lasaz x a:, be8 x fa:r an ni:r, 

he 5 hard o rob Sa 'rantar; 
al Jak ma fib wi qxt gyd^w^l, 

gif jiil x bla: Ap jar t/antar." 

5an ta h^z bagz hi flu: w^ spid, 
a'but Sa dron i 'tw^stat ; 

rnsg Ap an 'walapt Aur Sa grin, 
far 1/ bra:li kAd Ji fr^sk jt. 



2 o 3/ bkSar 



430 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

" Weel done," quo' he : " play up," quo' she : 
" Weel bobb'd," quo' Rob the Ranter ; 

" It's worth my while to play, indeed, 
When I hae sic a dancer." 

" Weel hae you play'd your part," quo' Meg, 

" Your cheeks are like the crimson ; 
There's nane in Scotland plays sae weel, 

Sin' we lost Habby Simson. 
I've lived in Fife, baith maid and wife, 

These ten years and a quarter : 
Gin ye should corne to Anster fair, 

Spier ye for Maggie Lauder." 



BALLADS AND SONGS 431 

" wil dyn," kwo hi: : " pie: Ap," kwo Ji: : 

" wil bobd," kwo rob Sa 'rantar ; 
" its wArG ma Avail ta pie:, m'did, 

A\.an a he: sjk a 'dansar." 

" wil he: ji ple:d jar 1 pert," kwo meg, 

"jar t/iks ar laik Sa "krimsan ; 
Sarz nen pi 'skotland ple:z se wil, 

spi wi lost 'habi 'sjmsan. 
av 2 li:vd pi faif, be0 med an waif, 

Si:z ten i:rz an a 'kwartar : 
gpi ji: 3 /ad kAm ta 'enstar fe:r, 

spi:r ji far 'magi 4/ la:dar." 



2 t 3 sAd 



432 



VIII B. BESSY BELL AND MARY GRAY 
ALLAN RAMSAY (1686-1758), 

Bessy Bell an' Mary Gray, 

They are twa bonny lasses, 
They bigg'd a bow'r on yon burn-brae, 

An' theek'd it o'er wi' rashes. 
Fair Bessy Bell I loo'd yestreen, 

An' thought I ne'er cou'd alter; 
But Mary Gray's twa pawky een, 

They gar my fancy falter. 
Now Bessy's hair's like a lint tap, 

She smiles like a May morning, 
When Phoebus starts frae Thetis' lap, 

The hills wi' rays adorning : 
White is her neck, saft is her hand, 

Her waist an' feet's fu' genty, 
Wi' ilka grace she can command, 

Her lips, O wow ! they're dainty. 
An' Mary's locks are like the craw, 

Her een like diamonds glances ; 
She's ay sae clean redd up, an' braw, 

She kills whene'er she dances : 
Blythe as a kid, wi' wit at will, 

She blooming, tight, an' tall is ; 
An' guides her airs sae gracefu' still, 

O Jove ! she's like thy Pallas. 
Dear Bessy Bell an' Mary Gray, 

Ye unco sair oppress us, 
Our fancies jee between ye twa, 

Ye are sic bonny lasses : 
Waes me, for baith I canna get, 

To ane by law we're stented ; 
Then I'll draw cuts, an' tak my fate, 

An' be wi' ane contented. 



433 



VIII B. BESSY BELL AND MARY GRAY 
ALLAN RAMSAY (1686-1758). 

o 'bssj: bsl 9n 'meirj gre:, 

Se ar Hwa: 2/ bon| 'Ias9z, 
Se 3 b{gd 9 bu:r on jon bArn'brer, 

9n 6ikt j:t Aur wj: x ra/9z. 
fe:r 'besj bel a lu:d jg'strin, 

9n 2 9oxt 9 neir kAd 'altgr ; 
b9t 'meirj; greiz Hwa: lA pa:ki in, 

Se gair ni9 'fansi 'faltgr. 
nu 'bes{z heirz Igik 9 l^nt tap, 

Ji sm9ilz l9ik 9 m9i 2/ morn9n, 
r feb9s starts fre r 0etis lap, 

S9 hjlz w^ reiz 2 9'dorn9n : 
9r nek, saft \z 

h9r west 9n fits fu 
w\ 'i\kd gres Ji kan 4 

'hgr l^ps, o WAU ! Ser ' 
9n "meiriz loks 9r laik S9 1 kra:, 

h9r in Igik 'd9.im9nc?z 'glansgz; 
Jiz 9i se klin rsd Ap, 9n 1 bra:, 

Ji kjlz ^.an'eir Ji "dans9z : 

bl910 9Z 9 k^d, W{ W{t 9t W{1, 

Ji / bluni9n, tjxt, 9n 1 ta:l \z ; 
9n ggidz 9r e:rz se X gresf9 stjl, 

o d%o:v I Jiz toik Sai X pal9z. 
di:r 'bss^ bsl 9n 'meir^ gre:, 

ji r Ank9 se:r 9'pres 9s, 
5 ur 'fans^z d3i: bi'twin ji twe:, 

ji ar s^k 2/ boni / las9z : 
we:z mi, far be0 9 'kan/19 get, 

t9 6 en bj 1 la: wir X stsnt9t ; 
Sen al 1 dra: kAts, 9n tak m9 fet, 

9n bi w 6 en 



a: 5 w|r, WAP 



G. 



28 



434 

IX B. TULLOCHGOEUM 1 

JOHN SKINNER (1721-1807). 

Come gie's a sang, Montgomery cry'd, 
And lay your disputes all aside, 
What signifies' t for folks to chide 

For what was done before them : 
Let Whig and Tory all agree, 
Whig and Tory, Whig and Tory, 
Whig and Tory all agree, 

To drop their Whig-mig-morum ; 
Let Whig and Tory all agree 
To spend the night wi' mirth and glee, 
And cheerful sing alang wi' me 

The Reel o' Tullochgorum. 

O' Tullochgorum's my delight, 

It gars us a' in ane unite, 

And ony sumph that keeps a spite, 

In conscience I abhor him : 
For blythe and cheerie we'll be a', 

Blythe and cheerie, blythe and cheerie, 
Blythe and cheerie we'll be a'. 

And make a happy quorum, 
For blythe and cheerie we'll be a' 
As lang as we hae breath to draw, 
And dance till we be like to fa' 

The Reel o' Tullochgorum. 

What needs there be sae great a fraise 
Wi' dringing dull Italian lays, 
I wadna gie our ain Strathspeys 

For half a hunder score o' them : 

1 "Amusements of Leisure Hours, by the late Reverend John Skinner, Edin- 
burgh, 1809." 



435 

IX B. TULLOCHGORUM 

JOHN SKINNER (1721-1807). 



: gi:z 9 san, mAn'gAmq *kraid, 
9n le: jar 'd^spjuts a: a'said, 
M.at 'smjifist far 2 fAuks ta *t/aid 

far Avat waz dyn bi'fo:r Sam : 
3 lat Aqg an 'to:q a: a'gri:, 
AVKJ an 'to:q, Aqg an 'to:r{, 
Aqg an 'to:r{ a: a'gri:, 

ta drap Sar ^g-mtg-'moiram ; 
3 lat Aijg an x to:rj a: a'gri: 
ta spsn Sa n^xt w^ mjrB an gli:, 
an a/iirfa s^rj alarj w^ mi: 

Sa ril o tAlax'goiram. 

o tAlax'gorramz mai di'lait, 
{b 4 gairz AS a: {n en ju'nait, 
an 2/ onj sAmf dat kips a spait, 

^n 2/ konJans a aVhoir am : 
far blai0 an 't/iiri wil bi a:, 
blai8 an 't/iiri, blai0 an 'tjiiri, 
blaiO an 't/iiri wil bi a:, 

an mak a 'hapt "kwoiram, 
far blai9 an 't/iiri wil bi a: 
az lat) az wi he 4 bre0 ta dra:, 
an dans tj:l wi bi laik ta fa: 

Sa ril o tAlax'goiram. 

Avat nidz Sar bi se: gret a fre:z 
wi 'drjipn dAl 'italjan leiz, 
a 'wadna gi: 5 ur e:n straG'speiz 
far ha:f a 'hAner skoir o Sam : 



1 gis 2 o 3 a, e 4 e 5 wp*, war, wAr 

* Both words might be pronounced with diphthong Ai in 
N.E. Sc., making a perfect rhyme. 

282 



436 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

They're dowf and dowie at the best, 
Dowf and dowie, dowf and dowie, 
Dowf and dowie at the best, 

Wi' a' their variorum ; 
They're dowf and dowie at the best, 
Their allegros and a' the rest, 
They canna' please a Scottish taste 
Compar'd wi' Tullochgorum, 

Let warldly worms their minds oppress 
Wi' fears o' want and double cess, 
And sullen sots themsells distress 

Wi' keeping up decorum : 
Shall we sae sour and sulky sit, 
Sour and sulky, sour and sulky, 
Sour and sulky shall we sit 
Like old philosophorum ! 
Shall we sae sour and sulky sit, 
Wi' neither sense, nor mirth, nor wit, 
Nor ever try to shake a fit 

To th' Reel o' Tullochgorum ? 

May choicest blessings ay attend 
Each honest, open hearted friend, 
And calm and quiet be his end, 

And a' that's good watch o'er him ; 
May peace and plenty be his lot, 
Peace and plenty, peace and plenty, 
Peace and plenty be his lot, 

And dainties a great store o' them ; 
May peace and plenty be his lot, 
Unstain'd by any vicious spot, 
And may he never want a groat, 

That's fond o' Tullochgorum ! 

But for the sullen frumpish fool, 
That loves to be oppression's tool, 
May envy gnaw his rotten soul, 
And discontent devour him ; 



BALLADS AND SONGS 437 

Ser cUuf an 'dAui at Sa best, 
cUuf an 'dAui, dAuf an 'dAui, 
dAuf an 'dAui at Sa best, 

w[ ct: Sar van'o:ram ; 
Ser dAuf an 'dAui at Sa best, 
Sar cile'gro:z an a: Sa rest, 
Se: 'kanna pliiz a 'skotij test 

kampe:rt wj: tAlax'go:ram. 
Mat 2 'waryi| wArmz Sar maindz a'pres 
w^ fiirz o 5 want an dubl ses, 
an "sAlan sots Sam'sslz dfstrss 

wj 'kipan Ap de'koiram ; 
Jal wi: se suir an 'sAlki s^t, 
su:r an 'sAlki, su:r an 'sAlki, 
su:r an 'sAlki Jal wi: s^t 

laik o,:\d ^losa'foiram ! 
Jal wi: se su:r an 'sAlki s^t, 
w^ 3/ neSar sens, nor nn;r9, nor w^t, 
nor 'ivar trcii ta Jak a f^t 

ta 5a ril o tAlax'goiram? 

me 'tjaisast 'bl^sanz ai a'tenc? 
itj 'onast, 'opm 'hertat frenc?, 
an ka:m an x kweiat bi h^z enc?, 

an a: Sats gyd watj o:r am ; 
me 4 pis an "plenty bi h^z lot, 
4 pis an 'plenty pis an 'plenty 
4 pis an 'plenty bi h|z lot, 

an 'dent^z a gret stoir o Sam ; 
me 4 pis an 'plenty bi hjz lot, 
An r ste:nd bcii 'en{ 'v^Jas spot, 
an me hi 'mvar 5 want a grot, 

Sats fond o tAlax'goiram. 

bat far Sa sAln 'frAmpiJ fyl, 
Sat IAVZ ta bi a'prejnz tyl, 
me 'envai #nct: h^z i-otn sol, 
an 'djskan'tent dfvoir am ; 

x a, e 2 a: 3 e: 4 e 5 i, A 



438 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

May dool and sorrow be his chance, 
Dool and sorrow, dool and sorrow, 
Dool and sorrow be his chance, 

And nane say, wae's me for him ! 
May dool and sorrow be his chance, 
Wi' a' the ills that come frae France, 
Wha'er he be that winna dance 
The Reel o' Tullochgorum. 






BALLADS AND SONGS 439 

me l dul an 'sora bi: h^z tjans, 
1 du\ an 'sora, 1 dul en 'sora, 
1 dul an 'sora bi: hjz tjans, 

an nen^se:, we:z mi for am ! 
me 1 dul an 'sora bi: hj:z tjans, 
wi a: Sa ^lz dat kAm fre frans, 
hi bi: Sat 2 w{nwa dans 
ril o tAlax'goiram. 



440 

XB. THE LAIRD O' COCKPEN 


LADY NAIRNE (1766-1845). 

The Laird o' Cockpen, he's proud and he's great, 
His mind is ta'-en up wi' things o' the state ; 
He wanted a wife his braw house to keep, 
But favour wi' wooin' was fashious to seek. 

Doun by the dyke-side a lady did dwell, 
At his table heid he thocht she'd look well ; 
M c Cleish's ae dochter o' Claverseha' Lea, 
A penny less lass wi' a lang pedigree. 

His wig was weel-pouthered, as gude as when new, 
His waistcoat was white, his coat it was blue ; 
He put <MI a ring, a sword, and cocked hat, 
And wha could refuse the Laird wi' a' that ? 

He took the grey mare and rade cannily, 
And rapped at the yett o' Claverseha' Lea. 
" Gae tell Mistress Jean to come speedily ben : 
She's wanted to speak wi' the Laird o' Cockpen." 

Mistress Jean, she was makin' the elderflower wine: 
" And what brings the Laird here at sic a like time ? 
She put off her apron and on her silk goun, 
Her mutch wi' red ribbons, and gaed awa' doun. 

And when she cam' ben, he bowit fu' low ; 
And what was his errand, he soon let her know. 
Amazed was the Laird when the lady said, Na, 
And wi' a laigh curtsie she turned awa'. 

Dumfoundered was he, but nae sigh did he gie ; 
He mounted his mare and rade cannily, 
And aften he thocht as he gaed through the glen, 
" She was daft to refuse the Laird o' Cockpen ! " 



441 

X B. THE LAIRD 0' COCKPEN 

LADY NAIRNE (1766-1845). 

Sa lerd o ko&'pen, hiz prud en hiz gret, 
hj:z mainrf \z te:n Ap w{ G^nz o Sa stet ; 
hi x 'wantat 9 waif h^z bra: bus ta kip, 
bat 'feivar w{ 'wuan waz 'fa/as ta sik. 

dun bai Sa daik'said a 'ledi d{d dwsl, 
at h t z tebl 2 hid hi 3 0oxt Jid luk wel; 
ma'kli/az Je:. 3/ doxtar o 'kle:varzha li:, 
a 'penjlas las wj: a lar) pedrYjri:. 

hjz w^g waz wil'puSart, az gyd az A\.an njui, 
h^z 'wesZkat waz A\.ait, h^z kot {t waz blju: ; 
hi pit on a rjr), a suird, an kokt hat, 
an 4 Ava: kAd rffjfiiz Sa lerd w{ 4 a: Sat? 

hi tuk Sa gre: mi:r an red "kamlj:, 

an rapt at Sa jst o 'kleivarzha li:. 

" ge: tsl 'm^stras dgin ta kAm 'spidili ben : 

Jiz a/ wantat ta spik w| Sa lerd o koA/psn." 

'mjstras dgin, Ji waz 'makan 5a 'sldarflur wain : 
" an Avat brjrjz Sa lerd hi:r at sjk a laik taim? " 
Ji pit, af ar 'epran an on ar s^lk gun, 
bar mAtJ w^ 5 red 'rjbanz, an ge:d 4 a'wa: dun. 

an Avan Ji kam ben, hi "buat fu lo: ; 
an Avat waz hiz 6 i:ranc, hi 7 syn 8 let har no:. 
a'me:zd waz Sa lerd A\an Sa 'ledi sed, na:, 
an w a lex 'kArts i x tArnat Vwa:. 



dAm'func^art waz hi, bat ne: s{x d^d hi gi: ; 
hi 'muntat hp mi:r an red 'kamli, 
an 'afn hi 3 0oxt az hi ge:d 0ru Sa glen, 
" Ji waz daft ta n'f)>:z 'Sa lerd o ko&'pen ! " 



5 a, i 6 e: 7 Jyn 8 a, a 



442 

XI B. THE LAND O' THE LEAL 

LADY NAIRNE. 

I'm wearin' awa', John, 

Like snaw-wreaths in thaw, John, 

I'm wearin' awa' 

To the land o' the leal. 
There's nae sorrow there, John ; 
There's neither cauld nor care, John ; 
The day is aye fair 

In the land o' the leal. 
Our bonnie bairn's there, John ; 
She was baith gude and fair, John ; 
And oh ! we grudged her sair 

To the land o' the leal. 
But sorrow's sel' wears past, John, 
And joy's a-coming fast, John, 
The joy that's aye to last 

In the land o' the leal. 
Sae dear that joy was bought, John, 
Sae free the battle fought, John, 
That sinfu' man e'er brought 

To the land o' the leal. 
Oh ! dry your glistening e'e, John, 
My soul langs to be free, John, 
And angels beckon me 

To the land o' the leal. 
Oh ! haud ye leal and true, John, 
Your day it's wearin' through, John, 
And I'll welcome you 

To the land o' the leal. 
Now fare-ye-weel, my ain John, 
This warld's cares are vain, John, 
We'll meet, and we'll be fain 

In the land o' the leal. 



443 



XI B. THE LAND O' THE LEAL 
LADY NAIRNE. 

am 1/ wi:r0n Vwa:, 3 d3on, 
laik 2/ snairi0s j:a 2 0a:, 3 d3on, 
em 1/ wiiren Vwa: 

ta Sa 4 lanc o Sa HI. 
Sarz ne: 'sora Seir, 3 d3on ; 
Sarz lA neSar 2 ka:ld nor ke:r, 
Sa de: iz ai fe:r 

pi Sa 4 lcin^ o Sa lil. 
5 ur 3/ bon^ 6 bernz Se:r, 
Ji waz be9 gyd an fe:r, 3 
an 01 ! wi grAdgd ar se:r 

ta 5a 4 lanrf o Sa lil. 
bat 'soraz sel 1 wi:rz past, 
an 7 d30iz a 'kAman fast, 3 d3on, 
Sa 7 d3oi Sats ai ta last 

pi Sa 4 lan^ o Sa lil. 
se di:r Sat 7 d30i waz 3 boxt, 
se frii Sa batl 3 foxt, 3 d3on, 
Sat 'smfa man e:r 3 broxt 

ta Sa 4 lanc? o Sa lil. 
o: ! drai jar 'gl^snan i:, 3 d3on, 
mai sol laijz ta bi fri:, 3 d3on, 
an / end3|lz 'bskan mi: 

ta Sa 4 lanrf o Sa lil. 
o: ! 24 had ji lil an tru:, 3 d3on, 
jar de: its 1/ wi:ran 0ru:, 3 d3on, 
an a:l 'wslkAm ju: 

ta Sa 4 land o Sa lil. 
nu: 'fe.'r'ji'wil, ma e:n 3 d3on, 
Sjs 4 warlc?z ke:rz ar vem, 
wil mit, an wil bi fe:n 

n Sa 4 lan<i o Sa lil. 



5 wjr, war, wAr 



444 



XII B. THE FLOWERS OF THE FOREST 
JEAN ELLIOT (1727-1805). 

I've heard the lilting at our yowe-mi Iking, 
Lasses a-lil ting, before the dawn of day ; 

But now they are moaning, on ilka green loaning ; 
The Flowers of the Forest are a' wede away. 

At buchts, in the morning, nae blithe lads are scorning, _ 
The lasses are lanely and dowie and wae ; 

Nae daffin, nae gabbin', but sighing and sabbing, 
Ilk ane lifts her leglin, and hies her away. 

In hairst, at the shearing, nae youths now are jeering, 
The bandsters are lyart, and runkled, and gray ; 

At fair or at preaching, nae wooing, nae fleeching 
The Flowers of the Forest are a' wede away. 

At e'en, in the gloaming, nae swankies are roaming, 
'Bout stacks wi' the lasses at bogle to play ; 

But ilk ane sits drearie, lamenting her dearie 
The Flowers of the Forest are a' wede away. 

Dool and wae for the order sent our lads to the Border ! 

The English, for ance, by guile wan the day ; 
The Flowers of the Forest, that fought aye the foremost, 

The prime of our land, lie cauld in the clay. 

We'll hear nae mair lilting at our yowe-milking, 
Women and bairns are heartless and wae ; 

Sighing and moaning on ilka green loaning 
The Flowers of the Forest are a' wede away. 



445 



XII B. THE FLOWERS OF THE FOREST 
JEAN ELLIOT (1727-1805). 



CLV x hard Se 'Ijltan et ur JAn' 

'lasez e'lilten, bi'foir 5e dam o de: ; 
bet nu: Se er 'mo:nen, on '{Ike grin 'loman ; 

Se fluirz o Sa 'forest ar 2 ct: wid e'we:. 

at bAxts, {n 5a 3/ mornan, ne blaiB ladz ar 3 'skornen, 

Sa 'lasez ar 'lenlj: an 'dAin an we: ; 
ne: 'dofan, ne: 'gaben, bat 's^xan an 'saban, 

{Ik 6 en l^fts ar 'Isglp, an hcuz bar a'we:. 

pi 1 herst, at Sa 'Jiiran, ne: 4 ju6s nu: ar ^iiran, 
Sa 5/ banc?starz ar 'laiart, y. rAnklt, an gre: ; 

at feir or at 'pritjan, ne: 'wuan, ne: 'flit/an 
Sa flu:rz o Sa 'forest ar 2 a: wid a'we:. 

et i:n, ^n Se 'gloman, ne: 'swankiz ar 'romen, 
but staks w{ Sa 'lasez et bogl te pie: ; 

bet {Ik 6 en sjts 'dri:ri, la'msnten her 7 di:ri 
Se fln:rz o 5e 'forest er 2 a: wid e'we:. 

dul en we: fer Se order sent 7 ur ladz ta Sa 'bordar ! 

Se 'irjlij, fer 8 ens, b{ geil wan 6a de: ; 
Se flu:rz o Sa 'forest, Set 3 foxt ei Se 'fo:rmest, 

Se preim o ar 5 land, lai 2 ka:lc? p Se kle:. 

wil hi:r ne: me:r 'lijten at u:r JAu'm^lkan, 
'wimen en x bernz ar 'hsrtlas en we: ; 

'sjxen en 'momen on '].lke grin 'lomen 
Se flu:rz o Se 'forest er 2 a: wid e'we:. 



7 wer, wAr, wir 8 jms 



446 

XIII B. AULD EOBIN GRAY 
LADY ANNE BARNAKD (1750-1825). 

When the sheep are in the fauld, when the kye's come hame, 

And a' the weary warld to rest are gane, 

The waes o' my heart fa' in showers frae my ee, 

Unkent by my guidman, wha sleeps sound by me. 

Young Jamie lo'ed me weel, and sought me for his bride, 
But saving ae crown-piece he had naething beside ; 
To make the crown a pound my Jamie gaed to sea, 
And the crown and the pound they were baith for me. 

He hadna been gane a twelvemonth and a day, 

When my father broke his arm and the cow was stown away ; 

My mither she fell sick my Jamie was at sea, 

And auld Robin Gray came a-courting me. 

My father couldna wark my mother couldna spin 
I toiled day and night, but their bread I couldna win ; 
Auld Rob maintained them baith, and wi tears in his ee, 
Said : " Jeanie, O for their sakes, will ye no marry me ? " 

My heart it said na, and I looked for Jamie back, 
But hard blew the winds, and his ship was a wrack, 
His ship was a wrack why didna Jamie dee, ,. 
Or why am I spared to cry wae is me ? 

My father urged me sair my mither didna speak, 
But she looked in my face till my heart was like to break ; 
They gied him my hand my heart was in the sea 
And so Robin Gray he was guidman to me. 

I hadna been his wife a week but only four, 
When, mournfu' as I sat on the stane at my door, 
I saw my Jamie's ghaist, for I couldna think it he, 
Till he said : " I'm come hame, love, to marry thee ! " 



447 

XIII B. AULD EOBIN GRAY 

LADY ANNE BARNAED (1750-1825). 

Avan Sa Jip ar m Sa l failed, Avan Sa kaiz kAm hem, 
an l Cbi Sa 'wi:ri 2 warlc to rest ar 3 gen, 
Sa we:z o ma hert 1 fa: pi 'Juarz fre ma i:, 
An'kent b{ ma gyd'man, 1 A\.a: slips sund bai mi:. 

JAT) 'dgimi luid mi wil, an 4 soxt mi far \z braid, 
bat 'se:van je: 'krunpis hi had 'neSjij bi'said; 
ta mak Sa krun a pAuncZ ma 'dsimi ge:d ta si:, 
en Sa krun an Sa pAunc^ Se war be0 far mi:. 

hi 'hadna bin 3 gen a "twalmAnS an a de:, 

Man ma 3/ feSar brak hjz 5 erm an Sa ku: waz r stAuan a'we: ; 

ma 'miSar Ji fsl sik ma 'dgimi waz at si:, 

an 1 Q 1 :\d 'robin gre: kam a'kurtan mi:. 

ma 3/ feSar 'kAdna wark ma 'miSar "kAdna spm 
a tailt de: an mxt, bat Sar brid a 'kAdna wpi ; 
1 a:lcZ rob man'tent Sam be0, an w{ ti:rz m hjz i:, 
ssd: <c/ d3ini, o: far Se:r seks, w^l ji: no 5/ msr{ mi:?" 

ma hert jt ssd na:, an a lukt far 'dgimi bak, 
bat ha:rd blu: Sa 6 wpc?z, an h^z Jip waz a rak, 
h^z J^p waz a rak Aiai "d^dna 'dgimi di:, 
or Avai am ai spe:rt ta krai we: \z mi: ? 

ma 3/ feSar Ardgd mi se:r ma 'miSar 'd^dna spik, 
bat Ji lukt pi ma fes til ma hert waz laik ta brek ; 
Se gi:d hj:m ma 2 hanc? ma hert waz pi Sa si: 
an so: 'robm gre: hi waz gyd'man ta mi:. 

a 7 hadna bin h^z waif a wik bat 'onlj: fo:r, 
Avan, 'mArnfa az a sat on Sa sten at ma do:r, 
a 1 sa: ma 'dgimiz gest, far a x kAdna 8mk {t hi:, 
til hi ssd: "am kAm hem, IAV, ta 5/ meq Si: !" 



448 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



Oh, sair sair did we greet, and mickle say of a', 

I gied him ae kiss, and bade him gang awa' 

I wish that I were dead, but I'm nae like to dee, 

For, though my heart is broken, I'm but young, wae is me ! 

I gang like a ghaist, and I carena much to spin, 
I daurna think o' Jamie, for that wad be a sin, 
But I'll do my best a gude wife to be, 
For, oh ! Robin Gray, he is kind to me. 



BALLADS AND SONGS 449 

o:, se:r se:r djd wi grit, an m^kl se: av 1 a:, 
8 gi:d him e: kps, an bad hmi garj Vwa: 
8 2 wA/ Sat 8 war did, b8t 8m ne: laik t8 di:, 
ibr, 0o ma hert \z 'broken, 8m bat JATJ, we: \z mi: 1 

8 gat) taik 8 gest, an 8 'keirna mAt/ ta spm, 
a 1/ da:rna 0mk o 'dgimi, far Sat 3 wad bi a sin> 
bat a:l d0: ma best a gyd waif ta bi:, 
far, o: ! 'robm gre:, hi \z kaind ta mi:. 



G. 29 



450 



XIV B. LOGIE O' BUCHAN 
GEORGE HALKET? (died 1756). 

Logie o' Buchan, O Logie the laird, 

They hae ta'en awa' Jamie, that delved i' the yard, 
Wha play'd on the pipe, and the viol sae sma', 
They hae ta'en awa' Jamie, the flower o' them a'. 

He said, " Thinkna lang, lassie, tho' I gang awa' " , 
He said, " Thinkna lang, lassie, tho' I gang awa' " ; 
The simmer is comin', cauld winter's awa', 
And I'll come and see thee in spite o' them a'. 

Tho' Sandy has ousen, has gear, and has kye, 
A house, and a hadden; and siller forbye, 
Yet I'd tak my ain lad, wi' his staff in his hand, 
Before I'd hae him wi' his houses and land. 

My daddy looks sulky, my minnie looks sour, 
They frown upon Jamie because he is poor ; 
*Tho' I lo'e them as weel as a daughter should do, 
They're nae half sae dear to me, Jamie, as you. 

1 sit on my creepie, I spin at my wheel, 

And think on the laddie that lo'es me sae weel ; 
He had but ae saxpence, he brak it in twa, 
And gied me the half o't when he gaed awa'. 

Then haste ye back, Jamie, and bidena awa', 
Then haste ye back, Jamie, and bidena awa', 
The simmer is comin', cauld winter's awa', 
And ye'll come, and see me in spite o' them a'. 

* Another version runs : 

But daddy and minny altho' that they be, 
There's nane of them a' like my Jamie to me. 



451 

XIV B. LOGIE O" BUCHAN 

GEORGE HALKET ? (died 1756). 

o: 'logi o 'bAxan, o: 'logi Sa lerd, 
Se he tem a'wa: ^imi, Sat delt { Sa jerd, 
Ava pleid on Sa paip, an Sa 'vaiol se: sma:, 
Se he: tem a'wa: 'dgimi, Sa flu:r o Sam a:. 

hi sed, "'Bmkna Ian, 'las{, eo a gar) aVa: "; 
hi sed, " 'e^rjkna Ian, x las{, 0o a gar) a'wa: " ; 
Sa 'simar jz 'kAman, ka:l lx wmtarz a'wa:, 
an al kAm an si: Si p spait o Sam a:. 

0o 'sandi haz x Ausan, h^z gi:r, an haz kai, 

a bus, an a 'hadan, an 's^lar far'bai, 

jet a:d tak ma e:n lad, w{ h^z staf p hjz 2 hand, 

bi'fo^ ad he h^m wj h^z 'husaz an 2 land 

ma 'dadi luks 'sAlkj, ma 'minj: luks su:r, 
Se frun a'pon 'dgimi bi'ka:z hi j;z pu:r ; 
*0o a hi: Sam az wil az a 3/ doxtar 4 /ud 5 du:, 
Ser ne: ha:f se di:r ta.mi, 'dgimi, az 5 ju:. 

a s{t on ma 'kri:pi, a spm at ma Mil, 
an 0{T)k on Sa 'ladi Sat lu:z mi se: wil ; 
hi had bat e: 'sakspans, hi brak {t p twa:, 
an gi:d mi Sa ha:f ot Avan hi ge:d a'wa:. 

San hist ji bak, 'dgimi, an 'baidna a'wa:, 
San hist ji bak, 'dgimi, an 'baidna a'wa:, 
Sa 'simar \z 'kAman, ka:lc? 1/ wmt9rz a'wa:, 
an jil kAm an si: mi m spait o Sam a:. 



1 A, i 2 a: 3 o 4 sAd 5 i, Northern rhyme 
* Another version runs : 

bat 'dadi an 'min^ al'0o Sat Se biz, 

Sarz nen o Sam a: laik ma 'dgimi ta mi:. 

292 



452 



XV B. AULD LANG SYNE 
BURNS. 

Chorus. 

For auld lang syne, my dear, 

For auld lang syne, 
We'll tak a cup o' kindness yet 

For auld lang syne ! 

Should auld acquaintance be forgot, 
And never brought to mind ? L . 

Should auld acquaintance be forgot, 
And auld lang syne ? 

And surely yell be your pint-stowp, 

And surely I'll be mine, 
And we'll tak a cup o' kindness yet 

For auld lang syne ! 

We twa hae run about the braes, 

And pou'd the gowans fine, 
But we've wander/d monie a weary fit 

Sin' auld lang syne ! 

We twa hae paidl'd in the burn 

Frae morning sun till dine, 
But seas between us braid hae roar'd 

Sin' auld lang syne ! 

And there's a hand, my trusty fiere, 

And gie's a hand o' thine, 
And we'll tak a right guid-willie waught 

For auld lang syne ! 



453 



XV B. AULD LANG SYNE 
BURNS. 

Chorus. 

far l o>:\d larj sain, ma dir, 

far l a:\d larj sain, 
wil tak a kAp o' 'kaindnas jet) 

far l a,i[d larj sain ! 

2 Jud l Q,:\d a'kwantans bi far'got, 
an 'mvar 3 broxt ta main? 

2 /ud l o,i\d a'kwantans bi far'got, 
an l aild larj sain ? 

an 'J0rl{ ji:l bi ju:r paint'stAup, 

an 'J0rl{ a:l bi main, 
an wil tak a kAp o 'kaincfaas jst 

far l Q>:\d IQT) sain ! 

wi x twa: he rAn a'but Sa breiz, 
an 4 pu:d Sa 'gAuanz fain, 

bAt wiv 4/ wanc?ard 5/ mom a 'wi:ri 
sm l ai\d larj sain ! 

wi Hwa: he pedlt pi Sa bArn 
fre 3/ mornan 8 sm t^l dain, 

bAt si:z bi/twin AS bred he 4 ro:rd 
sp 1 a:y larj sain ! 

an Se:rz a 6 hanc?, ma 'trAst^ fi:r, 
an 7 gi:z a 6 hand o Sain, 

an wil tak a rj:xt gyd^w^i x wa:xt 
far 1 a:lc? lar) sain ! 



1 g: 2 sAd 3 o 4 1 5 A, a, o 6 a: 7 gis 



454 



XVIB. 1A MAN'S A MAN FOE A' THAT 
BURNS. 

Is there, for honest poverty, 

That Jiings his head, an' a that? 
The coward slave, we pass him by 

We dare be poor for a' that ! 
For a' that, an' a' that, 

Our toil's obscure, and a' that, , 
The rank is but the guinea's stamp, 

The man's the gowd for a' that; 

What though on hamely fare we dine, 

Wear hoddih grey, an' a' that ? 
Gie fools their silks, and knaves their wine 

A man's a man for a' that I 
For a' that, and a' that, . 

Their tinsel show, an' a' that ; 
The honest man, tho' e'er sae poor, 

Is king o' men for a' that ! 

Ye see yon birkie, ca'd " a lord," 

Wha struts, and stares, an' a' that ; 
Tho' hundreds worship at his word, 

He's but a cuif for>a' that: 
For a' that, and a' that, 

His ribband, star, and a' that, 
The man of independent mind, 

He looks and laughs at a' that ! 

A prince can mak a belted knight, 

A marquis, duke, an' a' that ; 
But an honest man's aboon his might 

Quid faith he mauna fa' that ! 



455 



XVI B. A MAN'S A MAN FOR A' THAT 

BUKNS. 

iz Sar, far 'onast 'poverty 

Sat h{nz iz 1 hed, an 2 a: Sat? 
Sa 'kuard sleiv, wi pas hmi bai- 

wi 2 da:r bi p0:r far 2 a: Sat ! 
far 2 a: Sat, an 2 a: Sat, 

3 ar tailz ab'skj0:r, an 2 a: Sat, 
Sa rank \z bAt Sa 'giniz stamp, 

Sa manz Sa gAud far 2 a: Sat. 

Avat 0o on 'hemlj: feir wi dain, 

wiir hodn gre:, an 2 a: Sat? 
gi: fylz Sar s{lks, an ne:vz Sar wain 

a manz a man far 2 a: Sat ! 
far 2 a: Sat, an 2 a: Sat, 

Sar 'tmsal Jo:, an 2 a: Sat ; 
Sa 'onast man, 0o eir se p0:r, 

iz kirj o men far 2 a: Sat ! 

ji si: jon 'b^rkj, 2 ka:d "a lord," 

2 Ava: strAts, an ste:rz, an 2 a: Sat ; 
9o 7 hAnc?arz 'wAr/ip at h^z wArd, 

hi:z bat a kyf far 2 a: Sat : 
far 2 a: Sat, an 2 a: Sat, 

h{z 'r^ban, sta:r, an 2 a: Sat, 
Sa man o mdi'psndant mainc?, 

hi luks an 4 laxs at 2 a: Sat ! 

a prjns kan mak a 'bsltat n^xt, 
a "markwis, djuk, an 2 a: Sat; 

bAt an 'onast manz a'byn hjz mjxt 
gyd fe0 hi 'manwe 2 fa: Sat ! 



w[r, war, wAr 4 a: 



456 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

For a' that, and a' that, 
Their dignities, an' a' that, 

The pith o' sense, an' pride o' worth, 
Are higher rank than a' that. 

Then let us pray that come it may, 

(As come it will for a' that) 
That Sense and Worth, o'er a' the earth, 

May bear the gree, an' a' that ! 
For a' that, and a' that, 

It's comin' yet, for a' that, 
That man to man, the world o'er, 

Shall brithers be for a' that ! 



BALLADS AND SONGS 457 

far x a: Sat, an* 1 a: Sat, 

Sar 'dtgnit^z, an 1 a: Sat, 
Sa pj:8 o sens, an praid o 2 w;r6, 

ar haiar rarjk San 1 a: Sat. 

San 3 lst AS pre: Sat kAm ^t me:, 

(az kAm $ 2 w{l far 1 a: Sat) 
Sat sens an wp-6, Aur 1 a: Sa j^r6, 

Jal be:r Sa gri:, an 1 o: Sat ! 
far 1 a: Sat, an x a: Sat, 

its 'kAman jst, far x a: Sat, 
Sat man ta man. Sa 4 warlc? Aur, 

Jal 'bnSarz bi far l a: Sat ! 



3 a, a 4 a: 



458 

XVII B. DUNCAN GRAY 
BURNS. 

Duncan Gray Cam-here to woo, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't !) 
On blithe Yule night when we were fou, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't !) 
Maggie coost her head fu' high, 
Looked asklent and unco skeigh, 
Gart poor Duncan stand abeigh 

Ha, ha, the wooing o't ! 

Duncan fleech'd and Duncan pray'd, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't !) 
Meg was deaf as Ailsa Craig, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't !) . 
Duncan sigh'd baith" out and in, 
Grat his een baith bleer't an' blin', 
Spak' o' lowpin o'er a linn 

Ha, ha, the wooing o't ! 

Time and chance are but a. tide, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't !) 
Slighted love is sair to bide, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't !) 
" Shall I, like a fool," quoth he, 
" For a haughty hizzie die ? 
She may gae to France for me ! " 

Ha, ha, the wooing o't ! 

How it comes, let doctors tell, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't !) 
Meg grew sick, as he grew hale, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't !) 
Something in her bosom wrings, 
For relief a sigh she brings ; 
And O, her een they spak sic things ! 

Ha, ha, the wooing o't ! 

Duncan was a lad o' grace, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't 3) 
Maggie's was a piteous case, 

(Ha, ha, the wooing o't !) 
Duncan could na be her death, 
Swelling pi ty smoor'd his wrath ; 
Now they're crouse and canty baith 

Ha, ha, the wooing o't ! 



459 
XVII B. DUNCAN GRAY 



'dArjkan gre: kam hi:r ta wai, 
on blaiO jyl n^xt AVan wi war fu:, 
'magi kyst bar 1 hed fu hix, 
lukt a'sklsnt an 'Anka skix, 
2 ga:rt p0:r 'dArjkan 3 stanch a'bix 

ha:, ha:,- Sa ^'ueri ot ! 
'dATjkan flit/t n 'dATjkan pre:d, 
meg waz dif az 'elsa kreg^ 
'dAnkan 4 spct be0 ut ^i p, 
grat \z in be0 blirt n bl^n, 
spak o 'Uupan Aur a l|n 

bar, ha:, Sa w'uan ot I 
taim an t Jans ar bAt a taid, 
'sl^xtat IAV \z se:r ta baidv 
" Jal ai, laik a fyl" two hi: , 
" for a 5 'ha:t^ 'h^zi dii? </,.." 
Ji: me ge: ta frans far mi: ! "- 

ha:, ha:, tte ^uan ot ! 

hu: ^t kAmz, 6 lst 'doktarz tel, 
meg gru: sik, az hi: gru: hel, 
'sAm0jr) in bar bu:zm wrjnz, 
for rflif a 4 s^x Ji brmz ; 
an o:, bar in Se spak s{k 0p]z ! 

ha:, ha:, tSa w'uaii ot ! 
'dAnkan waz a 3 lad o gres, 
'magiz waz a 'pitjas kes, 
'dATjkan 'kAdna bi: bar de0, 
'swelan 'piti sm0:rd h^z *re0 ; 
nu: Se:r krus an 'kanti be0 

ha:, ha:, Sa w'uan ot ! 



1 i 2 e 3 a: 4 sai, more common now. 5 g: 6 a, a 
* Older wre0, cf. Cursor Mundi, c. 1300 : 
" chastite has lichur leth, 
On charite ai werrais wreth" 



460 



XVIII B. JOHN ANDERSON, MY JO 

BURNS. 

John Anderson, my jo, John, 

When we were first acquent; 
Your locks were like the raven, 

Your borne brow was brent; 
But now your brow is beld, John, 

Your locks are like the snaw; 
But blessings on your frosty pow, 

John Anderson, my jo ! 

John Anderson, my jo, John, 

We clamb the hill thegither ; 
And monie a can tie day, John, 

We've had wi' ane anither : 
Now we maun totter down, John, 

And hand in hand we'll go ; 
And sleep thegither at the foot, 

John Anderson, my jo ! 



401 



XVIII B. JOHN ANDERSON, MY JO 
BURNS. 



Mgon 'ancforsan, ma dgo:, 

Avan wi war 2 fjrst a'kwent; 
jar loks war laik Sa 're:vn, 

jar lr bon{ bru: waz brent ; 
bat mi: jar bru: \z 3 beld, 

jar loks ar laik 5a sng: ; 
bat 'bl^sanz on jar l 'frosty pAu, 

MS on 'cincfersan, ma dgo: ! 

1 d3on 'anrfarsan, ma dgo:, 
wi klam Sa hjl Sa'giSar ; 

an 4/ mon{ a 'kanti de:, 
wi:v had w{ 5 en a'niSar : 

nu: wi man x totar dun, 1 d3on, 
an 6 hand m 6 hanc? wil go: ; 

an slip Sa'giSar at Sa f[t, 
'an^arsan, ma 



3 belt 4 a, A, o 5 jp 6 a: 



462 



XIX B. THEKE WAS A LAD WAS BORN 
IN KYLE 

BURNS. 

Chorus. 
Robin was a rovin boy, 

A rantin, rovin, rantin rovin, 
Robin was a rovin boy, 

Rantin, rovin Robin. 

There was a lad was born in Kvle, 
But whatna day o' whatna style, 

I doubt it's hardly worth the while 
To be sae nice wi' Robin. 

Our monarch's hindmost year but ane 
Was five-and-twenty days begun, 

'Twas then a blast o' Janwar' win' 
Blew hansel in on Robin. 

The gossip keekit in his loof; 

Quo' scho : wha lives will see the proof, 
This waly boy will be nae coof : 

I think we'll ca' him Robin. 

He'll hae misfortunes great and sma', 
But aye a heart aboon them a' ; 

He'll be a credit till us a', 
We'll a' be proud o' Robin ! 

But sure as three times three mak' nine, 

I see by ilka score and line, 
This chap will dearly like our kin', 

So leeze me on thee, Robin. 



463 



XIX B. THERE WAS A LAD WAS BORN 
IN KYLE 

BURNS. 

Chorus. , 

'robin waz 9 'ro:van 1 boi, 

a 'rantan, 'ro:van, 'rantan 'ro: van, 

'robin waz a 'ro:van 1 boi, 
'ran tan, 'ro:van 'robni. 

Sar waz a 2 lad waz 3 born pi kail, 
bat 'Avatna de: o 'Avatna stall, 

a dut ^ts 'harcl{ wAr9 Sa Avail 
ta bi se: nais wj: 'robin. 

4 ur 'monarks 'hinc^mast iir bat jpi 
waz 'faivan'twinti deiz bi'gAn, 

twaz San a blast o 'dganwar 5 wj:n 
blu: 'hansal in on 'robin. 

Sa 'gosip 'kikat jn hjz lyf, 

kwo J0: 6 Ava: liivz 5 w^l si: Sa pryf, 

Sjs 6 'wa:l{ x boi 5 w^l bi nei kyf: 
a 0jnk will 6 ka: hjm 'robp. 

hil he: m{s'fortjanz gret ^ 6 sma:. 

bat ai a hsrt a'byn ^am 6 a: ; 
hil bi a 'krsdit t^l AS 6 a:, 

wi:l 6 a: bi prud o 'robni ! 

bat J0:r az 9ri taimz 0ri: mak nain, 

a -si: bai '^Ika sko:r an lain, 
S^s 5 t/ap w{l 'di:rli[ laik 4 ur kain, 

se: li:z mi on Si, 'robni. 



a: B o 4 wir, wAr, war 



464 



XX B. WILLIE BREWED A PECK 0' MAUT 

BURNS. 

Chorus. 
We are na fou, we're no that fou, 

But just a drappie in our e'e ! 
The cock may craw, the day may daw, 

And aye we'll taste the barley bree. 

0, Willie brewed a peck o' maut, 
And Rob and Allan cam to pree ; 

Three blyther hearts, that lee-lang night, 
Ye wad na found in Christendie. 

Here are we met, three merry boys, 
Three merry boys I trow are we ; 

And monie a night we've merry been, 
And monie mae we hope to be ! 

It is .the moon, I ken her horn, 
That's blinkin' in the lift sae hie ! 

She shines sae bright to wyle us hame, 
But, by my sooth, she'll wait a wee ! 

Wha first shall rise to gang awa', 

A cuckold, coward loon is he ! 
Wha first beside his chair shall fa* 5 , 

He is the king amang us three !' 



465 



XX B. WILLIE BREWED A PECK O' MAUT 

BUKNS. 

Chorus. 

wi a:r na fu:, wir no: Sat fa:, 

bat dsyst a 'drapj pi ur i: ! 
Sa kok ma 1 krai, Sa de: me 1 da:, 

and ai wi:l test Sa 'barlj bri:. 

o:, 2/ w{l{ bruid a psk o 1 mo J :t, 

an rob an 'alan kam ta pri: ; 
0ri: 'blai0ar herts, Sat 'li:lar) n^xt, 

ji 3/ wadna f\nd \n 'krjsandi:. 

hi:r ar wi met, 6ri: 'men 4 boiz, 

Sri: 'meq 4 boiz a trAu ar wi: ; 
an 5/ mon{ a n^xt wi:v 'merj: bin, 

an 5/ moni me: wi hAup ta bi: ! 

jt iz Sa myn, a ken bar 6 horn, 

Sats 'blmkan m Sa l|ft se: hi: ! 
Ji Jainz se: brpt ta wail AS hem, 

bAt, bai ma sy0, Jil 7 wet a wi: ! 

x A\.a: 2 f[rst Jal raiz ta gat) 1 a / wa:, 

a 'kAkald, 'kuard lun \z hi: ! 
J Ava: 2 f^rst bfsaid hjz 7 tje:r Jal 1 fa:, 

hi: JZ Sa kir) a'mat) AS 6ri: ! 



3 A, i 4 01 5 A, o, a 6 o 7 ai 



30 



466 



XXI B. OF A' THE AIRTS THE WIND 
CAN BLAW 

BUBNS. 
I. 

Of a' the airts the wind can blaw 

I dearly like the west, 
For there the bonie lassie lives, 

The lassie I loe best. 
There's wild woods grow, and rivers row, 

And monie a hill between, 
But day and night my fancy's flight 

Is ever wi' my Jean. 

II. 

I see her in the dewy flowers 

I see her sweet and fair. 
I hear her in the tunefu' birds 

I hear her charm the air. 
There's not a bonie flower that springs 

By fountain, shaw, or green, 
There's not a bonie bird that sings, 

But minds me o' my Jean. 



467 



XXI B. OF A' THE AIRTS THE WIND 
CAN BLAW 

BURNS. 

I. 

o l a: Sa 2 erts Sa 3 wpi kan 1 bla: 

a 'di:rlt laik Sa west, 
for Seir Sa 4/ bon{ 'last li:vz, 

Sa 'last a lu: best. 
Seirz waild 3 w^dz grAu, an ^varz TAU, 

an 5/ mon{ a h{l bftwin, 
bat de: an npct ma 'fans^z flpt 

\z 'ivar w^ ma dgin. 

II. 

a si: har jn Sa x djui fluirz 

a si: har swit an fe:r. 
a hi:r har p Sa 'tjynfa bjrdz 

a hi:r har t/arm Sa e:r. 
Sarz not a 4/ bon{ flu:r Sat spr^rjz 

bi x fAuntan, ^a:, or grin, 
Sarz not a 4/ bonj b^rd Sat SJTJZ, 

bat mainc^z mi o ma dgin. 



5 o, A, a 



302 



468 



XXII B. WAE'S ME FOR PEINCE CHAELIE 
WILLIAM GLEN (1789-1826). 

A wee bird cam' to our ha' door, 

He warbled sweet and clearly, 
An' aye the owre-come o' his sang 

Was, " Wae's me for Prince Charlie ! " 
Oh ! when I heard the bonnie, bonnie bird, 

The tears cam' drappin* rarely, 
I took my bonnet aff my head, 

For weel I lo'ed Prince Charlie ! 

Quoth I, " My bird, my bonnie, bonnie bird, 

Is that a sang ye borrow ; 
Or is't some words ye've learnt by heart, 

Or a lilt o' dool an' sorrow? " 
" Oh ! no, no, no," the wee bird sang, 

" I've flown sin' mornin' early ; 
But sic a day o' wind an' rain 

Oh ! wae's me for Prince Charlie ! 

" On hills that are by right his ain, 

He roves 'a lanely stranger, 
On ilka hand he's press'd by want, 

On ilka side is danger. 
Yestreen I met him in a glen, 

My heart maist burstit fairly, 
For sadly changed indeed was he 

Oh ! wae's me for Prince Charlie ! 

" Dark night cam on, the tempest roar'd, 

Oot owre the hills an' valleys, 
An' whar was't that your Prince lay down, 

Whase hame should been a palace ? 



469 



XXII B. WAE'S ME FOR PRINCE CHARLIE 

WILLIAM GLEN (1789-1826). 

a wi: 1 b[rd kam to u:r 2 h(i: do:r, 

hi warblt swit en 'kliirl^, 
an ei $9 'AurkAm o hjz sar) 

W9z, " we:z mi for prms 'tjeirlf ! " 
o: ! A\an 9 3 hard $9 4/ bon{, 4/ bon^ bn-d, 

89 ti:rz kam 'drap9n 're:rl{, 
a tuk m9 'bon9t af m9 5 hid, 

for wil 9 lu:d prms 't/e:rl{ ! 

kwod ai, " m9 1 b^rd, m9 4/ boni, 4/ bon{ 

{z Sat 9 sat) ji 'boro ; 
or i$t sAm wArdz jiv Isrnt b{ hert, 

or 9 l^lt o 6 dul 9n 'soro ? " 
"o: ! no:, no:, no:," S9 wi: x b{rd san ? 

" av flAun sp 4/ morn9n 'e:rl{ ; 
b9t s\k 9 de: o l vf\nd 9n ren 

o: ! we:z mi for pqns 'c/eirlj ! 

" on hjlz S9t a:r bj rjxt h^z e:n, 

hi ro:vz 9 x lenl{ 7/ strend39r, 
on X ilk9 hand hiz prest bj: want, 

on ^Ik9 S9id j:z 7/ dend39r. 
J9'strin 9 met him pi 9 glsn, 

ni9 hsrt rnest x bArst9t 'fe:rl{, 
for 'sadlT 7 t/end3t p'did W9z hi: 

o: ! we:z mi for prms 't/e.'rlj: 1 

" dark np:t kam on, S9 X tsmp9st ro:rt, 

ut Aur S9 h^lz 9n 5/ val^z, 
9n 2 Aia:r west- Sat J9r pr^ns le: dun, 

Ave:z hem Jud bin 9 5/ palj:s? 



470 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

He row'd him in a Highland plaid, 
Which cover'd him but sparely, 

An' slept beneath a bush o' broom 
Oh ! wae's me for Prince Charlie ! " 

But now the bird saw some red coats, 

An' he shook his wings wi' anger, 
" Oh ! this is no a land for me ; 

I'll tarry here nae langer ! " 
A while he hover'd on thawing 

Ere he departed fairly, 
But weel I mind the fare weel strain 

Was, " Wae's me for Prince Charlie ! " 



BALLADS AND SONGS 471 



hi rAud hmi jn a 'hilancZ pled, 
AvitJ 'kAvart h^m bat 'speirlj, 

an slept 1 bi / ni9 a bAs o brym 
o: ! weiz mi for prms 'tjeirlj: ! " 

bat mil Sa 2 bird 3 sai sAm 4 red kots, 

an i Jyk h^z wmz wj; 'arjar, 
" 01 ! Sjs \z noi a 5 lanc? far mil ; 

al 'taq hiir ne: "larjar ! " 
a Avail hi 'hoivart on Sa w^rj 

eir hi 6 di / pertat 'feirl^, 
bat wil a maind Sa 'feirwil stren 

waz, " weiz mi for prms 't/eirlj ! " 

l e 2 A 3 gi 4 a,i 5 ai 6 s 



472 



XXIII B. WHEN THE K YE COMES HAME 

JAMES HOGG (1770-1835). 
Chorus. 

When the kye comes hame, 
When the kye comes hame, 
'Tween the gloamin and the mirk 
When the kye comes hame. 
Come all ye jolly shepherds 

That whistle through the glen, 
I'll tell ye of a secret 

That courtiers dinna ken ; 
What is the greatest bliss 

That the tongue o' man can name? 
'Tis to woo a bonnie lassie 
When the kye comes hame. 

'Tis not beneath the coronet, 

Nor canopy of state ; 
'Tis not on couch of velvet, 

Nor arbour of the great 
'Tis beneath the spreadin' birk, 

In the glen without the name, 
Wi' a bonnie, bonnie lassie, 

When the kye comes hame. 

There the blackbird bigs his nest 

For the mate he loe's to see, 
And on the topmost bough, 

Oh, a happy bird is he ! 
Then he pours his meltin' ditty, 

And love is a' the theme, 
And he'll woo his bonnie lassie 

When the kye comes hame. 






473 



XXIII B. WHEN THE KYE COMES HAME 

JAMES HOGG (1770-1835). 

Chorus. 

A\an Sa kai kAmz hem, 
Aian Sa kai kAmz hem, 
twin Sa 'gloman en Sa imrk 
A\an Sa kai kAmz hem. 
kAm 1 a: ji 'dgoh 'Jepardz 
Sat 2 AYAsl Uru: Sa glen, 
al tel ji o a 'sikr^t 

Sat 'kurtjarz x dtn??a ksn ; 
Avat i% Sa 'gretast bl^s 

Sat Sa tAT] o man kan nem? 
t^z ta wu: a 3/ bon{ "lasj 
Avan Sa kai kAmz hem. 

t^z not 4 bi / ni0 Sa 'koranst, 

nor 'kanopt o stet ; 
tjz not on kutj o 'velvet, 

nor 'arbar QV Sa gret 
t^z 4 bi r ni0 Sa 'spredan birk, 

m Sa glen wj:'0ut Sa nem, 
w^ a 3/ bon{, 3/ bon{ 'lasi, 

Avan Sa kai kAmz hem. 

Se;r Sa 'blakbard bigs h^z nest 

far Sa met hi lu:z ta si:, 
and on Sa 'tapmast bAu, 

o:, a 'hap^ b^rd \z hi: ! 
San hi pu:rz h^z 'meltan ' 

an IAV iz 1 a: Sa 0em, 
an hil wu: h^z 3/ bon{ 'l 

Avan Sa kai kAmz hem. 



2 i 



474 . MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

When the blewart bears a pearl, 

And the daisy turns a pea, 
And the bonnie lucken-gowan 

Has fauldit up her e'e, 
Then the laverock frae the blue lift 

Drops down, and thinks nae shame 
To woo his bonnie lassie 

When the kye comes hame. 



See yonder pawkie 

That lingers, on the hill, 
His yowes are in the fauld, 

And his lambs are lyin' still, 
Yet he downa gang to bed, 

For his heart is in a flame 
To meet his bonnie lassie 

When the kye comes hame. 

When the little wee bit heart 

Rises high in the breast, 
And the little wee bit starn 

Rises red in the east, 
Oh, there's a joy sae dear 

That the heart can hardly frame 
Wi' a bonnie, bonnie lassie 

When the kye comes hame. 

Then since all nature joins 

In this love without alloy, 
Oh, wha wad prove a traitor 

To nature's dearest joy? 
Or wha wad choose a crown 

Wi' its perils and its fame, 
An' miss his bonnie lassie 

When the kye comes hame? 



BALLADS AND SONGS 475 



59 'blu9rt be:rz 9 perl, 
en Sa 'de:zi tArnz 9 pi:, 
9n 59 l 'boni '1 Aken'g AU9n 
hez 2/ fa:ldat Ap her i:, 
San So 'lavrek fre 59 blu: lift 

draps dan, 9n 6rnks ne: Jem 
t,9 wu: hiz 1/ bon| 'lasi 

59 kai kAmz hem. 



si: 'jondgr 2/ pa:k^ x /p9rd, 

#9t 'l^nerz on S9 hjl, 
hpz JAUZ 9r ^n S9 2 fa:\d, 

9n h^z lamz or X lai9n st^l, 
jet hi 'dAun9 gar) t9 bed, 

f9r hjz hsrt \z ^n 9 flem 
t9 mifc h^z 1/ bon^ 'las^ 

AV9n S9 kai kAmz hem. 

AV9n S9 l{tl \vi: b^t hsrt 
3/ raiz9z hai ^n S9 brist, 

9n S9 l^tl wi: b^b starn 
3/ raiz9z 4 red m So ist, 
5 



se: di:r 
S9t S9 hsrt k9n 'hardly frem 
9 1/ bonj, ^boni 'last 
A\.9n S9 kai kAmz hem. 



Ssn sps 2 a: r net9r 

m Sis IAV wt'eut 6 a / loi, 
o:, 2 Ava: 6 w9d pr0:v 9 X 

t9 r net9rz 'di:r9st 
or 2 Aia: 6 w9d t/0:z 9 krun 

wi jts 'psrglz 9n its fern, 
9n mis hiz 1/ boni 'lasi 

AV9n S9 kai kAmz hem? 



476 



XXIV B. MY LOVE SHE'S BUT A LASSIE YET 

JAMES HOGG (1770-1835). 

My love she's but a lassie yet, 
A lightsome lovely lassie yet; 

It scarce wad do 

To sit an' woo 

Down by the stream sae glassy yet. 
But there's a braw time comin' yet, 
When we may gang a-roamin' yet, 

An' hint wi' glee 

O' joys to be, 
When fa's the modest gloamin' yet. 

She's neither proud nor saucy yet, 
She's neither plump nor gaucy yet ; 

But just a jinkin', 

Bonnie blinkin', 
Hilty-skilty lassie yet. 
But O her artless smile's mair sweet 
Than hinny or than marmalete ; 

An' right or wrang, 

Ere it be lang, 
I'll bring her to a parley yet. 

I'm jealous o' what blesses her, 
The very breeze that kisses her. 

The flowery beds 

On which she treads, 
Though wae for ane that misses her. 
Then to meet my lassie yet, 
Up in yon glen sae grassy yet ; 

For all I see 

Are nought to me 
Save her that's but a lassie yet ! 



477 



XXIV B. MY LOVE SHE'S BUT A LASSIE YET 

JAMES HOGG (1770-1835). 

ma IAV Jiz bAt a 'Icisj jst, 
a 'Ijxtsam '!AV!{ 'last jst; 

j;t skers x wad du: 

ta s^t an wa: 

dun bdi Sa strim se 'glasj: jst, 
bat Sarz a 2 bra: taim 'kAman jst. 
A\.an wi me gar) a'roman jst, 

an hmt w{ gli: 

o 3 d3oiz ta bi:, 
A^an 2 fa:z Sa 'modast 'gloman jst. 

Jiz 4 'net5ar prud nor 2/ sa:si jst, 
Jiz 4/ neSar pi Amp nor 2/ ga:s{ jst ; 
bat d3yst a 'd^ 



'las^ jst. 

bat o: har 'srtlas smailz meir swit 
San 'hm{ or San 'inormalit ; 

an wiixt or 

eir it bi Ian, 
al br^rj har ta a ' 

am ^slas o Avat "bl^saz har, 
Sa 'vsra briiz Sat 'k^saz har. 

Sa 'fluiri bsdz 

on AqtJ Ji trsdz, 
9o we: far 5 en Sat 'mjsaz har. 
Ssn o: ta mit ma 'lasj jst, 
Ap m jon glsn se 'gras^ jst ; 

far 2 a: a si: 

ar 6 noxt ta mi: 
seiv har Sats bAt a 'lasi jst ! 

A 2 : 3 oi 4 e: 5 t n 6 



478 



XXV B. THERE'S NAE LUCK ABOUT 
THE HOUSE 

ANONYMOUS. 

Chorus. 
There's nae luck about the house, 

There's nae luck ava ; 
There's little pleasure in the house 

When our gudeman's awa'. 
And are ye sure the news is true? 

And are ye sure he's weel? 
Is this a time to think o' wark? 
Ye jauds, fling by your wheel. 
Is this a time to think o' wark, 

When Colin's at the door? 
Eax me my cloak ! I'll to the quay 
And see him come ashore. 

Rise up and mak a clean fireside, 

Put on the muckle pot ; 
Gie little Kate her cotton gown, 

And Jock his Sunday coat ; 
And mak their shoon as black as slaes, 

Their hose as white as snaw ; 
It's a' to please my ain gudeman, 

For he's been lang awa'. 

There's twa fat hens upon the bauk, 

Been fed this month and mair ; 
Mak haste and thraw their necks about, 

That Colin weel may fare ; 
1 And mak the table neat and clean, 

Let ev'ry thing look braw ; 
For wha can tell how Colin fared 

When he was far awa' ? 

1 These four lines were add d by William J. Mickle (1734-1788). 



479 



XXV B. THERE'S NAE LUCK ABOUT 
THE HOUSE 

ANONYMOUS. 

Chorus. 

Sarz nei Uk a'but Sa hus, 

Sarz ne: Uk 1 9 / vai ; 
Sarz ]{tl 2/ pli:zar pi 5a hus 

Avan uir gyd'manz Vwa:. 
and ar ji J0:r Se nju:z \z tru:? 

an or ji J0:r hiz wil? 
j:z S^s a toim ta O^nk o work? 
ji 1 d3<i:dz, fl^rj bai J9r Avil. 
\z S^s 9 tgim t9 6ink o wark, 

Avan 'kolpz at Sa doir? 
raks mi ma klok ! al ta 5a ki: 
an si: hjm kAm a'Joir. 

3 raiz Ap an mak a klin 3 fair / said, 

pjt on Sa mAkl pot ; 
gi: l^tl ket bar kotn gun, 

an d3ok h^z 'sAnd^ kot ; 
an mak Sar Jyn az blak az sleiz, 

Sar ho:z az Avait 9z ^^sna: ; 
^ts 1 Q>: t9 pliiz m9 em gyd'man, 

for hi:z bin lar) 1 a / wa:. 

Sarz 1 twa: fat hsnz a'pon Sa 1 ba:k, 

bin fed S^s mAn8 an me:r ; 
mak best an X 6rai Sar neks a'but, 

Sat 'kolp wil me: feir ; 
an mak Sa tebl nit n klin, 
4 let 'ivrj: 0^r) luk x bra: ; 
far 1 A\.a: kan tel hu: 'kolp fe:rd 
hi \vaz 1 fa:r 1 a'wa: ? 



'pleizar ; also with 3 3 ai 4 a, a 



480 MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 

gie me down my bigonet, 

My bishop satin gown, 
For I maun tell the bailie's wife 

That Colin's come to town. 
My Sunday's shoon they maun gae on, 

My hose o' pearlin bluej 
Tis a' to please my ain gudeman, 

For he's baith leal and true. 

Sae true his words, sae smooth his speech, 

His breath's like caller air ! 
His very foot has music in't 

As he comes up the stair. 
And will I see his face again? 

And will I hear him speak? 
I'm downright dizzy wi' the thought 

In troth, I'm like to greet. 

1 The cauld blasts o' the winter wind, 

That thrilled through my heart, 
They're a' blawn by ; I hae him safe, 

Till death we'll never part. 
But what puts parting in my head? 

It may be far awa' ; 
The present moment is our ain, 

The neist we never saw. 

2 If Colin's weel, and weel content, 

I hae nae mair to crave ; 
And gin I live to keep him sae, 

I'm blest aboon the lave ; 
And will I see his face again, 

And will I hear him speak? 
I'm downright dizzy wi' the thought 

In troth, I'm like to greet. 

This stanza was added by Dr Seattle (1735-1803). 
2 The first four lines were added by William J. Mickle. 



BALLADS AND SONGS 481 

o: gi: mi dun ma 'b^gonst, 

me 'bi/ap 'setm gun, 
far ai man tsl Sa 1/ bailiz waif 

Sat 'kolmz kAm ta tun. 
ma 'sAndjz Jyn Se: man ge: on, 

ma hoiz o 'psrlni blu: ; 
i\z 2 a: ta pli:z ma em gyd'man, 

far hi:z be0 HI an tru:. 

se: tru: h^z wArdz, se: smu9 h{z spitf, 

h^z 3 bri8s laik 'kalar e:r ! 
h^z 'vsra fffc haz 'm0:zik mt 

az hi kAmz Ap Sa steir. 
an 4 w^l a si: hjz fes a'gen? 

an 4 wn" a hi:r h^m spik? 
am 'dunqxt 'djzi w^ Sa 5 0oxt 

m tro0, am laik ta grit. 

5a 2 kaild blasts o Sa 6/ wmtar 4 wmd, 

Sat S^rlt 0ru: ma 7 h?rt, 
Seiv 2 a: 2 bla:n bai ; a he: h:mi sef, 

t{l de0 wil 7 mvar 7 psrt. 
bat Avat p^ts 7/ pertan |n ma 7 hid? 

it me: bi 2 fa:r 2 a r wa: ; 
Sa "prszant "momant \z 8 ur e:n, 

5a nist wi 'nivar 2 sa:. 

jf 'kol^nz wil, an wil kan'tsnt, 

a he: ne: meir ta kre:v ; 
an gm a li:v ta kip hmi se:, 

am bl^st a - 'byn Sa le:v ; 
an 4 w^l a si: h^z fes a'gen, 

an 4 wjl a hi:r hmi spik? 
am 'dunrjxt 'djzi w^ Sa 5 0oxt 

in tro0, am laik ta grit. 



'beli, 'belji 2 : 3 e, s 4 A 5 o 6 i, A 7 e 8 w^r, war, wAr 



G. 31 



482 



XXVI B. GLOOMY WINTER'S NOW AW A' 

ROBEKT TANNAHILL (1774-1810). 

Gloomy winter's now awa', 
Saft the westlan' breezes blaw, 
'Mang the birks o' Staneley shaw 

The mavis sings fu' cheerie, O ; 
Sweet the crawflower's early bell 
Decks Gleniffer's dewy dell, 
Blooming like thy bonnie sel', 

My young, my artless dearie, O. 
Come, my lassie, let us stray 
O'er Glenkilloch's sunny brae, 
Blythely spend the gowden day 

'Midst joys that never weary, 0. 

Tow'ring o'er the Newton wuds, 
Lav'rocks fan the snaw-white cluds, 
Siller saughs, wi' downy buds, 

Adorn the banks sae briery, O ; 
Round the silvan fairy nooks 
* Feathery breckans fringe the rocks, 

'Neath the brae the burnie jouks, 

And ilka thing is cheerie, O ; 
Trees may bud, and birds may sing, 
Flow'rs may bloom, and verdure spring. 
Joy to me they canna bring, 

Unless wi' thee, my dearie, 0. 



483 



XXVI B. GLOOMY WINTEK'S NOW AWA' 

ROBERT TANNAHILL (1774-1810). 

'glumi lx wmtarz nu: 2 a'wa:, 
saft. Sa 'wastlan 'bri:zaz 2 bla:, 
mat) Sa bjrks o 'stenl{ 2 Ja: 

Sa 'me : vis s{T)z fu 't/i:ri, o: ; 
swit Sa 2/ kra:flu:rz 'erl{ bel 
dsks glsn'ifgrz 'djui del, 
'blumgn laik Sai 3/ bon{ sel, 

mai JAT), mai 'srtlas 'diiri, o:. 
kAm, mai 'las^, 4 let AS stre: 
Aur glen'kilaxs 'SADJ bre:, 
'bbiSlt spsnc? Sa 'gAuden de: 

m^dst 5 d3oiz Sat 'nivar 'wiiri, o:. 

'tuiran Aur 5a 'njutan wAdz, 
lavraks fan Sa 2/ snaAiait kUdz, 
x s{lar 2 sa:xs, wt 'dAun^ bAdz, 

a'dorn Sa barjks se 'briaq, o: ; 
rund Sa 'silvan 'feir^ nuks 
"fsSaq "brskanz frpdg Sa roks, 
ne0 5a bre: Sa 'bArn{ dguks, 

an x ^lka 0jr) ^z "t/irri, o: ; 
tri:z me bAd, an bjrdz me sjr), 
flu:rz me blym, an 'verdjar sprm. 
5 dgoi ta mi: Se 'kamza bqrj, 

An'lss w{ Si:, ma 'diiri, o:. 



g: 3 o 4 a, a 5 01 



312 



484 

XXVII B. CASTLES IN THE AIR 
JAMES BALLANTINE (1808-1877). 

The bonnie, bonnie bairn, wha sits poking in the ase, 
Glowerin' in the fire wi' his wee roun' face ; 
Lauchin' at the fuffin' lowe, what sees he there? 
Ha ! the young dreamer's biggin' castles in the air. 

His wee chubby face, and his touzie curly pow, 
Are lauchin' and noddin' to the dancin' lowe ; 
He'll brown his rosy cheeks, and singe his sunny hair, 
Glowerin' at the imps wi' their castles in the air. 

He sees muckle castles towerin' to the moon ! 
He sees little sodgers pu'ing them a' doun ! 
Worlds whamlin' up and doun, bleezin' wi' a flare, 
See how he loups ! as they glimmer in the air. 

For a' sae sage he looks, what can the laddie ken? 
He's thinkin' upon naething, like mony mighty men ; 
A wee thing maks us think, a sma' thing maks us stare, 
There are mair folk than him biggin' castles in the air. 

Sic a night in winter may weel mak him cauld ; 
His chin upon his buffy hand will soon mak him auld ; 
His brow is brent sae braid, O pray that Daddy Care 
Would let the wean alane wi' his castles in the air ! 

He'll glower at the fire ; and he'll keek at the light ! 
But mony sparklin' stars are swallowed up by night; 
Aulder een than his are glamoured by a glare, 
Hearts are broken, heads are turned, wi' castles in the air. 



485 

XXVII B. CASTLES IN THE AIR 
JAMES BALLANTINE (1808-1877). 



5a 1/ bonr, 1/ bonj 2 bern, A\a srts 'pokan p 5a es, 
"gUuran p 59 3 fair w{ hjz wi: run fes ; 
4/ lax0n at 5a 'fAfan IAU, Avat si:z hi 5e:r? 
ha: ! 5a JATJ 'drirnarz 'tygan kastlz p 5a e:r. 



h{z wi: 't/Abi fes, en h^z 'tu:z{ 'kArlj 
er 4 'laxan an 'nodan ta Sa 'dansan IAU ; 
hil brun h{z 'rozi t/iks, an sjrj h^z 'SAHJ he:r, 
'gUuran at 5a ^mps w{ Sar kastlz p Sa e:r. 

hi si:z mAkl kastlz 'tu:ran ta Sa mun ! 
hi si:z l^tl 'sodgarz 'puan 5am 5 a: dun ! 
4 warlc?z 'Avamlan Ap an dun, x bli:zan w^ a fle:r, 
si: hu hi lAups ! az 5e 'gl^mar p 5a e:r. 

far 5 a: se: sedg hi luks, Mat kan 5a ladi ken? 
hiz 'Q^rjkan a'pon 'neStr), laik 8/ mon{ 'm{xtj: men ; 
a wi: 0{rj maks AS G^nk, a 5 sma: 0^r) maks AS ste:r, 
Sar ar me:r fAuk San h^m 'b^gan kastlz p 5a e:r. 

sik a mxt p 6/ wmtar me wil rnak h^m 5 ka:ld; 

h{z t/p a'pon h^z 'bAfj: 4 hanc^ w^l syn mak hpi 5 a:lc? ; 

h^z bru: iz brent se bred, o pre: Sat 'dadi ke:r 

6 wad 7 lat 5a we:n a'len w{ h^z kastlz p 5a e:r ! 

hil gUur at 5a 3 fan-; an hil kik at 5a Iptt ! 

bat 8/ mom 'sparklan sta:rz ar 'swalat Ap bi njxt ; 

5/ a:lc?ar in 5an h^z ar 9/ glamard bai a gle:r, 

herts ar 'brokan, 10 hidz ar tArnt, w{ kastlz p 5a e:r. 



2 e 3 ai 4 a: 5 : A, i 7 a, e 8 a, o, A 



8n. - A 9f. 10 



ALPHABETICAL WOED INDEX TO PAET II 

(The numerals refer to paragraphs.) 



begude, 69 

beheef o', 102 

behint, behint-hand, 103, 

183 

belike, 77 

belive, belyve, 71, 160 
below, 104 
ben, benn, 72, 105 
beneath, 106 
benmost, 42 
benorth, 107 
beside, 108 
besom, 17 
beyond, 110 
bias, 180 
billie, 16 
binna, 58 
bit, bittie, 18, 127 
bittock, 18, 178 
blindlins, 176 
blythe of, 127 
bodle, boddle, 20 
body, bodie, 16, 29 
bood, 65 
boonmost, 42 
boos, boost, 65 
boot of, to the, 111 
bot, 147 
bow, bowe, 19 
bowrock, 178 
braw and, 45 
breeken, 8 
breer, breers, 9 
buckie, 16 
bud, bude, 65 
buddy, 16 
buist, 65 

bunemost, 42, 177 
but, buit (vb.), 65 
but (prep.), 112 
but, butt (adv.), 72, 112 
by, bye, 99, 113, 184 
bye-ganging, 184 
bye-hands, 184 
bygane, 184 
by-ordinar, 184 
byous, 180 
by'se, 150 
byst, 65 



a, 2 


around, 96 


'a, 59 


-art, 164 


a-, 159 


as, 147, 150 


aa, 64 


as far as, 95 


abeigh, 72 


aside, asides, 108, 159 


abin, 86 


as sune's, 149 


ablow, 72, 84, 104, 159 


at, 97 


aboon, 72, 86 


'at, 27, 145 (b) 


aboot, about, 85 


at ane mae, at ane mair, 74 


abune, 72, 86 


'at-hoo, 145 (b) 


acqueesh, 109 


athoot, 143 


acquent, 165 


athort, 98 


ae, 3, 32 


ation, 15 


aff and on, 128 


at no rate, 79 


aff o', 128 


atower, 99 


afore, 71, 101, 149, 159 


at the lang lenth, 71 


aften, 71 


attour, 99 


again, agane, agen, 89, 149 


atweel, 75 (with footnote) 


against, 89 


atween, atweesh, 109, 159 


ahin, ahint, 103, 159, 183 


auch, 156 


aiblins, 73 


aucht, 31, 64 


aich, 153 


aucht or ocht, 30 


aicht, 31 


auchteen, 31 


aifter, 88, 149 


auchty, 31 


aince, 71 


auld, 44 


ainsel, 24 


ava, 83, 127 


air, 71 


aw (I), 21 


aither, 145 


awa, 82 


a'kin, 38 


awe, 64 


alang, 90 


aweel, 75 (with footnote), 


a-lenth, 90 


157 


allenarly, 74 


ay, 78 


along, 90 


aye, 71 


amaist, 74 


ayont, 110, 159 


amang, 91 




amna, amnin, 58 


b', 113 


amo', arnon', among, 91 


back or fore, 73 


an, 148 


bairn, 15 


an', 145 


baith, 145 


an a', 74 


bannock, 178 


ance, anes, 71, 149 


baudrins, baudrons, 158 


-an(d), 49 


bawbee, 20 


ane, 1, 29, 31 


bawty, 158 


aneath, 92, 106, 159 


be-, 160 


anent, 93 


beed, beet, 65 


ane's errand, 74 


beflum, 160 


aneth, 92, 106 


begood, 69 


antrant, antrin, 39 


begouth, 69 


apiece, 4 


begowk, begunk, 160 



488 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



cairn, 18 


doon-with, 187 


forby, forbye, 117 


callan, callant, 16 


dought, 54 


fore, 188 


cam-, 185 


dow, 54 


fore-end, 161 


camseuch, 185 


downa do, 54 


foregather, forgedder, 161 


camsteary, camstrairy, 185 


downcome, 187 


forenenst, 119 


canna, 52, 61 


dozen't, 156 


forenicht, 161 


car, carr, 9 


drap, drappie, 18, 127 


forfain, 161 


carle, carlie, 16 


du, 22 


forfecht, forfeuchan, 161 


carlin, carline, 17 


dune, 74 


foment, foranent, 119 


cast oot, 131 


duv, 53 


forpet, forpit, 19 


cast up, 139 




forrit, 72 


catch them, 152 


easel, 166 


forwandered, 161 


cauldrife, 182 


edder, 147 


four hours, 33 


caur, 9 


eemest, 42 


foursome, 33 


'cause, 146 


een, 8 


fower, 31 


cep, 'cep, 115, 148 


e-fther, efter, 71, 88, 149 


fowerteen, 31 


'ceptna, 107, 115 


-el, 166 


fra, frae, 118, 131 


chalder, 19 


eleeven, 31 


fraat, 116 


chappie, 16 


erne, 15 


freely, 74 


chappin, 19 


-en, Ch. V, App. B, 167 


frithat, 116 


cheelie, 16 


endlang, 176 


fu', 74 


chiel, chielie, 16 


-er, 23 


-fu', 171 


childer, 9 


-ern, 167 


full, 26 


clean, 74 


-est, 43 


fur, 116, 188 


cleik up, 139 


-et, 48 


fur-afore, 188 


come owre, 132 


ettle after, 88 


fur-ahin, 188 


coo, 10 


ewest, 72 


fyfteen, 31 


coof, 16 


eyther, 145 


fyve, 31 


corp, 13 






crater, 16 


fa, 26, 27 


gae-lattin', 67 


creatur, creature, 16 


fae, 118 


gangtherout, 179 


crivens, by, 152 


faigs, 152 


gar, gart, 68 


croose o', 127 


fair, 74 


gate, gait, 189 


cry on, 129 


fan, 71 


gay, 45 


cud, cudna, 61 


fa' on, 129 


ger, 68 


cuddie, 158 


far, faur, faure, 72 


get, gett, 15 


cull, 16 


farrer, 72 


get aboon, 86 


curn, 18 


fashous, 180 


g e J 5 geyan, 45, 74 


curran, 18 


-fast, 170 


geyley, 74 


cutty, 17 


fat, fatten, 26 


gif, 148 




feck, 18 


gill, 19 


daar, daur, 63 


feckly, 74 


gin, 120, 148, 149, 150 


'deed, 152 


fegs, 152 


girzie, 17 


deemie, 17 


fell (adv.), 74 


glimp, 13 


deil, 79, 186 


fell (vb.), 70 


gowpenfu', 18 


deil-haet, 79, 186 


fell puckle, 18 


grainy, 18 


dhay, 58 


fer, 116 


gray mare, grey mear, 15 


dhur, 58 


ferny ear, 71 


gudesire, 15 


dinna, 52 


ferrar, 72 


guidman, 15 


div, divna, divnin, 53 


fieut, 79 


guidwife, 15 


do, 53, 54 


filk, 26 


gullock, 178 


docht, 54 


fine, 74 


gutcher, 15 


doit, 20 


firlot, 19 


gweeshteens, 154 


dooms, 74 


foo, 73 


gye an', 45, 74 


doon, doun, down, 106, 114, 


for (adv.), 72 




178, 187 


for (prep.), 116 


hae, 59, 151 


doon-laid, 187 


for-, fore-, 161 


haed, 59 


doon-sittin, 187 


for a', for a' as, 147 


haen, 59 


doon the water, 187 


for a' that, 116 


haet, 18, 30 


doon-throu', 135, 187 


forbear, 161 


haill on, 74 



WORD INDEX TO PART II 



489 



ban', 74 


intown, intoon, 190 


mebbe, 77 


hantle, 18 


ir, 58 


megsty-me, 154 


hard upon, 121 


I'se, 57 


meikle, 41 


baud oot, 131 


-it, 48 


meiosis, 80 


haw, 151 


ither, 37, 73 


merk, 20 


hawkie, 158 


itlane, 25 


micht, 60 


heap, 18 
hech, 154 


jaud, 17 


mickle, 41 
mines, 21 


heely, 154 
hegh sirs, 153 


jilp, 18 
John Tamson's man, 15 


minnie, 15 
mint at, 97 


-held, 172 




mis-, 162 


hempie, 16, 17 


kail throu' the reek, 135 


mith, mitha, 60 


here-awa, 72 


kam-, 185 


mithnin, 60 


here-there, 83 


keep me, keep's a', 154 


morn, the, 6 


hersel', 24 


kenning, 18 


-most, 177 


hesna, hisna, 59 


kimmer, 17 


muckle, muckler, mucklest, 


het, 23 


kine, 10 


41, 42 


hev, 59 


kinrick, 181 


mun, 62 


hey, 151 


knave-bairn, 15 


mutchkin, 19 


hine awa, 72 


kneevelick, 18 




hinmost, 42 


kye, 10 


na (adv.), 78 


hinna, 59 




na (conj.), 150 


hinner, 42 


lad, 17 


-na, 52, Ch. V, App. C 


hint, 42 


lane, 25 


naar, naar-han', 74 


hirsle yont, 144 


lanesome, 25 


nae, 74, 78 


hissell, 24 


lass, lass-bairn, 15, 17 


naebody, 29 


hit, 23 


lat, latt'n, 67 


naegait, naegate, 189 


hither and yont, 73 


lat-a-bee, 67 


nae-the-less, 75 


hiz, 21 


lat at, lat licht, 67 


naething, 30 


hizzie, 17 


-le, 167 


nainsell, 24 


hoe, 13 


leeful, 25 


naither, 145 


hoo, 73 


leens, 25 


naitherans, 147 


hooly, 154 


leet, 67 


naithless, 147 


hoot awa, 154 


leeze me, 70 


nar, 71 


hoots, 154 


length of, the, 74, 95 


natheless, 147 


hosen, 8 


let abee, 124 


near, 126 


hotch, 16 


let bye, 184 


near-ban', 126 


hout fie, 154 


like, 70, 77, 178 


nedderin, 147 


hout tout, 154 


-like, 175 


neist, 71 


howsomever, 75 


likein, 77 


netherins, 147 


hunner, 31 


limmer, 17 


nethmost, 42 


hup, 158 


-lin, -lins, 73, 176 


nevo, nevoy, 15 


hus, huz, 21 


lippie, 19 


neyther, 145 


hyne awa, 72 


loon, 15 


nicht, the, 71 




loot, looten, 67 


nievefu', 18 


1,21 


losh, losh-me, 154 


nigh-han', 74 


ilk, ilka, ilkin, 28, 38 


loshtie, 154 


-nin, 52 


in-, 122, 190 


luckie, 15 


no, 76, 78, 80 


in about, 85, 190 


lutten, 67 


noo, 6, 72 


in bye, 184 




noo-tban, 146 


income, 190 


ma, 21 


nor, 145 (&), 150 


infare, 190 


ma certes, 152 


not (adv.), 78 


infeedle, 190 


mae, 41, 42 


not (vb.), 66 


infield, 190 


mair, 41 


note, 20 


inlack, inlaik, inlake, 190 


mair by token, 75 


nouther, 145 


inner, 138 


maist, 74 


now, the, 6 


in-owre, 132 


maitter o', 18 


no-weel, 80 


input, 190 


matter of, 74 


nows and nans, 71 


intae, 123 


maugre, 125 


nowther, 145 


intil, intill, intul, 122, 123 


maun, 62 


nyod, 152 



315 



490 



MANUAL OF MODERN SCOTS 



o', 127, 129 


-r, 9 


taupie, tawpie, 16 


ochan, 153 


rael, 74, 81 


tee, 137 


och hone, 153 


redd out, 131 


terrible, 81 


ocht or flee, 30 


redd up, 139 


thae, 35, 36 


-ock, 178 


richt, 73 


that, 27, 36, 74 


od, odd, 152 


-rick, 181 


that gate, 189 


oe, oye, 15 


rickle, ruckle, 18 


the, 4, 5, 7 


o'er-, 193 


-rife, 182 


the day, 6 


o'ercome, o'erhigh, 193 


rintherout, 179 


thegither, 6 (b) 


o'erturn, 193 


roon, 96, 133 


them, 36 


ohn, 51, 163 


routh, 18 


the morn, 71 


ohone, 153 




the nicht, 71 


on, 129, 163, 191 


's, 21, 57, 150 


the noo, 71 


on-cairry, 191 


sae, 73, 74, 146 


the're, 47 


oncomes, 191 


sae's, 150 


thereanent, 93 


ending, 191 


sal, 57, 152 


thereoot, 72, 179 


ongae, 191 


sail, 57, 152 


they wur, 47 


onkenned, 163 


sang, 152 


thir, 35 


onless, 148 


sanna, 57 


this, 35 


ontill, 136 


sax, saxty, 31 


thocht, 18 


onybody, 29 


scho, 23 


thon, 36 


onything, 30 


'ae, 57 


thonder, 72 


oonder, oon'er, 138 


seestu, 22 


thoo, 22 


oor, 21 


seeven, seeventy, 31 


thoosand, 31 


oot, out, 131, 179, 192 


sel', 24 


thrawart, 164 


ootfeedles, 192 


sel o', the, 24 


threep owre, 132 


ootwuth, 192 


sepad, 57 


thretteen, 31 


or, 130 


set him up for, 155 


thretty, 31 


or ens no, 77 


severals, 39 


thrie, 31 


or than no, 77 


she, 23 


throu, throuch, through, 


other gate, 189 


sheugh, 156 


135 


out an' in, 192 


shilp, 17 


through ither, throu'dder, 


outbye, 72, 131, 143, 192 


shoon, shuin, 8 


135 


out-cast, 192 


shute him forrit, 155 


through-gaun, 135 


outfields, 192 


sic, siccan, 40 


through-han', 135 


outgait, 189 


sich, 40 


through the muir, 135 


out oner, 131 


siclike, 40 


till, 136 


outoure, outower, oot-ower, 


sin', 134 


tither, 37 


99, 131 


sinery, 41 


tittie, 15 


out-taken, 131 


sinsyne, 134 


tod-lowrie, 158 


out - through, out - throw, 


sirce me, sirce the day, 


toosht, 18 


131 


153 


tother, 37 


ower, owre, 74, 132, 193 


-some, 33 


tou, 22 


ower and abune, 193 


somegate, 73 


towmon, towmond, tow- 


ower bye, 184, 193 


sorra, 79 


mont, 33 


owergae, 193 


soup, 18 


treen, 8 


owsen, 8 


starn, starnie, 18 


trypal, 16 


owther, 145 


still-and-on, 75 


turven, 8 


oye, 15 


stock, 16 


twa, twae, 31 




streen, the, 6 


twal hours, 33 


parritch, 12 


sud, suld, sudna, 57 


twasome, 33 


pickle, puckle, 18, 41 


sune, 71 


twa three, 32 


piece, 38, 127 


syne, 71 


tweesht, 109 


plack, 20 




tyke, 158 


proo, proo, proochiemoo, 


-t, 21, 34, 46, 48, 145 (b) 




158 


tae, 32, 71, 137 


umist, 42 


pun'-note, 20 


tait, tate, 18 


unco, uncoly, 74 




tane, 37 


up, 139, 194 


quha, 27 
quhilk, 26, 27 


tantrin, 39 
tappit-hen, 19 


up by, up bye, 194 
up by cairts, 194 



WORD INDEX TO PART II 



491 



upgang, 194 


weel-a-wat, 75 


willawins, 153 


upgive, 194 


weel-a-weel, 157 


willyard, 164 


upo' go, 140 


weels me, 70 


wind, wynd, wyne, 158 


upon, 140 


wenches, 17 


winnock, 178 


uppit, 194 


wes, 58 


win owre, 132 


uptak, 194 


wessel, 166 


without, withouten, 143, 


up-throu, 194 


wha, whae, wham, whase, 


148 


us, 21 


26, 27 


wir, wur, 21 




whan, 71 


wis, 58 


verra, 74 


whar, whare, 58, 72 


wonna, 55 




whas, 26 


worth, 70 


wa, 72 


whatefer, 83 


wow, 152 


wad, wadna, 55 


what for? what for no? 76, 


wall, 55 


waesucks, 153 


116 


wuntin', 141 


waf, 16 


whatten, what'n, whatna, 26 


wus, wusnin, 58 


wakerife, waukrife, 182 


whaur, 58, 72 




wan-, 163 


wheen, 18, 127 


yae, 32 


wanfu', 163 


wheesht, 154 


yean, 158 


wanownt, 163 


whiles, 71 


ye'er, 58 


wanrestfu', 163 


whilk, 26, 27 


yer, 22, 58 


wanting, 141 


whin, 18 


yestreen, 71 


war, 58 


whisht, 154 


yince, yinst, 32, 71 


warst, 42 


whit, 26 


yir, 22, 58 


wass, 58 


whit wey? 76 


yoke on, 129 


waufie, 16 


wi', 142 


yon, 36 


waur, 42 


widna, winna, wudna, 55 


'yont, 110 


wean, 15 


wife, wine, 17 


yont, 144 


wee, 18 


wight, 16 


young, 44 


weel, 73 


will, 55 





GLOSSAEY OF SCOTS WOEDS IN EXTEAOTS 



abeigh, abiegh, aloof 

aboon, abune, above 

abreed, abroad 

adoos, troubles, difficulties 

ae, one 

aerdastreen, the evening before the last 

qffiri't, off from it 

agley, wrong, awry 

ahint, behind 

aiblins, perhaps 

Ailsa Craig, an islet rock (at the mouth 

of the Firth of Clyde off the Ayrshire 

coast) 
ain, own 
aince, once 
aim, iron 
airt, direction 
aith, an oath 
aits, oats 
akinda, a sort of 
alaiv, below 
amaist, almost 
anes, once 
ase, ashes 
ashet, a flat dish 
asklent, askance, obliquely 
asseer, assure 
aught, possession 
auld, old 

auld lang syne, times of long ago 
aweers o\ on the point of 
aivmous, alms, charity 

baggie, the belly 

bags, bagpipes 

bailie, baillie, burgh magistrate, cattle- 
man 

bain, bend of leather 

bairnswoman, nurse 

bairntime, progeny 

baps, morning rolls 

bassened quey, a young cow whose 
forehead has a white streak 

bauk, to roost 

bauld, bold 

bawbee, halfpenny 

baivd, a hare 

bear, barley 

bedeen, speedily 

begood, began 

begunk, trick 

beld, belder, bald, balder 

beldam, a hag 



belyve, soon 

ben, inside, inner room or parlour 

bend (the bicker), quaff 

bethrel, beadle 

beuk, baked 

bew, blue 

beioast, west of 

bey, by 

bicker, sb. a bowl, v. to hurry 

bienli, comfortably 

big, to build 

bigonet, linen cap or coif 

bike, nest of wild bees or wasps 

billie, fellow, comrade 

binkit, spoiled in the shape 

birk, birch 

birkie, a smart, conceited fellow 

birsle, to toast 

bissim, term of reproach for a woman 

bladderskate, a foolish talker 

blate, backward, shy 

blaud, spoil 

bleer't, b leered 

bleeze, blaze 

blellum, babbler 

blethering, boasting 

blewart, speedwell (Veronica chamae- 

drys) 

Wo, under 
blude, bluid, blood 

bobbit (bands), ornamented with tassels 
boddle, bodle, a small copper coin 
bogle, spirit, ghost, hobgoblin ; to play 

at bogles = hide and seek 
b'ol'd, folded 
600, to bend 
boot, in phr. to the boot = over and 

above the bargain 
boss, empty 
bouk, carcase, body 
bourtree, elderberry wood (Sambucus 

nigra) 
bout, bolt 
bow(e), a boll or measure of corn = 6 

bushels 
bowet, lantern 
brae, slope, hillside 
bragged, challenged 
braid, breadth 
braing't, pulled rashly 
brak, broke 

brattle, uproar, scamper, spurt 
braw, fine 



494 



GLOSSARY OF SCOTS WORDS IN EXTRACTS 



breastit, sprang forward 

bree, brew ; barley bree is ale or whisky 

breeks, breeches 

breet, brute 

brent, smooth, un wrinkled 

brent new, brand new 

briskit, breast 

brizzed, pressed 

brooses, wedding races from the church 

to the bride's home 
browcht, brought 
buchts, sheep-pens 
buff'y, chubby 
buirdly, stout and strong 
buits, boots 

bumbaized, dumfoundered 
burd, maid, lady 
bure, bore 
busk, prepare 

but, outer room or kitchen 
bute, bude, must (emphatic) 
byke, see bike 
byous, exceedingly 
byre, cowshed 

callant, lad 
caller, fresh 
Cameronian, a member of one of the 

strictest of the Presbyterian sects 
canna, cannot 
cannie, quiet, cautious 
cannily, softly, carefully 
cantie, cheerful, comfortable 
cantraip, cantrip, device, charm, trick 
carle, an old man 
carlin, an old woman 
cast oot, quarrel 
ca't, called 
cauld, cold 
cauler, fresh 
caum, a mould 
caup, wooden bicker 
caw, drive, call 
caivker, glass of spirits 
cess, tax 
chacked, bit 

chamber o' deas, best room 
chancy, lucky 
chap, knock at the door 
chapman billies, pedlars 
cheat-the-wuddy, cheat the gallows 
cheepin', squeaking 
chiels, men, fellows 
chop, the shop 
chow, chew 
chynge-house, an inn 
chyre, chair 
claes, clothes 
clamb, climbed 
claught, seized 



claw, to scrape 

deck, to hatch, invent 

cleekit, hooked, took hold 

cleiks, hooks 

clocher, a wheezing in the throat 

doss, a lane 

coft, bought 

cog, a hollow wooden vessel for holding 

milk, &c. 
collery, cholera 
connach, spoil, ruin 
cood, cud 

coo/, fool, weakling 
cookie, a bun 

coorie, cower, snuggle close to 
coost, threw off 
corbie, raven, crow 
cots, ankles 
coup, overturn 
cour, stoop 
couthie, comfortable 
crack(s), gossip, chat 
craggit, long-necked 
cranreuch, hoar-frost 
crap, a crop 
crawflower, wild hyacinth (Scilla 

nutans) 

creepie, a low stool 
creeshie, greasy 
cried, proclaimed in church 
crony, boon companion 
croon, hum to oneself 
croynt awa\ shrivelled up 
crummock, a crooked stick, name for a 

cow with crooked horns 
cuif, a blockhead, simpleton 
cuist, cast 
cults, ankles 

culf, drive home the wadding 
cumein, coming 
cumstairy, obstinate 
curn, a handful 
cutty, short; the cutty-stool was the 

low stool on which church offenders 

were admonished 
c' wa', come away 

daffin', jesting, teasing 

daft, foolish 

daiker, stroll 

daimen, occasional 

dander, stroll leisurely 

darg, day's work 

daud, lump 

daunder, same as dander 

daw, dawn (vb.) 

daioing, dawn (sb.) 

dead, deid, death 

deas, deece, a wooden settle 

dee, to die 



GLOSSARY OF SCOTS WORDS IN EXTRACTS 



495 



deid thraw, point of death, critical 
moment 

deive, deafen, plague 

dey, die 

diced (windoiv), figured like dice 

dike, a wall 

dine, dinner 

ding on, to snow or rain hard 

dinket oot, dressed up 

dinna, do not 

dirl, rattle 

divors, debtors 

divot, a turf 

docken, the dock weed (Rumex obtusi- 
folius) 

doit, a small copper coin 

dominie, village schoolmaster 

donsie, perverse, vicious 

dool, woe 

dorts, ill-humour 

dossie, a pat (of butter or sugar) 

douce, sedate 

doup, bottom 

dour, stubborn 

doiv(na), may (not) 

dowf, dull 

doivie, doleful, weakly 

driegh, dreary 

dringing, singing dolefully 

drook, drench 

droop -rumpl't, short-rumped 

drouthy, thirsty (especially for li- 
quor) 

druggie, druggist 

dub, a muddy pool 

duddies, shabby clothes 

dule, woe 

dune, done 

dwam, a feeling of faintness 

dyke, see dike 

echt, eight 

ee(n), eye(s) 

Eerish, Irish 

eese, use (sb.) 

eeswally, usually 

eithly, easily 

eldern, elderly 

eldritch, eldrich, awesome 

eneuch, eneugh, enough 

enoo, enow, just now 

ett, etten, ate, eaten 

ettle, (vb.) try, purpose, (sb.) aim, 

impetus 
even, to cross 
eydent, diligent 

/a', to claim, attempt, pretend to 

fa\ fall 

/ac's ocht, true as anything 



faem, foam 

fail, turf 

fain, joyous, eager 

fairin', present bought at a fair, deserts 

fairntickles, freckles 

fash, trouble 

fashion, pretence 

fashions, vexatious 

faucht, struggle 

fauld, fold 

faut, fault 

feck, a number or quantity, the muckle 
feck = the majority 

feckless, feeble 

fecldy, chiefly 

feel, fool 

feerious, furious 

feint a flee, feint a hair = devil a bit ; 
see fient 

fek, quantity; see feck 

fell, (adj. ) sharp to the taste, (adv.) very 

ferny ear, last year 

fetch't, stopped suddenly 

fidge, move restlessly 

fidgin? fain, restlessly eager 

Jient , the fient a tail = the devil a tail ; 
fient haed = devil a bit ; see feint 

fiere, comrade 

file, to dirty 

file, filie, while (sb.) 

fin, feel 

firlot, a measure = | boll 

fissinless, tasteless 

fisslin, rustling 

fittie-lan', the near horse of the hind- 
most pair in the plough 

fivver, fever 

fiaer, floor 

flattered, floated 

flaw, exaggerate 

flee, fly 

fleech, coax 

fleg, fright 

fiichterin', fluttering 

fiiskit, capered 

fioam, phlegm 

foalin', overturning 

foggage, second crop of grass 

foon, a few 

forbye, besides 

fou, full, drunk 

fow, a heap of corn in the sheaves 

foiver oors, afternoon meal 

f raise, fuss 

freen, friend 

f remit (adj.), stranger 

ju\ full 

fule, fool 

fun, found 

fungin, flinging 



496 



GLOSSARY OF SCOTS WORDS IN EXTRACTS 



fuok, folk 
furbye, besides 
Fursday, Thursday 
furth, away from home 
futt'rat, weasel 
fyke, fret 
fy kie, fidgety 
fyou, few 

gab, the mouth; set up their gabs = 

chatter disrespectfully 
gaberlunzie, licensed beggar 
gait, road 
gane, suffice 

gang-there-out, fond of wandering 
gar, compel 
gash, wise-looking 
gate, road 
gaucy, buxom 
gaun, going 
gaivn, going 
gawsy, jaunty, portly 
geade, went 
gear, property 
geek at, make fun of 
genna, going to 
genty, graceful, dainty 
ger, compel 

gey, (adj.) wild, (adv.) very, rather 
gey lies, pretty well 
ghaist, ghost 
gied, gave 

gillravaging, depredation, plundering 
gin, if 

gippeen, fish-gutting 
girn, complain fretfully 
gjo, a creek 
gliff , a moment 
gloam, pass from twilight to dark; 

gloaming = twilight 
ghiff, a mouthful 

Gorbals (The), a district in Glasgow 
goivan, the daisy 
gowd(en), gold (en) 
gowk, fool 
grainy (a), a little 
graith, equipment 
grane, groan 
grat, wept 

gree, prize, first place 
greet, greit, cry, weep 
grien, desire eagerly 
growf, belly 

grue, shudder with fear or cold 
gryte, great 

gude-dochter, daughter-in-law 
guide, to treat 
guid-willie, hearty 
gullie, a big knife 
gurly, threatening to be stormy 



gusty, tasty 

gweed, good ; gweed billies = good 

friends 
gyte, mad 



hadden, holding 

hae, haen, have, had (past pt. ) 

haffits, temples, cheeks, side-locks 

hqfflins, half, partly 

haill, whole 

hain, save up, preserve 

hairst, harvest 

haiverin', talkative 

hale, whole ; halesome = wholesome 

half -foil, ^ part of a peck 

halflin, half-grown lad 

half-steekit, half -closed 

hallan, partition 

hallan-shaker, rascal of shabby appear- 

ance 

haly, holy 
hankie, much 

hansel, the first gift for luck 
hantle, much 
hap, to cover 
harn, coarse woollen cloth, made from 

the refuse or hards of flax or hemp 
harns, brains 
haud, hold ; hand wtft = acknow- 

ledge it 

hauf-road, half-way 
hauld, protection 
hause-bane, throat-bone 
ha'ver, cut in halves 
haw kie, a cow 
heale, the whole 
heame, home 
heese, to lift 
heest, hast (vb.) 
helt, health 
henmost, last 
hidlins, hidlings, secret 
hie, hiech, high 

hilty-skilty, careless, helter-skelter 
hinny, honey, a term of endearment 
hizzie, wench 
hoastin\ croaking 
hoddel-dochlin, clumsy and silly 
hoddin grey, coarse woollen cloth, grey 

homespun 
hoo, how 
hosstin, coughing 
hotch'd, jerked (his arm in playing) ; 

sidled 

hotter, make a bubbling noise in boiling 
houkins, diggings 
houlets, owls 
houms, holms 
hover, delay (vb.) 



GLOSSARY OF SCOTS WORDS IN EXTRACTS 



497 



hoive-backit, hollow-backed 

howp, hope 

hoyte, amble, hobble along 

hurdies, buttocks 

hyne, far 

icker, ear of corn 

ilka, ilky, every 

ill-fared, ill-faured, ill-favoured 

ingans, onions 

ingle, fireside 

izzet, zig-zag 

jalouse't, suspected 

jauk, trifle ever work 

jee, move hesitatingly 

jeestie, matter for jest 

jellie, sonsy 

jiner, joiner 

jink, elude ; jinkin', frolicsome 

jinker (noble), a noble goer 

jippled, rippled over with laughter 

jo, sweetheart, dear 

jook, to bow 

justified, executed 

kaims, combs 

kauk, chalk 

kebbuck, cheese 

keek, look, peep 

ken, know 

kep, to catch 

Tciauch, cark 

kilt up, tie up 

kinkin, kinds 

kintra, country 

kirsened, christened 

kistin', coffining 

kitchie (vb.), give a relish to food 

kittle (vb.), tickle; (adj.), ticklish 

knaggie, knobby 

knoices, knolls 

kye, cows 

kyeukin, cooking 

Kyle, the central district of Ayrshire 

kyoivoivin', fastidious 

kyteful, bellyful 

laigh, low 

laird, landowner, squire 

laith, loath 

laitJifii 1 , awkward, sheepish 

lan\ flat in a house 

lane, alone, as in my lane 

lap, sprang 

lave, the rest 

laverock, lark 

lowing, reckoning 

lay, lea 

lea'e, leave 



leafu\ lawful 

leal, true, loyal 

lean down, sit down, recline 

lee-lang, livelong 

leev't, lived 

leeze me on, blessings be on 

leglin, a pail 

leive, live 

leuch, laughed 

lift, the sky 

lilt, sing softly 

limmcr, rascal (a familiar term applied 

to both sexes) 
link, trip along 
linn, waterfall 
lint, flax 
lippen, trust 

loan(ing), lane, milking-park 
Zo'e, love 
lood, loud 
Zoo/, palm of hand 
looten, past pt. of let 
Lords o' Session, Judges in the Court 

of Session, the supreme civil court 

of Scotland 
loup, leap 
low(e), flame 
lowp, leap 

lowse, leave off work 
lucken, looking 

lucken-goican, the globe flower 
lucky -daddy, grandfather 
lug, ear, chimney-corner 
luik, look 
him, chimney 
lyart, hoary, grey-haired 

mae, more (of number) 

mailens, rent 

mair, more, formerly of quantity only, 

now also of number 
mairter, mess 
mairyguilds, marigolds 
mane, moan 
marrow, mate, match 
maukin, hare 
maun, must 
maut, malt 
meere, mare 
megsty, an exclamation 
meikle, much, big 
melder, quantity of oats ground at a 

time 

mellishan, the devil (cf. malison) 
mm', remember 
minnie, mother 
mirk, darkness 
mischanter, accident 
mith(a), might (have) 
mittans, fingerless gloves 



498 



GLOSSARY OF SCOTS WORDS IN EXTRACTS 



moots, mould, the grave 

mowse, used negatively; nae mowse = 

no joke, dangerous 
mu\ the mouth 
muckle, big, much 
muntit, mounted 
mutch, woman's cap 

naar, naur, near 

wain, own 

nappy, ale 

neb, the nose 

neist, next 

neuk, nook, corner 

nickums, young rascals 

niz, the nose 

nocht, nothing 

nowte, cattle 

nyeuk, corner 

oe, grandchild 
onlee't, without telling a lie 
ony, any 
ook, week 
ool, owl 

oot-bye, outside, besides 
ootset, beginning 
or, before 

or ens no, a phrase implying incredu- 
lity or lack of respect 
ousen, oxen 
outby (of), without 
oivcht, aught 
ower, over 
owre-come, refrain 
oxter, the armpit 

paidlin, short-stepped 

parritch, porridge 

pattle, a stick 

paukie, pawky, shrewd, arch 

peerie, small 

pey, pay 

pickle, small quantity 

pies, eyelets 

pint, point 

pirn, reel 

pitiful, kind 

plack, a Scots copper coin, ^ of a penny 

pleugh, plough 

pley, a quarrel 

pliskie, a trick 

ploy, a trick, frolic 

pock (the), small-pox 

pock-neuk, corner of a sack 

pock-puddin\ glutton, used especially 

of Englishmen 
pooch, pocket 
pooket-like, puny, shabby 
pottage, porritch 



pou'd, pulled 
pow, the head or poll 
pownie, pony 
pree, to taste 
preen, a pin 
press, cupboard 
prin, a pin 
protty, fine 
puckles, numbers 
puir, poor 

quat, quit 

quate, quiet ; quaten = quieten 

quean, young woman 

queering, making fun of 

quey, young cow 

quhan, when 

quhayr, where 

rair, to roar 
ranter, a roving blade 
rantle-tree, the beam across the chim- 
ney by which the crook is suspended 
rave, tore 

rax, stretch, hand out 
ream, cream 
reamed, mantled 
reaming, frothy 
redd up, tidy 
reek, smoke, steam 
reerie, noise 
reest, dry in the smoke 
reest, balk, stop in one's course 
reest, roost 
reivin', thieving 
rid, red 

riggin, ridge of roof 
rigwoodie, lean and scraggy 
rintheroot, gad-about 
ripp, a handful of corn from the sheaf 
rissen, reason 

rivleens, sandals of undressed skin 
rodden-tree, mountain-ash 
rotten, a rat 
roup, sell by auction 
row, roll 

rug, pull violently 
runkled, wrinkled 

sae, so 

saep-sapples, soap-suds 

sair, serve 

sark, shirt 

sauf, save 

saugh, willow 

scads, scalds 

scald, to scold 

scart, scratch, put on hurriedly 

scho, schui, she 

scraich, scriech, shriek 



GLOSSARY OF SCOTS WORDS IN EXTRACTS 



499 



screed, tear to pieces 

seer, sure 

seggs, sedges 

Session, (for Kirk Session) = the lowest 
Presbyterian Church Court, which in 
former days dispensed public charity 
and superintended the morals of the 
community 

severals, others 

shake a jit, to dance 

shaltie, pony 

shaw, a grove 

sheen, shoes 

sheetin\ shooting 

shewed, sewed 

shoo, scare away 

shool, shovel 

shoon, shoes 

shoormal, shore-mark, margin 

shore, threaten 

shdrely, surely 

shilit, suit of clothes 

sib, related 

sic, siccan, such 

siccar, sure 

siller, money 

silly, weak 

sin, since 

siriry like, separately 

skaith, harm 

skeely, skilful 

skeigh, skittish 

skellum, a worthless fellow 

skelp, whip, slap, move briskly on 

skiltin', skipping 

skirtit, run off, bolted 

skriegh, call, whinny 

skytit, shot out, slipped quickly 

slae, sloe 

slap, opening in hedge or fence 

slee, sly 

sleight, cunning, dexterous 

sly pet, slipped 

sma', small 

smoor'd, smothered 

smucks, woollen shoes 

snappert, stumbled 

sneeshin, snuff 

snell, sharp 

snod, neat 

snoove, jog along 

snule, anything mean or paltry 

sodger, soldier 

soe, pieces of limpet chewed and then 
thrown into the sea as an attraction 
for fish ; hence fragments 

sonsie, plump, good-natured 

soom, swim 

soop, sweep 

sort, put to rights, punish 



sough, (sb.) moaning sound, (vb.) whistle 
over a tune in a low tone ; see sugh 

soupled, made flexible 

souter, shoemaker 

sowff, hum over 

spang, spring 

spean, wean 

speer, spier, ask 

speldron, lanky, badly-shaped person 

spout, downpour 

spreagh, cattle raid 

sprittie, full of rush roots 

spunkie, spirited 

squakin', squeaking 

squallachin, squealing, noisy clamour 

stacher, stagger 

staggie, young stag or horse 

stank, ditch 

stappin', stepping 

stark, strong 

starn, star 

staunin, standing 

steek, close 

steep, in pit yir brains in steep, i.e. ex- 
ercise all your wits 

steer, steir, trouble 

steerin, bustling about 

steeve, compact 

stend, spring suddenly, past pt. stent 

stent, restricted 

stent-masters, assessors 

steyest, stiffest 

stimpart, % peck 

stirrah, young fellow 

stook, a shock of corn 

stour, dust in motion 

stown, stolen 

stowp, liquor vessel 

strae, straw 

straik, stroke 

Strathspeys, Highland dances and their 
music 

strums, in talc the strums, i.e. take the 
pet 

sugh, see sough 

sumph, surly person 

sune, soon 

sung, singed 

sivag, guarantee (vb.) 

swank, agile 

swankies, swains, strapping young 
fellows 

swat, sweated 

swats, newly brewed ale 

sweir, lazy 

swither, hesitate 

syne, then 

to' en 0', taken effect on 
tawie, tame, tractable 



500 



GLOSSARY OF SCOTS WORDS IN EXTRACTS 



tawpy, stupid, clumsy person, a giddy, 

idle girl 
teen, a tune 
tent, attention 
tentie, attentively 
tead, toad, term applied to a child 
teuchat, lapwing 
theek, to thatch 
theft-boot, the taking of some payment 

from a thief to secure him from legal 

prosecution 
thir, those 
thof, though 
thrave, 24 sheaves of grain set up in 

two stooks of 12 sheaves each 
thraw, twist 

through-stanes, flat gravestones 
tight, ready for action, in good order 

or health 

tine, lose; past pt. tint 
tippenny, cheap ale 
tnet, to knit 
tnock, clock 
tocher, dowry 
toom, empty 
tow, rope 
toyte, toddle 

trauchle, drudge, weary burden 
travise, a partition between two stalls 

in a stable 
trig, neat 
trokes, jobs 
troo, believe 
twartree, two or three 
tweaesum, a couple or pair 
tiveetled, tootled 
tyeuk, took 

tyke, a rough, unkempt dog 
tyleyors, tailors 

unca, unco (adj., adv.), extraordinary, 

very 
unchancy, unlucky, not safe to meddle 

with 

uncos, strange things 
up-throu\ up the country 

vauntie, proud 
vouts, vaults 

wa\ wall 



waar, seaweed 

wabster, weaver 

wadset, a mortgage 

waesuck, alas! 

waff, disreputable 

wale, choose 

ivalie, fine, jolly, ample 

walloch, Highland fling 

walloped, moved forcibly, danced with 

swinging force 
wame, the belly 
ivan, direction 
wan oiver, escaped 
icap, bind or splice with a cord 
wapping, lusty, stout 
ivarstle, struggle 
wat, wet 
wat, know 
wather, water 
leathers, wethers 
wattle, rod or wand 
wauble, wobble 
ivaught, draught 
waukrife, wakeful 
waur, worse 
waur't, worsted (vb.) 
wawlie, see walie 
wean, child 
wede, vanished, faded 
weel-a-wat, assuredly 
w eel-tocher ed, well-dowered 
whaizle, breathe hard 
ivheen, a few, several 
ivheep, whip 
wheepled, whistled 
widdy, the gallows 
wintle, stagger, toss about 
wis, us 

wisgan, contemptible-looking person 
wuddy, see widdy 
icy, wye, way 
wyle, choose 
wyme, the belly 
wyte, blame 

yauld, active 
yett, gate 
yird, earth 
youky, itchy 
yowe, ewe 
Yule, Xmas 



CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED BY J. B. PEACE, M.A., AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



Grant, William 

210^. Manual of modern Scots 

G73 



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